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    RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 2010


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    RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT CONTENTS The Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation .........................................................42 Preface .........................................................................................4 Education....................................................................................44 Mission........................................................................................ 5 Internationalization Heritage Studies ................................44 About CLUE...................................................................................6 Meetings & Conferences............................................................45 PECSRL 2010 Conference in Riga ......................................45 The Research Clusters .................................................................9 Conference CAA ..................................................................46 The research cluster ‘A Mediterranean Panorama’: Expert meeting on plaggen soils, an update ..............................................................................9 Veldhoven Zilverackers ......................................................46 The research cluster ‘The Heritage and Announcement LAC 2012 in Berlin .....................................47 Memory of Conflict and War’: an update ............................15 The research cluster ‘The Heritage in a Publications ...............................................................................49 postcolonial world’: an update ...........................................20 Lessons of War. Education about World War II Upcoming 2011: Research Cluster Landscape ..................23 and the Holocaust since 1945 ............................................49 1st publication LHS series: Projects ......................................................................................24 The cultural landscape and heritage paradox ...................50 Update Integrating Heritage ...............................................24 Heritage education: History and Design ............................51 The villa of Hoogeloon and the settlement Tent and Pyramid. Architectural History and at Riethoven ........................................................................25 Criticism after 1970 ............................................................52 NICIS and the Economic Evaluation of In turbulence: Schiphol as a megastructure ......................53 Cultural Heritage.................................................................28 The Celtic gold and silver hoard of Amby ..........................53 Mirror-Reflex, Cultural Traces of the Colonial International projects.................................................................29 Experience ..........................................................................54 Francia Media .....................................................................29 Awards........................................................................................56 Ambitions ...................................................................................31 CLUE project wins Huibregtsen Award 2010 ......................56 Cono Kaasmakers ...............................................................56 Staff ............................................................................................33 Fredie Floré and Freek Schmidt receive grant Heritage and Memory of the War: from Stimuleringsfonds voor Architectuur .........................57 a new field of academic research and societal interest. Prof. dr. Rob van der Laarse joins CLUE .............33 News...........................................................................................58 The inaugrural lecture of prof. dr. Petra van Dam .............34 Maps Nature Protection Act ................................................58 Knowledge Network Heritage and Space ...........................35 Fellowship Academia Europaea for SWOT analysis ...........................................................................59 prof. dr. Piet Rietveld .........................................................36 The staff members of CLUE ................................................37 CLUE 2010 in facts and figures ..................................................60 Partners ......................................................................................40 Appendice 1 ...............................................................................61 The Netherlands Institute in Turkey (NIT) ..........................40 Financial figures .................................................................61 Nieuw Land Heritage Centre...............................................41 CLUE established collaboration with TOPOI Appendice 2 ...............................................................................64 Excellence Cluster ..............................................................42 Publications staff members CLUE ......................................64 3


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    PREFACE RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT PREFACE Dear reader, Before you lies the third annual report of CLUE, the interfaculty research institute of VU University Amsterdam for the Heritage and History of the Cultural Landscape and Urban Environment. In 2010, the institute added several ‘landmarks’ to its still young history. In January 2010, initiated by AGBA (Department of Geo- and Bioarchaeology) and CLUE, the first international Landscape Archaeology Prof. dr. Jan Kolen, director of CLUE. Conference (LAC2010) took place in Amsterdam. In November 2010, the CLUE project “Biography of a Sandy Landscape” received the Huibregtsen Award - a prestigious prize for the best and most innovative scientific research project with a social output in the Netherlands. Also in November 2010, CLUE started a subproject in the European research and cultural programme “Cradle of European Culture”, in which the institute coordinates Rita Hermans MA, co-ordinator of CLUE. the scientific knowledge building. And in December 2010, CLUE presented its Dutch textbook on dealing with cultural heritage at the Bimhuis in Amsterdam, in addition to the start of an English-language (peer-reviewed) series Landscape & Heritage Studies, which will be published from 2010 by Amsterdam University Press. All these events show that since 2007, CLUE has grown into a very active and internationally appealing research institute Prof. dr. Koos Bosma, advisor of CLUE. with its own profile and its own niche in heritage and landscape research. This is emphasized by the success of the researchers in the field of acquiring funding: more than 1.9 million euros in research grants, most of which was acquired in the so-called second stream of funding. We can expect continuation of this positive line in the years to come. CLUE is facing an exciting year in 2011. In this year, CLUE will evaluate the development of the institute during its first phase (2007-2011). Moreover, in the summer of this year a new vision and business plan will be developed for CLUE phase 2 (2012-2017), so that the institute will have the opportunity to build onto the successes of the past years and continue its research community. On behalf of all CLUE researchers, 4


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    MISSION RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT MISSION CLUE carries out interdisciplinary and innovative research into the history, heritage and present-day transformation of the cultural landscape and urban environment. With this research, CLUE intends to provide a valuable contribution to the academic creation of knowledge about (urban) landscapes and regions, and to the social awareness of the long and rich history of our living environment, which makes it a treasured source of memories and stories. CLUE aims for a free exchange of knowledge, insights and information in this field. The institute emphasizes with its projects that historical reflection is of great importance to spatial developments in the future, and that cultural heritage should in principle be accessible to everyone who draws their identity from it. To achieve these goals, CLUE carries out academic research projects, publishes books and series and organizes conferences, courses, debates and seminars. CLUE cooperates in these activities with other institutes for (academic) research and social partners. 5


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    ABOUT CLUE RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT ABOUT CLUE backgrounds of contemporary spatial planning issues, such as the rapid urbanization of regions and the problem of water management. CLUE also investigates how new social and cultural phenomena, such as globalization, the new media and the rise of international tourism influence our interaction with landscapes and heritage. By placing these themes at the heart of its research, CLUE aims to provide the historical, social and spatial sciences with a new impetus and to deliver an innovative contribution to the thinking on spatial and cultural problems of today. BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH THEMES The heritage sector is in motion. In the last twenty years, the concern for cultural heritage has become a broad social affair. It is nowadays not only historians and heritage managers who are concerned with the fate of cultural heritage, but increasingly also inhabitants, politicians, landscape designers, urban developers, farmers and entrepreneurs. That is what often makes heritage issues more complicated. After all, all these different groups value heritage in various ways and cherish different expectations and wishes with regard to its future use. This explains why the use of heritage takes increasingly diverse shapes. Lieux de mémoire, landscapes and monuments feed historical awareness and the identity of communities. They form important sources of information An archaeologist at work. and inspiration for contemplations about future society, the creative industry, tourism and recreation, urban By establishing interfaculty research institutes, VU University redevelopment and regional transformations. Heritage Amsterdam aims to create sufficient mass and focus around does not always have a unifying effect. It can also themes that distinguish the university internationally. divide groups in a society, and subsequently impart a Innovations and cross-fertilizations on the interfaces of controversial character to our environment. Academic disciplines often occur more or less by accident in academic research can visualize this, and help to find solutions. research. The research institutes of VU University Amsterdam try to organize and advance such meetings. European landscapes are faced with various large- scale changes that demand interdisciplinary research WHAT DOES CLUE DO? and historical reflection. Examples are the continuing With the objective described above as a starting point, urbanization of certain rural areas, the population CLUE initiates, carries out and coordinates research into declines in other areas and the adaptation of landscapes the historical development, the heritage and the present- in the light of the threat of river floods and the rising sea day transformation of the cultural landscape and urban level. Historians and landscape researchers can place environment. The focus is on the long-term history of these developments in a surprising perspective. They (urban) landscapes and areas, as well as on the historical can demonstrate with their research how landscapes 6


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    ABOUT CLUE RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT Late Bronze Age harbour at Kommos, Crete © Kimberley van den Berg. The New Acropolis Museum in Athens © Rita Hermans. and cities have developed over the course of centuries • Landscape and urbanization in a European perspec- or even millennia, how rapid and large-scale changes tive; alternated with more stable periods, and which factors • Water and water management: ‘history matters’; have played a decisive role in the origin of our current • The history of heritage; spatial planning issues and environmental problems. • The impact of environment and climate on cultural In the past, developments in the landscape were partly heritage. governed by demographic and economic factors, but also by political and cultural ones. These themes are made explicit and are combined for specific disciplines and fields in the academic Therefore, landscape history should be investigated from programmes of the individual research clusters of a broad and coherent perspective on socio-economic CLUE (see also the information on the research clusters and technical developments, ecological and geological elsewhere in this annual review). The research agenda dynamics, the history of religions, mentalities and is also used as a guideline and benchmark in organizing values and the changes in organization, administration academic activities, such as conferences and debates, and politics. Such a broadly based “biography” of and in formulating new research proposals. the landscape can only be achieved if archaeologists, historians, geographers, economists, ecologists In all these themes, CLUE carries out research in various and social scientists combine their knowledge of the European, African and Asian countries. Nevertheless, landscape, in order to achieve innovative insights. the institute is also firmly rooted in Northwest-European research practice. Most of CLUE’s projects still relate Based on these observations, the researchers connected to the Netherlands and surrounding countries. This not to the institute have worked together in formulating a only applies to the archaeological and historical-spatial research agenda. This research agenda contains the research, but also to heritage projects with a more applied following six main themes: character. In the Netherlands, CLUE’s research is aimed • Heritage in a globalizing world; at the long-term history of specific buildings, cities, • The value of heritage in the context of spatial, cultural landscapes and regions, the cultural and economic value and economic transformations; of monuments, the modernization of heritage legislation 7


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    ABOUT CLUE RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT (the new Malta legislation for archaeology, the so-called The VU employees connected to the institute only Belvedere policy and ‘MoMo’), and the integration of participate with the research part of their appointment. heritage in spatial developments. Therefore, CLUE operates primarily as a network-like organization. By now, employees of other universities ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE and research institutes have also joined up with CLUE as The organizational structure of CLUE is based on the ‘affiliated researcher’. Blueprint for the organizational structure of interfaculty research institutes (2007), that was drawn up by the Info: www.vu.nl > research institutes ‘Werkgroep Interfacultaire Onderzoeksinstituten’ (Working Group Interfaculty Research Institutes), commissioned by Contact address CLUE (Office): the Executive Board of VU University Amsterdam. VU University Amsterdam Faculty of Arts CLUE is a collaboration of the Faculties of Arts, Earth De Boelelaan 1105 and Life Sciences (FALW), Economics and Business 1081 HV Amsterdam Administration (FEWEB) and Social Sciences (FSW) of VU University Amsterdam. The Faculty of Arts acts as T: + 31 (0) 20 5982876 secretary. The deans of the participating faculties, together F: + 31 (0) 20 5986500 with the director, make up the board of CLUE. Since the E-mail: clue@let.vu.nl; rae.hermans@let.vu.nl; opening in September 2007, more than 80 researchers jca.kolen@let.vu.nl have joined the institute, including professors, university lecturers, post-doc researchers and PhD students. They have backgrounds in archaeology, history and architectural history, physical, social and historical geography, cultural sciences, spatial economics and public administration. 8


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    THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS THE RESEARCH CLUSTER ‘A NEW MEDITERRANEAN PANORAMA’: AN UPDATE Large research groups can easily become impersonal and can lead to a poor academic attachment and little New research projects commitment. It is especially important for young researchers, such as PhD students and post-doc researchers, Keeping in touch in a changing world. Network dynamics to be able to cooperate in inspiring surroundings with and the connections between the Aegean and Italy during ‘similar minds’ and supervisors that share their academic the Bronze Age – Iron Age transition (ca. 1250 – 1000 BC) interest, so that they can use this as a basis from which to look for cooperation with fellow researchers at other NWO project (2010-2014) institutes in the Netherlands and abroad. The best way to Researcher: Kimberley van der Berg MA achieve this is in research groups with a limited size. It is in Supervisor: Prof. dr. Douwe Yntema relatively small research groups that academic innovations Co-supervisor: Dr. Jan Paul Crielaard are best achieved and creative ideas for new projects and proposals are introduced. This is why the researchers are This project focuses on networks and interconnectivity now organizing themselves in ‘research clusters’. during a critical episode in the history of the Mediterranean. Around 1200 BC the Aegean palace centres The main themes from the research agenda of CLUE were destroyed. The ensuing era is generally treated are further developed and combined in the academic as one of decline and deterioration. Recent discoveries programmes of the clusters for specific research fields. and insights, however, show that in some ways it also In each cluster, ten to twenty researchers discuss current marked a fresh start, suggesting that the transition from research problems from different disciplinary angles, and the Bronze Age to the Iron Age should be studied in its own search for starting points for an interdisciplinary approach right. This is exactly what this project seeks to do. It starts of these problems. They cooperate in research projects, exchange ideas on the latest developments in their fields, discuss the results of PhD research and write publications together. Within the clusters, new research proposals are also developed and applications prepared. The research clusters of CLUE cover the following sub- themes: 1. ‘A new Mediterranean panorama’: the identity of the Mediterranean world, 3000 BC – 2000 AD; 2. The economic value of heritage; 3. The long-term development of European cities and cultural landscapes; 4. The heritage and memory of the war; 5. Heritage in a postcolonial world. Research clusters 1, 2 and 5 are in full progress. Clusters 3 and 4 will take shape in the first half of 2011. Mycenaean tomb with Italian sword, ca. 1200 – 1100 BC, Kouvaras-Akarnania, Greece. sInfo: www.clue.nu. 9


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    THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT from the position that networks and interconnectivity hold followed courses on Heritage in Leiden and Athens. I went the key to understanding this highly dynamic period. By on to stay in Athens to write my Master’s thesis on the examining how Aegeans and Italians kept in touch in a interconnections of Achaia in Greece between ca. 1250 changing world, it aims to make a significant contribution – 1000 BC. A PhD abstract, for which I was voted top of to the history of Mediterranean interconnectivity. my class, later materialized in a PhD proposal which was awarded a grant by NWO, the Netherlands Organisation for Contact: k.vanden.berg@let.vu.nl; jp.crielaard@let.vu.nl; Scientific Research, in the summer of 2010. I graduated dg.yntema@let.vu.nl. with honours in September 2010 and as of October 2010, I am linked to CLUE with my PhD project regarding network Douwe Yntema is professor of Mediterranean Archeology at the dynamics and the interconnections between the Aegean Department of Archaeology, Classics and Near Eastern Studies of and Italy during the Bronze Age – Iron Age transition, the Faculty of Arts of VU University Amsterdam and Board member supervised by prof. dr. Douwe Yntema and dr. Jan Paul of CLUE. Crielaard. Dr. Jan Paul Crielaard is a lecturer in Mediterranean Archeology at Contact: k.vanden.berg@let.vu.nl. the Department of Ancient Studies of VU University Amsterdam and head of the research cluster ‘A Mediterranean Panorama’ of CLUE. ‘Merging boundaries. Phoenician communities in the western Mediterranean and the Atlantic: cultural con- Kimberley van der Berg: sumption and adaptation strategies circa 750-550 BC’ researcher ‘Keeping in touch in a changing world’ Kimberley van der Berg MA. For as long as I can remember, I have had an interest in antiquity. Hence, when in 2005 the time had come to go to university, I chose a Bachelor programme in Archaeology and Prehistory at VU University Amsterdam. Three years later, I graduated with a thesis supervised by dr. Mieke Phoenician (7th/6th-5th c. BC) remains at a multi-period site, cloister of the Sé Cathe- dral in Lisbon. View of the north-east, taken from south-west. Prent about the connections between Crete and Italy during the Late Bronze Age. My second supervisor and later tutor, dr. Jan Paul Crielaard, wanted me to continue the study of ancient Mediterranean interconnections NWO Veni project (2010-2013) for my Master degree. Straight after graduating, I was Researcher: Eleftheria Pappa admitted to the Research Master in Ancient Studies, Supervisor: Dr. Jan Paul Crielaard also at VU University Amsterdam. What followed was a two-year-long preparation for my thesis, with tutorials This three-year research project examines the way in tailored to the subject. To expand my horizons, I learned which consumption of cross-cultural commodities by Near Modern Greek at the University of Amsterdam and Eastern communities settled in the western Mediterranean 10


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    THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT and the Atlantic was used to communicate and define at the University of Oxford, matriculating in October a sense of identity in multi-cultural settings, where 2006. My MPhil (2006, With Distinction) focused on trade adaptation to a new physical and social environment patterns and social interactions in the Mediterranean in the was pivotal. Evidence from domestic and burial contexts, Early Iron Age, also offering me a strong background in the as well as epigraphic data from both indigenous sites archaeology of the Archaic Greek world. The MPhil thesis and those deemed “Phoenician” are used to document topic of commercial and social exchanges in the western inter and intra-site variation for each of the different Mediterranean/the Atlantic was nuanced and expanded in types of evidence collected; the emerging patterns are my DPhil thesis on the Phoenician “expansion” in these then interpreted with the use of theory on consumption regions, supervised by prof. I. Lemos (and submitted practices and identity formation. The research aims fall in November 2009). Early in January 2010 I had a seamlessly within the wider context of interconnections in successful viva voce (“no corrections”). I have tutored the eastern/central Mediterranean in the Early Iron Age, undergraduate students in archaeology, anthropology and as well as having clear affinities with the development classics for various colleges of the University of Oxford of Iron Age urban communities and the transformation of (St. Hugh’s, St John’s, Christ Church and Merton Colleges) landscapes in temperate Europe. and for exchange programmes of the latter (OPUS) during my last four academic years in Oxford (2006/7-2009/10). Contact: e.pappa@let.vu.nl; jp.crielaard@let.vu.nl. My fieldwork experience includes excavations at Iron Age and medieval sites in the south of England (e.g. “South Dr. Jan Paul Crielaard is a lecturer in Mediterranean Archeology at Cadbury Environs Project”: 2003, 2004), as well as the Department of Ancient Studies of VU University Amsterdam and fieldwork, finds and archaeobotanical processing for the head of the research cluster ‘A Mediterranean Panorama’ of CLUE. “Xeropolis Project” at Lefkandi in Greece (2006, 2007, 2008). Eleftheria Pappa: researcher Contact: e.pappa@let.vu.nl. dr. Eleftheria Pappa. ‘Merging boundaries’ In July 2010, I was awarded a NWO Veni grant for a post- doctoral project on the identification of patterns in cultural consumption practices in Atlantic Europe and Africa during the period of Phoenician colonisation (8th – 6th c. BC). Having completed in July 2001 the Pan-Hellenic examination in my native Athens, Greece, I read Archaeology at the University of Bristol in England, graduating in 2004 with a Bachelor of Arts in Archaeology (First Class Honours). Subsequently, I was admitted into the two-year research degree of Master of Philosophy in Classical Archaeology 11


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    THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT The Plakari Archaeological Project Mrs. Amalia Karapaschalidou, director of the 11th Ephorate of Euboia, acting as the project’s co-director. Research is Jan Paul Crielaard carried out by staff members and students of the Dept. of Archaeology, the Dept. of Geo- and Bio-archaeology, HBS Plakari is an archaeological site, located on a low hill or and SPINlab of VU University Amsterdam. The fieldwork ridge on the Bay of Karystos in southern Euboia (central is sponsored by the Faculty of Arts of VU University Greece). Although the first habitation phase dates to the (Amsterdam), the 11th Ephorate (Chalkis) and the Institute Final Neolithic, most of the visible remains belong to for Aegean Prehistory (New York). the Early Iron Age (EIA), when the site was apparently re-occupied. On the highest point of the Plakari ridge (72 The overall aim of the project is to understand the character m. a.s.l.), a sanctuary was established, as is indicated of the EIA sanctuary and its associated cult, and investigate by rock-cut niches found on the hill top and a sacrificial its position and functioning within local, regional, and refuse pit on the hill’s western slope. The votive material interregional contexts. The site of Plakari presents a unique indicates that this happened as early as the 10th century, opportunity to study the establishment and development which makes Plakari one of the earliest sanctuaries of the of a cult site in relation to community building in a newly Greek Iron Age. The accompanying EIA settlement was established settlement. We expect to gain insights into how situated on the slopes to the south and north and probably a freshly established EIA community shaped itself with the on the adjacent hill to the west. help of cult and religion and how it adapted itself to its new environment. Furthermore, the project aims to study the In the autumn of 2009, a project was launched on the initiative Plakari sanctuary within a broader regional framework. This of dr. Jan Paul Crielaard (VU University Amsterdam/CLUE) consists not only of the physical landscape and seascape to carry out systematic, archaeological research at the but also of the wider cultic setting (nearby cult sites on site. The Plakari Archaeological Project is a collaboration Karababa hill, at Geraistos and neighbouring Cycladic between VU University Amsterdam, represented by Jan Paul islands). Finally, Greek sanctuaries in this period can be Crielaard, who acts as the excavation director and principal regarded as hotspots of interconnectivity. Plakari was no investigator, and the Greek Archaeological Service, with exception to this: it is located at an important crossroads connecting the Aegean archipelago and the Euboian Gulf region. Chance finds from the sacrificial refuse pit have yielded not only pottery from the 10th to 7th centuries, some of which was imported from neighbouring regions, but also objects of terracotta, stone and metal, among which are artifacts from as far away as Italy and the Balkans. The votive material can be expected to provide information about EIA regional and interregional networks and the role of sacred places in overseas communications and in what perhaps constituted a sacred land- and seascape. Another reason to start fieldwork at Plakari is that the site is suffering from both legal and illegal building activities. New houses continue to go up on the slopes of Plakari. This continuous pressure on the site and the landscape The Bay of Karystos from the northwest; Plakari is the low hill in the centre-left of makes systematic archaeological research extremely the photo. urgent. A next step will be to explore how sustainable 12


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    THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT 2011), under the title of Plakari Karystou I. An Early Iron Age settlement and sanctuary in southern Euboia, Greece. Two proposals for post-doc research have been submitted in the Netherlands and Greece to study the provenance and distribution of EIA pottery found at sites in the Aegean and along the Euboian Gulf, including Plakari, which will combine macroscopic, petrographic, chemical and geological analyses. Contact: jp.crielaard@let.vu.nl. Elevation model of southern Euboia, showing the Bay of Karystos from the southeast. Dr. Jan Paul Crielaard is a lecturer in Mediterranean Archeology at Indicated are Plakari (1), the sanctuary on Karababa (2) and the Poseidon sanctuary at Geraistos (3) (based on Google Maps). the Department of Ancient Studies of VU University Amsterdam and head of the research cluster ‘A Mediterranean Panorama’ of CLUE. preservation of cultural heritage can be combined with further development of the area. Project ‘With GPS and iPad between Marble and Concrete’ In the summer of 2010, we had our first field campaign focusing on the site’s topography. Using a Total Station, Collaborators: Dr. Jan Paul Crielaard and Maurice de we made a digital site map and 3D elevation of the hill top Kleijn MA and the surrounding area; we made detailed descriptions of the site’s topography and morphology, and revisited, Since 2009, CLUE organizes in collaboration with the described and recorded find locations known from previous Netherlands Institute at Athens (NIA) a postgraduate surveys; these were plotted on a digital, archaeological course entitled ‘Between Marble and Concrete. Heritage map and put in a topographical database; analyses of the and Urbanism in Athens, 19th to 21st Centuries’. Athens is site’s accessibility and visibility were made with the help the city par excellence to study the complex interrelations of GIS. In addition to this, we studied all the finds from between urban development, politics and the preservation Plakari in the Karystos museum that had been collected and development of cultural heritage, and the role over the years in surface surveys and rescue excavations that cultural heritage has fulfilled within the broader or by people visiting the site; a large selection of pottery framework of national and European identity construction. and terracotta and small metal finds was catalogued, For this course, ‘Citivu’ was created, an e-Education studied, drawn and photographed. platform based on Wiki and GIS and designed to facilitate on-line collaboration. In 2010 SURFnet awarded a 10,000 Planned field activities for 2011 include geophysical euro grant from the ‘Mobile learning’ programme not only prospection (using electrical resistivity), stratigraphical for the further development of ‘Citivu’ but also to purchase excavations, archaeobotanical and zoo-archaeological a number of iPads. Citivu 2.0 makes it possible to store, sampling and research, and geo-archaeological study of share, change and add textual and visual information landscape formation processes by means of coring and during the preparatory courses in Amsterdam and with collecting pollen samples. A first large-scale publication is the help of the iPads during the on-site visits in Athens. scheduled to appear in 2013. The aim is to assemble and Students can link this content to markers that they can publish the results of research at Plakari over the last thirty place on a digital city plan of Athens. GPS helps them to years (1979-2009), together with outcomes of more recent navigate and define their position. The map also contains topographical research and geo-physical prospection (2010- a set of historical maps which can be made transparent 13


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    THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT and thus help to visualize the historical layering of the city. (see also Projects – Update Integrating Heritage) Contact: m.dekleijn@feweb.vu.nl; jp.crielaard@let.vu.nl Dr. Jan Paul Crielaard is a lecturer in Mediterranean Archeology at the Department of Ancient Studies of VU University Amsterdam and head of the research cluster ‘A Mediterranean Panorama’ of CLUE. On the efficiency of markets for agricultural products in pre- industrial societies: The case of Babylonia ca. 400 – ca. 60 BC NWO Free Competition project (2007-2011) Bert van der Spek, Joost Huijs and Reinhard Pirngruber study Babylonian astronomical diaries, heritage from Ancient Iraq in the British Museum, so important for the study of Researchers: Dr. Bas van Leeuwen (post-doc), drs. the economic history of urban environments. Joost Huijs (PhD student) and Reinhard Pirngruber MA (PhD student) Mesopotamia by the Parthians, when the Seleucid empire Project leaders: Prof. Dr. R.J. (Bert) van der Spek and was reduced to Syria (141 - 58 BC). prof. dr. Jan Luiten van Zanden The project is carried out in close co-operation with The rich heritage of the soil of Iraq has produced hundreds assyriologists who study Babylonian economic history of thousands of clay tablets with all kinds of literary, of the previous period (such as Kristin Kleber, lecturer historic, and administrative texts in cuneiform script, in Languages and Cultures of the Ancient Near East emanating from a millennia-old urban civilization. The at VU University), ancient historians who study the project in question examines a huge amount of tablets interconnectivity of markets in the Mediterranean world written by Babylonian scholars who produced datasets of and economic historians who study comparable economic all kinds, including the so-called astronomical diaries, history of later historical periods, such as Mediaeval Iraq, which not only contained daily records of the celestial early modern England and 19th-century China. phenomena, but also earthly matters such as the prices of raw foodstuffs and wool. This dataset allows us to give Of primary concern is the theory that is expounded by Karl- a new stimulus to economic and econometric history and Gunnar Persson in his book Grain Markets in Europe 1500 the application of economic theories and models. – 1900. Integration and Deregulation (Cambridge 1999). In this study he takes the volatility of commodity prices as The research object of this programme is to examine the an indicator of market integration and market efficiency. functioning of the Babylonian market in raw foodstuffs and A high volatility of prices is a marker of bad functioning wool (i.e. surplus agricultural produce) from the end of the of the market. The role of storage and the government in Achaemenid to the early Parthian period (404 - 60 BC). In regulating prices is a factor studied in this respect. this period the Middle East was ruled by three successive empires, covering the last phase of the domination of the The project culminates in an “Academy Colloquium” on Persian Empire (404 – 331 BC), the empire of Alexander this subject sponsored by the KNAW, The Royal Netherlands the Great and the Seleucids, that is the Hellenistic period Academy of Arts and Sciences, to be held in Amsterdam (331 – 141 BC), and the first phase of the occupation of from 19-21 May 2011, an interdisciplinary conference 14


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    THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT in which assyriologists, ancient historians, economists panorama. The identity of the Mediterranean World 3000 and economic historians discuss market integration and BC – AD 2000”. market efficiency in comparative perspective. (see also below). Contact: rj.vander.spek@let.vu.nl. Contact: rj.vander.spek@let.vu.nl. Bert van der Spek is professor of Ancient History at the Department of Ancient Studies of VU University Amsterdam and member of CLUE. Bert van der Spek is professor of Ancient History at the Department of Ancient Studies of VU University Amsterdam and member of CLUE. THE RESEARCH CLUSTER ‘THE HERITAGE AND MEMORY Jan Luiten van Zanden is professor of Economic History at Utrecht OF CONFLICT AND WAR’: AN UPDATE University and the International Institute for Social History in Amsterdam. New research projects Heritage of Loss: Dutch WW II Memorial Camps as con- News: Academy Colloquium concerning market efficiency tested space from ancient Babylonia to modern times, 19-21 May 2011 Bert van der Spek, professor of Ancient History at the Faculty of Arts, has received a subsidy of 19,500 euros from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences for the organization of an “Academy Colloquium” on “The efficiency of markets in pre-industrial societies: the case of Babylonia (ca. 400-60 BC) in comparative perspective.” The conference shall take place on 19-21 May 2011 in the “Trippenhuis,” the headquarters of the Academy on the Kloveniersburgwal in Amsterdam. The relation between price oscillations, market integration and market efficiency in the Mediterranean world and beyond in comparative and diachronic perspective will be discussed by a range of scholars (assyriologists, historians and economists) from Ruin-like element with radio telescopes in the background. all over the world. Starting point of the research is a huge Former camp area Westerbork 2009©Iris van Ooijen. dataset of prices of raw foodstuffs and wool extracted from cuneiform documents from ancient Babylonia in the first millennium BC, which will be subjected to statistical and NWO project (2010-2014) economic analysis. The colloquium is part of a research Researcher: Mr. drs. Iris van Ooijen project of the same name subsidized by the Netherlands Supervisor: Prof. dr. Rob van der Laarse Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), in which, Co-supervisor: Prof. dr. Jan Kolen apart from the project leader, two PhD students and a postdoctoral researcher carry out research in cooperation This PhD project aims to present new insights into the with researchers in Vienna, Paris and London. The project dynamics of WW II memory with regard to the material and the Colloquium are part of the Research Cluster of and intangible remains of the Nazi concentration camps the VU Research Institute CLUE, “A new Mediterranean in the Netherlands in an international context. In the 15


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    THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT often long neglected, the present-day memorial camps have to deal with many owners. This research project will result in a dissertation as well as a joint exhibition on the former campsites in Dutch memorial culture. It is co-financed by National Monument Camp Vught, Memorial Centre Camp Westerbork, and National Monument Camp Amersfoort, and is part of the NWO programme Dynamics of Memory, initiated by Rob van der Laarse (UvA/VU) and Frank van Vree (UvA). Contact: r.vander.laarse@let.vu.nl; jca.kolen@let.vu.nl; ima.van.ooijen@let.vu.nl. View of the fence, scale-model and rebuilt barracks from the National Monument Camp Vught 2009©Iris van Ooijen. Rob van der Laarse is professor of Heritage of War at the Faculty of Arts at VU University Amsterdam and a member of CLUE. last decades, heritage sites (museums as well as lieux Jan Kolen is professor of Landscape Archaeology and Heritage de mémoire) have become more important than in the Studies at the Faculty of Arts at VU University Amsterdam and the past when many people still had living memories of the director of CLUE. War. This applies in particular to the three former camps Vught, Amersfoort and Westerbork. This research project focuses, on the one hand, on the public dealing with Iris van Ooijen: researcher the traumatic past of mass persecution and genocide ‘Heritage of Loss’ by different categories of Jewish and non-Jewish camp victims as well as postwar detainees (Germans and fascist collaborators) and refugees (Indian Dutchmen, Moluccan Mr. drs. Iris van Ooijen. KNIL soldiers etc.), and local people involved in the building and organization of the camps. On the other hand, just like Verdun, Normandy and other military battlefields of WW I and II, the camps have become icons of the civic atrocities of the Nazis’ attack on Europe – as represented In January 2010, Iris van Ooijen finished her Master in in literature, film and on the internet. Moreover, more Cultural Heritage at the University of Amsterdam cum than the trenches, bunkers and other spatial relics of the laude with a thesis on the postwar development of WW world wars, camps play a crucial role in the international II camps in the Netherlands, Belgium and France. Her Holocaust memory boom. Therefore, conservators and interest in this specific field of heritage and memory heritage managers are confronted with a difficult field of studies was born during a study trip in 2009 to Germany tension, often dealing on a single site with multiple public and Poland, where she focused on the (re)presentation remembrances, personal memories, authentic artifacts, of Auschwitz-Birkenau and its world heritage status. and a growing need for heritage tourism experience. This The knowledge acquired during a work placement at the may explain the remarkable differences in design, layout Permanent Representation of the Netherlands at Unesco and staging as well as heated debates on questions of in Paris was very useful in this case. From September authenticity, identity, and (tourist) experience. Though 2000 to December 2006, she studied Dutch Law - also 16


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    THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT at the University of Amsterdam - with a specialization in art and law. Since 1 May 2010, Iris is involved as a PhD student in the NWO project “Dynamics of memory - the Netherlands in WW II”. Within this project, she has her own sub-project: “Camps as contested possessions. The postwar development of the Dutch camps as lieux de mémoire.” The research project will result in a monograph, a conference for involved organizations, historians and other researchers and a contribution in the form of a communal exhibition of National Monument Camp Vught, Memorial Centre Camp Westerbork and National Monument Camp Amersfoort about the place of the camps in Dutch memorial culture. Excavation at Ravensbrück. Contact: ima.van.ooijen@let.vu.nl. archaeology, the archaeological study of material culture from war times and the research of previous concentration camps have seen a huge increase since 1995. Buried War Past. The scientific potential and cultural-his- torical value of archaeological features and finds from the In “Buried War Past” a start is made with the systematic Second World War. unlocking of these features, finds and data. The focus lies on features and mobilia found in excavations between 1970 NWO Odyssee programme (2010-2011) and 2000, but chance finds and more specific excavations Researchers: Jef van der Schriek and Max van der from the period 2000-2010 will also be included in the Schriek analysis. On the basis of a basic inventory (Archis, field Coordinators: Prof. dr. Jan Kolen and Ruurd Kok drawings, daily reports, photographs, depots, email questionnaires, additional interviews and reports from The project “Buried War Past” is not about the analysis archaeological companies) and literature research of one site or excavation, but about the inventory and (Germany, Belgium, France and England), an estimate is analysis of a category of archaeological heritage and made of the scientific potential and the cultural-historical at the same time an undervalued information source: value of the sites found in the Netherlands. The results will the features and mobilia from the WW II found during be presented in a Dutch-language report for colleagues archaeological excavations. The interest for war heritage and a (academic) publication in English. The database in Dutch academic archaeology, the archaeological will be set up according to the guidelines of eDNA, practice and cultural-historical policy have until now DANS and RCE. Furthermore, the results of the research been extremely limited, despite the fact that it enjoys project will be translated to the intrinsic policy of the field a large public interest. This situation has resulted in of practice and preservation (heritage protection), for a large backlog in Dutch archaeology in the fields of instance by writing a chapter for the NOaA. Dissemination academic research, the preservation and management of among social target groups, such as municipalities, war heritage, not only from an empirical, but also from a private commissioners, planologists and designers, will methodical and theoretical point of view. This becomes take place through websites (including RCE, Erfgoed clear when we compare the state of knowledge and Nederland, CLUE, SfA). research in the Netherlands with that in countries such as Germany, Belgium, France and England, where battlefield Contact: jca.kolen@let.vu.nl; r.kok@raap.nl. 17


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    THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT Jan Kolen is professor of Landscape Archaeology and Heritage Stud- ies at the Faculty of Arts at VU University Amsterdam and the director of CLUE. Drs. Ruurd Kok is team leader at RAAP Archaeological Consultancy. Terrorscapes in Postwar Europe. Transnational Memory of Totalitarian Terror and Genocide Auschwitz-Birkenau ©Rob van der Laarse. experiences with Nazi and (often long-lasting) Soviet occupation, or fascist and communist terror and civil war, before and after WW II. The proposed research will reveal how Europe’s topography of Holocaust memory has not only expanded, but has been completely transformed by the integration into the European community of countries like Greece, Spain, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania, and former Eastern Germany. This research will offer insight into how governments and citizens of different European nations deal with conflicting pasts in heritage and memory sites. The dynamics of memory will be approached comparatively. The focus The gate of Auschwitz, which was stolen in 2009. of this investigation will be on ‘terrorscapes’, a concept related to the ITF definition of Holocaust museums and NWO project (2011-2013) memorials as well as to the academic concepts – related Coordinator: Prof. dr. Rob van der Laarse to the spatial turn in cultural and historical sciences - of (official) heritage and memory sites, and (newly recovered) After a period of commemorating the Second World War places and traces of memory. The outcome will be an by national war monuments and museums, Auschwitz international conference, a travelling exhibition, and a and other WWII Holocaust memory sites have become research publication, written by an international team of significant icons of modern European identity. In particular (senior) researchers. This investigation is expected to since the fall of the Wall (1989), the Yugoslav Wars (1991- contribute to our understanding of the European process 1995) and the Western War on Terror (2001-), the horror of memory making, which includes forgetting and the of ethnic conflict and genocide play an important role in negotiation of contested memories. Consequently, it may politics, history and heritage. Yet, the crimes of Nazism and shed light on European misunderstandings. the Holocaust – that seem indisputable in Western European public opinion - have received only selective attention in The project is co-financed by the Memorial Centre Camp Southern and Eastern European countries because of the Westerbork, Mondrian Foundation, and National Monument competing legacy of dictatorship and mass terror. Now, Camp Vught, and is further supported by the MMWG of the WW II’s memorials and memory sites are not only looking ITF Holocaust Cooperation on Education, Remembrance to WW I’s ‘sites of mourning’, but also to ‘New Europe’s’ and Research, Sobibor Museum and Memorial, Potocari 18


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    THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT Memorial and Cemetery, Jewish Museum of Deportation are attached to this sort of heritage. The stories of the and Resistance Dossin (Mechelen), and NIAS (KNAW). witnesses and the mental, cultural and spatial reactions This research project is part of the NWO programme to the contested landscape in the last sixty years should Dynamics of Memory, initiated by Rob van der Laarse receive a place in a European collective memory. The (UvA/VU) and Frank van Vree (UvA). project addresses a general heritage question that is not just aiming at maintenance, but also at redevelopment Contact: r.vander.laarse@let.vu.nl. and reuse of the Atlantic Wall landscape in the near future: how will we remember this mega structure and how do we Rob van der Laarse is professor of Heritage of War at the Faculty of treat this linear landscape in spatial policies? Arts at VU University Amsterdam and a member of CLUE. In 2010 CLUE explored existing knowledge about the planning and building of the Atlantic Wall, primarily from Internationalization Atlantikwall a civil, spatial and heritage perspective (2009-2010). The outcomes of this research were combined with contextual studies that were embedded in an international map-based website that was developed by the private firm Lopende Zaken: www.atlantikwallplatform.eu, a website that is in the air since December 2010 and will be extended by CLUE. The website mainly contains information that stems from local archives and oral history. The Dutch part of the Atlantic Wall has been treated in depth. The other countries will be dealt with later. The main researchers and institutions that collected information about the Atlantic Wall abroad have also been identified and listed. Other initiatives to continue the project: a CLUE-UvA Blue bunker near Oostduinen ©Rose Tzalmona. proposal for the NWO programme CATCH (December 2010); PhD student architect Rose Tzalmona works on a dissertation about the Atlantic Wall. Collaborators: Prof. dr. Koos Bosma Student assistents: Ilse Kaldenbach and Nicolien Kipp Contact: je.bosma@let.vu.nl. (from the research master Visual Arts, Media and Archi- tecture). Koos Bosma is professor of History of Architecture and Heritage Studies at the Faculty of Arts at VU University Amsterdam and a Composed of thousands of bases along the coasts of board member of CLUE. Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, France and the British Channel Islands, the Atlantic Wall is the largest physical collection of World War II architecture. Large parts of it still exist. The Wall not only goes way beyond the Dutch borders, but is also an unwanted gift from a former enemy. It belongs to the category of ‘contested heritage’. Seen from a German perspective it is ‘colonial heritage’. Uncanny sentiments 19


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    THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT THE RESEARCH CLUSTER ‘THE HERITAGE IN A Photographs, Colonial Legacy and Museums in POSTCOLONIAL WORLD’: AN UPDATE Contemporary European Culture Susan Legêne NWO HERA JP (2010-2012) Collaborators: Prof. dr. Susan Legêne, Elizabeth In 2010 the research cluster ‘Heritage in a postcolonial Edwards and Sigrid Lien world’ focused on the three major programmes: Sites, Bodies and Stories; the Dynamics of heritage Formation in PhotoCLEC is a new research programme, a collaboration Colonial and Postcolonial Indonesia and the Netherlands; between Elizabeth Edwards (University of the Arts, PhotoCLEC -- Photographs, Colonial Legacy and Museums London, UK), Sigrid Lien (Bergen University, Norway) in Contemporary European Culture and Agora; Creating the and Susan Legêne (VU University Amsterdam). This Fabric for and providing Web-enabled Access to Objects in project asks “what is the role of the photographic legacy Dynamic Historical Sequences (NWO programme Catch- of colonial relations in the identity of a fluid and multi- Continuous Access to Cultural Heritage, 2009-2012). Next cultural modern Europe and its global relations?” to these longer research programmes, a research project has been commissioned by the Ministry of Education, Through the prism of photography, PhotoCLEC is Science and Culture to investigate the Future of the World concerned with colonialism and the way contemporary Heritage Convention. Some highlights: European cultures configure their pasts for the benefit of their futures. It is a detailed comparative study of the aims, strategies and efficacy of institutional practices Sites, Bodies and Stories. The Dynamics of Heritage as museums attempt to position colonial photograph Formation in Colonial and Postcolonial Indonesia and the collections in ways relevant to contemporary European Netherlands societies and their futures. Importantly it asks how do differently constituted colonial experiences translate into NWO Cultural Dynamics Programme (2008-2013) differently nuanced visual legacies and how do these Coordinator: Prof. dr. Susan Legêne visual legacies resonate through differently shaped post- colonial experiences? As such it addresses an extensive As the programme develops, and the postdoc researchers yet largely neglected body of European cultural history, and PhD candidates proceed, the international dynamics of rooted in and outside Europe, which is actively moving this program are strengthened as well. Two research fellows across cultural boundaries, creating new meanings in from Indonesia, associated with the partner institutions newly configured national and transnational communities Universitas Gadjah Mada in Yogyakarta and Eijkman Institute in a global environment. for Molecular Biology in Jakarta, visited the Netherlands, hosted by NIOD and KITLV. The research team invited experts The collaborative nature of the project is central to the from the UK, Germany, USA, India, Malaysia, Australia formulation of the research question itself, which will and Indonesia to present a paper at an international SBS- be explored through linked ethnographies of museum conference in Yogyakarta (13-15 January 2011). practices and strategies across the partner countries. It involves linked projects in three European countries with Contact: s.legene@let.vu.nl. very different colonial experiences to compare and contrast their visual legacies in contemporary societies. The Susan Legêne is professor of Political History at the Department United Kingdom and the Netherlands were major colonial of History of the Faculty of Arts of VU University Amsterdam and powers but with different ‘styles’ of colonial engagement member of CLUE. and different patterns of de-colonization and post-colonial 20


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    THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT engagement at home and abroad. Norway, though not a colonial power in the territorial sense, was engaged with extensive ‘colonial-derived’ activities e.g. exploration, science and missions, and has colonial-style issues over Sami histories, adding an important and expansive dimension to the project. These histories have collectively left extensive visual legacies in the institutions of the three countries, patterned by different institutional approaches in universities, local authorities and government institutions. The project started in June 2010. At the first international project meeting in Bergen, Norway (22nd of November 2010), the focus, approaches, intended output and research experiences in the three countries concerned were discussed. This meeting was extended with a workshop which took place on 23rd of November 2010. The international researchers presented their work to Norwegian experts, and discussed the issue of colonialism in the Norwegian context. Contact: s.legene@let.vu.nl; http://www.heranet.info/ photoclec/index. Susan Legêne is professor of Political History at the Department of History of the Faculty of Arts of VU University Amsterdam and member of CLUE. Agora poster. Agora. Creating the Fabric for and providing Web-enabled Indies/Indonesia has been taken as a pilot. On the 11th of Access to Objects in Dynamic Historical Sequences August 2010, the project organized a meeting “Digital Cul- tural Heritage Goes Social”. The team organized a panel NWO CATCH programme (2009-2012) at the CRESC conference on The social Life of methods on Coordinator: Prof. dr. Susan Legêne “Authenticity, Authority and the Virtual Museum: the Chal- lenge of Digital Data”, which took place in Oxford, the 31st The project investigates the impact of digitally mediated of August until the 3rd of September 2010) with four speak- access to museum collections on how people engage them- ers on current museum practices concerning digital art, selves with the past, while developing a simple event recog- research on the web, virtual communication strategies for nition model that contributes to strengthening the meaning archives and museums, and shifting notions of materiality. of objects as historical sources. Both in terms of computer science and computational linguistics, and with respect to The Agora programme has been quite successful in poster philosophy of history, this is a challenging project, with a presentations. On 5 October 2010, Agora won the Best close collaboration of experts in various disciplines. The In-Use Paper Award at EKAW, and on 2 November 2010, historical theme of decolonisation in the Netherlands East the Public Prize Best Poster at SIREN//NL. 21


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    THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT See also: http://agora.cs.vu.nl/. Contact: s.legene@let.vu.nl; http://www.nwo.nl/nwo- home.nsf/pages/NWOP_85CJCB_Eng. Susan Legêne is professor of Political History at the Department of History of the Faculty of Arts of VU University Amsterdam and member of CLUE. The Future of the World Heritage Convention World Heritage Convention (WHC) is an 18-month postdoc policy research project, aimed at an evaluation of the Mr Baron showing two of the photographs he has taken of the Rebbe, Kfar Chabad, WHC, the flagship convention of Unesco, and policy Israel, 2008. recommendations concerning some urgent questions relating both to the Convention, the actual list of world heritage sites, and Dutch commitment in the past and the i.e. when people from the subculture visit the museum, near future. The project started in the second half of 2010. where they may feel represented or misrepresented, or Contact: s.legene@let.vu.nl when a museum seeks actively to present objects from a subculture by reaching out to individual homes. Most of Susan Legêne is professor of Political History at the Department of the time the public and the private domains do not deal History of the Faculty of Arts of VU University Amsterdam and mem- with the tension that exists between them; moreover they ber of CLUE. may not even be aware of it. This research investigates how contemporary material culture in private and public spheres acts as an expression of diversity and identity in Objects, homes, museums and the Israeli nation-state the complex social fabric of the Israeli nation state. Judy Schagen The objects that form the subject of this research are found in eight subcultures in Israel: Chabad, Moroccan, Iraqi, Is the museum a home for culture or is what happens with Ethiopian, Russian, Religious Zionist, Israeli Christian Arab material culture in ‘real’ homes something completely and Israeli Muslim Arab. Israel plays an important role as different? This question forms the starting point for both the location and subject of the research. Israel is a research on the tension between the construction and pluriform, multi-ethnic society where a political debate is representation of cultural identities in museums and the taking place concerning the construction of the society, the construction of personal identities in the private domain. character of personal identity and the cultural heritage. This debate is reflected in museum policy regarding the In a home the owner’s identity is reflected by the choice acquisition of objects and the design of exhibitions as of objects that relate to the owner’s subculture and by well as in the establishment of new museums and the the inclusion or rejection of objects from the national transformation of objects into collections. culture. A museum may collect objects, for the permanent collection or a temporary exhibition, that are typical of a By researching objects I focus on this dynamism and certain subculture. Sometimes the two spheres will meet, diversity in Israeli society. As a result the research produces 22


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    THE RESEARCH CLUSTERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT a lively story about objects, homes, museums and the Israeli nation state. At the end of the research I expect to have gained knowledge on the relationship between objects and people in private and public spheres and the discrepancies that might exist between those two spheres, and the way museums relate to the groups that they wish to represent. Furthermore I expect to know more about the role Israeli museums play, whether willingly or not, in the building of the nation state. As such the research provides an analysis of assimilation, citizenship and nation building. Contact: jb.schagen@let.vu.nl. Dr. Judy Schagen is researcher at the Department of History of the Boswegje’ landscape element nr. 69 with ‘ houtwallen’ as property boundaries ©Adrie Faculty of Arts of VU University Amsterdam and member of CLUE. de Kraker. CLUE report 525 cultural landscape elements have been UPCOMING 2011: RESEARCH CLUSTER LANDSCAPE valued in main categories of age, state of maintenance and experience and perception of the landscape. The Interdisciplinary research into cultural history, ecology ecological valuation is based on the value of the regional and earth scientific values of the landscape area as a living area, stepping stone, or corridor for flora and fauna. An introduction to themes of evolution as well Sjoerd Kluiving as developmental directions have been proposed based on the outcome of this interdisciplinary research. Within the coming decade, the area of the city council Veldhoven (Noord-Brabant) will endure drastic changes in Publication: Kluiving, S.J., Kraker, A.M.J. de & IJzerman, the landscape. Because the community wants to establish S. (2010) Interdisciplinair onderzoek naar cultuurhistorie, a special living area with respect to the actual landscape, ecologie en aardkundige waarden van het landschap van it wishes to explore the present cultural historic and het gebied Zilverackers, gemeente Veldhoven. AGBA ecological values in the area preceding the planning stage report 2010-03, VU University Amsterdam. which includes 2700 new houses, community services as well as a road. On the basis of the research, the CLUE Contact: s.kluiving@falw.vu.nl. report advises how to deal with valuable small landscape elements in the new developments and to explore which Dr. Sjoerd Kluiving is assistant professor at the Department of Geo- effects already planned measures will have on the present and Bioarchaeology at the Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences of VU landscape. The mapped area of Zilverackers is an old University Amsterdam and a member of CLUE. cultural landscape that remained unchanged until the sixties of the last century. In those days the residential areas were still grouped in small villages. Along the connecting roads almost no buildings were aligned. The field complexes with the many field roads that permitted entrance determined the cultural value of the area together with the concentrated parcels of forest. Within the 23


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    PROJECTS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT PROJECTS datasets can be found and newly produced (geographical) datasets can be stored and reused. For the “heritage and UPDATE INTEGRATING HERITAGE history” disciplines there is also the need to learn how to analyze geographical information in a more quantitative way. A focus for the IH Programme might also be to offer a set of simple tools to execute spatial analysis in an easily accessible way. For the pilot study, there were four main facets to be researched. 1. To get a clear view of the problems researchers are dealing with in the current situation. 2. To formulate the added value of this initiative for the different disciplines and the (presumed) impulse it will give to interdisciplinary research. 3. Technical developments in the field of spatial data Map of 17th-century Amsterdam on Google Earth. infrastructures. An inventory of existing initiatives. 4. Organizational issues for legal issues and to make the Henk Scholten and Maurice de Kleijn NSDI accessible and the data sustainable. To research these facets a desktop study was executed, In 2009 the CLUE institute, together with the Spatial two workshops were organized and several key persons information laboratory (SPINlab), Wageningen University from different disciplines, centres of expertise and several and the University of Leiden, received a pilot subsidy (semi) governmental organizations were interviewed. The granted by NWO to fund preliminary research for outcome of these studies will result in February/March designing a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) for (2011) in the form of a synthesis which will be the basis interdisciplinary research of the heritage and history of the for the proposal for an “Investment Subsidy NWO Large”. Dutch landscape. The name of this project is “Integrating Based on the workshops and the interviews it can be Heritage” (the IH Programme). The preliminary research concluded that the initiative is supported by a large group of the IH program will form the basis for a proposal for an of partners. The IH Programme can fundamentally be “Investment Subsidy NWO Large”. This proposal will be of added value to a large range of disciplines. One of the submitted in September 2011. main outcomes of our research on the organizational issues is that we should give university libraries an import place The general aim of the programme is to develop and within the programme. University libraries have always had sustain a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) for the function to be an important facility for researchers. The interdisciplinary research of the heritage and history Integrating heritage program will be in line with this function. of the Dutch landscape. The need to develop such an infrastructure must be seen in the light of changing research Contact: Henk.scholten@geodan.nl; m.dekleijn@feweb. foci in several disciplines. On the one hand disciplines that vu.nl. study heritage and history are more interested in spatial questions, while on the other hand “spatial disciplines” Henk Scholten is professor at the Department of Spatial Economics are more interested in history and heritage issues. Within of the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration of VU the perspective of these developments there is a growing University Amsterdam. He is also the Director of Geodan and a need for an infrastructure where reliable geographical member of CLUE. 24


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    PROJECTS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT Maurice de Kleijn: researcher ‘Integrating Heritage’ a good candidate to bridge the gap between the Geospatial scientists and historians, archaeologists, art-historians and other disciplines that study heritage and history. The main project which I work on is the “Integrating heritage programme”, more information on which can be found elsewhere in this annual report. Smaller projects I am involved with are the Citivu project (www.citivu.nl) for which we made a web application which made it possible to navigate on old maps with GPS on an iPad, and the Murge- project in southern Italy where, since 2003, I have helped to develop a mobile GIS system for archaeological field surveys. Being in this strategic interdisciplinary position I can hopefully play an important role in stimulating the use of geospatial technologies in the field of heritage and history. Contact: m.dekleijn@feweb.vu.nl. Maurice de Kleijn MA. THE VILLA OF HOOGELOON AND THE SETTLEMENT AT RIETHOVEN. KEY SITES IN THE ROMAN RURAL LANDSCAPE OF THE LOWER RHINE FRONTIER ZONE Why would an archaeologist work at the Faculty of BETWEEN LIMES AND LOESS Economics and Business Administration? It seems a little strange, but with the current developments in the field of NWO Research Programme Humanities (2010-2014) research it is actually very logical. Currently, the role of Researchers: Dr. Henk Hidding and location in science, and with that the role of geospatial drs. Julie van Kerckhove technologies, is increasing. This so called “spatial turn” Coordinators: Prof. dr. Nico Roymans and dr. Ton Derks is getting more and more important and is also seen in the field of heritage and history. The problem for these The 1st of May 2010 was the starting date of the project disciplines is that they are relatively new in the field of ‘The villa of Hoogeloon and the settlement of Riethoven: geospatial technologies. The Economists have been key sites in the Roman rural landscape of the Lower Rhine using geospatial technologies for longer and on a larger frontier zone between limes and loess’. The project is scale. They even have a centre of expertise for Geospatial funded by NWO (Free Competition Humanities) and the technology: the Spatial Information Laboratory (SPINlab). province of Noord-Brabant (programme Stories of Brabant). Being part of the SPINlab and working on several CLUE The research covers three sites in the Kempen region projects I can hopefully stimulate this “spatial turn”. of Brabant, about 15 km southwest of Eindhoven: the At the SPINlab I can learn more about geospatial Roman villa settlement of Hoogeloon-Kerkakkers with the technologies and with my background as an archaeologist accompanying cemetery on the Kaboutersberg, as well I can translate the possibilities of these technologies to as the settlement of Riethoven-Heesmortel. These sites Social Sciences and Humanities. As an archaeologist with were excavated by VU University Amsterdam in the 1980s a specialization in Geographic Information Systems, I am within the framework of the so-called Kempen Project, 25


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    PROJECTS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT Before the analysis can begin, a mass of basic data needs to be sorted out, and in that respect the project is perhaps more ‘down to earth’ than is usual for the Faculty of Arts. Hands need to get dirty in analysing the find categories of stone, wood for dendrochronology, corroded iron and many thousands of pottery sherds. Only because the researchers have ample experience in excavating and analysing archaeological sites can the basic work be carried out efficiently and is this not detrimental to a more profound analysis. Reconstruction of the grave mound the Kaboutersberg. To give an impression of the variety of activities: in 2010, a database with 5000 features of Kerkakkers was created, an ambitious regional research programme. Because 6000 slides were scanned, stone and glass finds were funding for post-excavation analysis was almost non- identified broadly, a start was made with the analysis of existent at the time, a scientific analysis and publication the pottery, the first wells and buildings were described, were never achieved. This is unfortunate, since these are and a concept reconstruction of the villa was made. special sites. In Hoogeloon, a large villa was built in the Furthermore, the publication of the cemetery Hoogeloon- 2nd century AD, in a settlement that until then differed little Kaboutersberg was finished, with the exception of several from the average Roman settlement on the sandy soils specialist reports. of the southern Netherlands. This villa settlement is the only known example on the sandy soils, and one of only The target for 2014 is a scientifically verifiable account three completely excavated villae in the Netherlands. In in the shape of three publications on the excavations, a the accompanying cemetery, a monumental grave mount PhD thesis on all possible aspects of the pottery, a series (the Kaboutersberg - leprechaun hill) and a remarkable of papers on both sub-aspects of the project as well as a stone grave monument, owned by the family living in the synthesis, and a more popular publication that will make villa, are found. the research accessible to a wider public. The remarkable assemblage at Hoogeloon offers Contact: ngam.roymans@let.vu.nl; amj.derks@let.vu.nl; exquisite opportunities for such things as the study of ha.hiddink@let.vu.nl; j.van.kerckhove@let.vu.nl. the development trajectory of a Roman villa, the way in which autochthonous elites appropriated a Mediterranean Nico Roymans is professor in West-European Archaeology at the life style, and the economic strategies that provided Department of Ancient Studies at the Faculty of Arts of VU University the necessary means. The settlement of Riethoven is Amsterdam and member of CLUE. well suited for comparative research, since at this site clear indications are found for a considerable wealth Dr. Ton Derks is lecturer in Archaeology and Prehistory at the in the earliest Roman period, without the subsequent Department of Ancient Studies at the Faculty of Arts of VU University development into a villa. During the analysis of the Amsterdam and member of CLUE. data, the project can profit from the NWO project Villa landscapes in the Roman North, which is also carried out by CLUE, and is in its last phase. 26


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    PROJECTS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT Henk Hiddink: post-doc researcher ‘The villa of Hoogeloon promising student. The analysis involves shifting a lot of and the settlement of Riethoven’ old find boxes and imagining what archaeologists saw and thought, making records and interpretations of traces in the sand. When this sometimes boring and frustrating work is done, I hope to bring the project to the next level: using the excavation data in the study of the integration of local communities in the cultural and economic life of the Roman world. Contact: ha.hiddink@let.vu.nl. Julie van Kerckhove: PhD student ‘The villa of Hoogeloon and the settlement of Riethoven’ Dr. Henk Hiddink at work on the excavation Hoogeloon. My name is Henk Hiddink. I was born in the beautiful Wieringermeer polder in 1966 and studied (Roman) archaeology at the University of Amsterdam, where I also wrote my PhD thesis on the Germanic tribes living directly north of the border of the Roman Empire. My appearance will be familiar to most people at the Faculty of Arts, because I have been working for the Hendrik Brunsting Stichting (HBS), the field archaeology Drs. Julie Van Kerckhove. unit of VU University Amsterdam since 1999. Together with my team, I have excavated a number of settlements and cemeteries (Late Iron Age, Roman period, Middle Ages) in In 2002, I graduated in Classical Archaeology at the the coversand area of Brabant and Limburg, in the tradition University of Ghent. Roman pottery from Central Italy was of large-scale research in the long-term development of the subject of my Master thesis, through which I developed the occupation and cultural landscape. These excavations an interest in ceramics. Since my appointment at ACVU- have been published in some 15 volumes of the series HBS as a pottery specialist in January 2004, I have written Zuidnederlandse Archeologische Rapporten. many reports for different excavations in the Netherlands. I started my PhD project ‘Material culture and changing As of May 2010 I also work as a post-doc in the programme consumption patterns in the settlements of Hoogeloon The villa of Hoogeloon and the settlement at Riethoven. and Riethoven’ in September 2010. It is part of the NWO Key sites in the Roman rural landscape of the Lower Rhine programme ‘The villa of Hoogeloon and the settlement frontier zone between limes and loess, subsidized by at Riethoven. Key sites in the Roman rural landscape of NWO and the province of Noord-Brabant. The first goal of the Lower Rhine frontier zone between limes and loess’. this project is the publication of three 30-to-25-year-old Discovering regional trading routes and consumption excavations, on which I worked myself as a young and still styles through a detailed study of the fabrics and typology 27


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    PROJECTS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT of pottery will be the main focus of my research. Next to that indicates the social value of this amenity in euros. my PhD project, I will continue to work for ACVU-HBS as a Current research efforts analyze destination choices of specialist in Roman pottery for one day a week. tourists, and in particular the impact of cultural heritage on these choices, and the relationship between cultural Contact: j.van.kerckhove@let.vu.nl. heritage and firm behaviour. Five Dutch municipalities are involved in this project, and NICIS AND THE ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CULTURAL a community of practice is created that organizes regular HERITAGE meetings to discuss specific issues related to cultural heritage. In the year 2010 four of such meeting took place Jan Rouwendal at different locations. Participants in the project presented papers at national and international conferences, and a ‘Economic evaluation of cultural heritage’ is the name of number of research papers have been completed or are a project in which NICIS and Nieuwland Erfgoed Centre under preparation. cooperate with CLUE and the department of Spatial Economics of VU University Amsterdam. The purpose Contact: jrouwendal@feweb.vu.nl. of the project is to assess the value of cultural heritage for society through the use of economic evaluation Jan Rouwendal is an associate professor at the Department of Spatial techniques. Since the costs of preservation of heritage Economics at the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration are often all too clear, whereas the benefits are usually of VU University Amsterdam and a member of CLUE. harder to assess, it is important that those benefits are also carefully considered. In the project, cultural heritage is studied from four points of view: its impact on the value of real estate, on the location choices of households, on the behaviour of tourists and on the location of firms. Cultural heritage is often one of the elements that determine a neighborhood’s – or even a city’s – identity. If neighborhoods are more attractive because of the presence of monuments and other ancient buildings, one expects this to have an impact on house prices. The willingness to pay more for otherwise comparable houses that are located in such neighborhoods provides important information about the social value of this heritage, and our research finds indeed a substantial impact of protected ancient inner city areas on house prices there. Also, households appear to be attracted to cities with substantial amounts of cultural heritage, and our research into location choice reveals a substantial impact of ancient inner cities on the attractiveness of the surrounding area as a residential location. Also here, we can express our results in terms of monetary units, that is as a willingness to pay for living in the proximity of an ancient inner city 28


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    INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS with the research, the conservation, the management and the opening-up of our heritage are restrained nationally, FRANCIA MEDIA regionally or provincially. Their operations are restricted by the national as well as the regional and provincial borders laid down by the law. From this point of view it is a real challenge to stimulate a European unification process on a cultural-historical level both professionally and institutionally, by encouraging border-crossing exchanges of experiences, best practices, expertises and useful data among the institutions dealing with the protection, preservation and promotion of cultural heritage. Also, in spite of all the efforts made by the regional, national and European institutions to preserve cultural heritage and to make it accessible to the wider public, little is still done, in practical terms, to present to the public and illustrate in situ the multi-faceted historical, political, spiritual and artistic features of most relevant heritage sites. The sources of inspiration, mutual influences and cross- contacts reflected by the building are seldom highlighted as such in the information material available to visitors. The primary aim of the project is to develop, through cooperation between national/regional/provincial heritage institutions and other cultural stakeholders like CLUE, as well as by setting-up concrete activities in the field, a pilot project that generates a supranational vision of the European cultural heritage and makes it tangible for the wider audience, young or adult. The project finds its origin Map of the Frankish Empire. in a case study focusing on the geo-cultural European past of the regions of Francia Media during a well-defined period Many studies have been conducted on cross-border (850-1050). The scientific and methodological background cultural cooperation and the importance of the intercultural of this case study was developed and matured for years by dialogue that goes with it. In terms of content, most attention the Ename Centre, the Flemish Heritage Institute (VIOE) and has been directed at inventories, attitudinal surveys and the Provincial Archaeological Museum of Ename. From the methodological, theoretical and thematic explorations. starting point, it was supported by the Flemish government. However, there is, so far, no clear definition of what an Two colloquiums, organized in Metz-Luxembourg-Trier and intercultural dialogue essentially means, nor is there a in Ename-Oudenaarde-Brussels in 2006, followed by a “set of harmonized ICD practices across Europe”. At this publication, provided a scientific definition of this theme, moment, there is also no clear definition of our European identified the current international cooperation project’s identity from a cultural point of view. However, there is basis and assembled a first cluster of institutions likely something even more important than defining concepts or interested in cooperating as partners in the current project. suggesting guidelines concerning intercultural activities. Within the framework of the “Francia Media” project, The reality is that the institutions professionally dealing transnational heritage research (archaeology, monuments, 29


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    INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT landscapes and history) and heritage education are stimulated to realize a historical insight that will concretely lead to a better understanding of today’s society in Europe. On the cultural level the cohesion between the various regional identities will be focused on, on the social level the connections between the bigger social entities and the traditionally marginal groups such as ethnic minorities and immigrants will be highlighted, each with their singularities. This is crucial in order to achieve an intercultural dialogue open to a renewed view of the European cultural heritage. The Francia Media project will produce research results and practical experiences that can be used for European, national, regional and provincial policies leading to the development of a greater European cohesion. For that purpose the project enhanced the multidisciplinary cooperation between different fields of action (archaeology, history, art history, architecture, cultural landscapes), structurally stimulated by heritage institutions such as CLUE. The project’s final objective will be to set up a dynamic network of heritage sites (archaeological sites, monumental buildings or complexes, urban sites) with a strong European profile, chosen by the partners for their emblematic historic and artistic dimension. Belonging in a broad sense to the same time period as the “Francia Media” entity, the early Middle Ages, these places should be the tangible result of multiple cultural influences, cross- contacts and values disputed or shared across time. This approach reflects the spirit of the “European Heritage Label”. It complements the Council of Europe’s “European Cultural Routes” scheme, which promotes the influence and the sharing of common European values. The selected sites will be developed into European “interpretation centres”. Permanent facilities on those pilot sites and the development of sustained educational programmes will ensure that the project’s results will also be continued after the end of the EU financed scheme. Contact: rae.hermans@let.vu.nl; dirk.callebaut@enamecenter.org; info@enamecenter.org; www.enamecenter.org. 30


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    AMBITIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT AMBITIONS in the Netherlands with regard to national heritage policy and major spatial developments. Furthermore, CLUE has initiated a European network of leading research institutes On 1 September 2011, the first phase of CLUE (2007-2011) active in the field of heritage problems, the research of will officially end. In the following months, the previously the cultural landscape and urban environment, as well as set goals from the business plan of 2007, the development the contemporary transformation of the European cultural of the institute between 2007 and 2011, and the research landscapes and urban regions. Within that framework, results achieved in this period will be analysed and CLUE has searched for cooperation with other leading evaluated extensively. This evaluation will be carried institutes and centres with an international profile, such out at first under the guidance of an internal committee as the Institute for Forest & Landscape of the Faculty within the framework of the intended mid-term review of of Life Sciences of the University of Copenhagen, the the interfaculty research institutes of VU University. The research institute Topoi in Berlin, the Environmental outcome will then, in the spring of 2012, be presented to Sciences Group (ESG) of Wageningen University and the a visiting committee of leading experts and peers from Ename Heritage Center in Belgium. Between 2012 and the Netherlands, Sweden, England and the Unites States. 2017, CLUE intends to continue this cooperation and This committee will make a judgment - independently and further extend it into a European network for the scientific according to the international standards of scientific top research of long-term history, heritage and contemporary research in the fields of heritage, landscape and the urban regional developments. Incidentally, this concerns not environment - on the functioning of the institute since only research in European regions, but also scientific 2007, and make suggestions for the continuation of CLUE projects in for example Asia and North Africa. from 2012. In anticipation of this, in the summer of 2012 the board and management team of CLUE will develop a concept business plan for CLUE Phase 2, which covers [2] The social impact of heritage research the entire period 2012-2017. This business plan will subsequently be further developed in 2012 into a more In all its projects, CLUE explicitly pays attention to the detailed vision with goals and subgoals. The business potential value and meaning of its scientific research plan for CLUE Phase 2 will at least have the following for society. In certain cases, the research results are general goals at its core: translated into policy or applied to the social planning and reorganization of the landscape and urban environment. In other cases, the emphasis is on a more fundamental and [1] Acquiring a leading position in international, scientific critical reflection of heritage practices and policy, or on the research in the fields of history, heritage and the active involvement of social interest groups in the research contemporary transformation of the cultural landscape itself and valuation processes surrounding heritage. On 1 and urban environment. November 2010, one of CLUE’s projects received the Dutch Huibregtsen Award 2010 - the prize for the best and most In the past four years, CLUE has developed into the innovative scientific research project with a social impact leading institute in the field of scientific heritage in the Netherlands. In CLUE Phase 2 (2012-2017), CLUE research in the Netherlands, with its focus on the cultural intends to further shape the interaction between science landscape, the urban environment and the heritage of and society in heritage research by making this the number specific regions as a distinguishing quality. In this role, one starting point of its mission and vision. Moreover, CLUE acts as a pioneer in research proposals and as a CLUE will set itself a goal to operate in the ‘frontline’ of coordinator in the execution of large research projects; the thinking on the social value of humanities research, for the institute also advises social parties and governments instance by developing measuring instruments and criteria 31


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    AMBITIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT to test and judge scientific research projects on their social value. [3] Amsterdam as an international centre for heritage research In recent years, a productive cooperation on various subfields of heritage research has originated between research groups of VU University Amsterdam and the University of Amsterdam. This has, for instance, resulted in plans for intensive cooperation between the archaeologists and ancient historians of CLUE, the Faculty of Arts and the Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences (AGBA) of VU University, as well as the archaeologists of the University of Amsterdam, within one large and multifaceted research and education centre for archaeology and ancient history in Amsterdam. Furthermore, heritage researchers of both universities have worked together for some time already in a large research project on the heritage and history of war and conflict, which is funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). In CLUE Phase 2, this liaison between VU University Amsterdam and the University of Amsterdam will take further shape by making use of the distinctive profiles that both universities have developed with their heritage research. VU University will focus on the landscape, urban environment and the spatial dimensions of heritage, while the University of Amsterdam can contribute knowledge on the perspective of museum studies and archival sciences. A strong network for research and education in the fields of archaeology, heritage and landscape is an obvious choice in Amsterdam, not only because successful research groups in these fields have formed at the Amsterdam universities, but also because the city of Amsterdam wants to present itself more emphatically than before as a leading international heritage city with its own world heritage. 32


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    STAFF RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT STAFF You introduced the concept “terrorscape” into Dutch HERITAGE AND MEMORY OF THE WAR: A NEW FIELD OF research. Where does this concept come from, how widely ACADEMIC RESEARCH AND SOCIETAL INTEREST. PROF. can it be applied, and what is the added value of it for your DR. ROB VAN DER LAARSE JOINS CLUE. own professorship? Concepts, of course, have many inventors. I had already been interested for some time in identity, trauma and memory as well as in purity and wildness, related to 18th-century concepts of body and nature, late 19th-century fears of modernity, speed and degeneration, and the psychological shock of the First World War. Only later did I realize that traumatic memories could be seen as forgotten or neglected spaces or non-places, put outside our mindscape as something we do not feel to be related to, as in the case of Auschwitz and other sites of genocide. Yet, I felt a little uncomfortable with the Freudian connotation of trauma, suggesting traumatic memory as something deliberately hidden or sublimed. Therefore I found terrorscape to be a more objective concept for a Prof. dr. Rob van der Laarse, new professor Heritage and Memory of the War. place where terror has happened or was prepared. In other words, we should study what happened as well as how it has been remembered Many historians claim that the interest in the Second or forgotten, irrespective of the traumatic experiences and memories World War only increases as we get further removed in of witnesses, survivors, and perpetrators, because it is precisely this time from the war past. Is this true, and how can it be afterlife that needs research and reflection. explained? You are right, but only a decade ago historians as well as politicians believed that the public interest in the Second World What possibilities do you see to further expand the War would disappear with the fading away of the witnesses. That this research into the heritage of war and conflict from did not happen is indeed remarkable. Besides, instead of continu- within CLUE, in collaboration with NIOD, the University ity, from the 1990s onwards there has been a substantial growth in of Amsterdam and partners abroad? The research agenda I the number of war-related museums and heritage sites. This is often would like to carry out at CLUE originates from the NWO research explained by generational factors, such as the idea that grandchil- line The Dynamics of Memory, initiated by me and Frank van Vree, dren are curious about the world of their grandparents, but I prefer professor of journalism and media at the University of Amsterdam. a more dynamic explanation. Thus, in my view, three cultural trends Starting with a comparative volume under the same title in 2009, we might be significant: firstly, the so-called memory turn, more specifi- were able within two years, with financial support of the Ministry cally the Holocaust memory boom and the identification with victims of Health, Welfare and Sport and a range of museums and heritage of terror and genocide, as proclaimed in the Stockholm declaration organizations, to create twelve PhD and post-doc projects, of which of 2000; in the second place, the experiential and spatial turn with its four have already resulted in book publications, such as Dienke growing importance of memory and heritage sites, ‘authentic’ experi- Hondius’ Oorlogslessen (see page 49). At VU University, Dienke will ences, and root-tourism to historical places ‘where it really hap- initiate the following year’s new international research on Holocaust pened’, and thirdly, the recent digital turn, connecting memory and education and memory, while I am trying, together with Georgi Ver- heritage by way of a dynamic process of mediatization and virtual beeck, professor of history at Leuven and Maastricht and a team of experiences. More than ever, people are able and curious to experi- experts from other universities, to start up the international NWO ence personal stories from all parts of Europe on television, internet project Terrorscapes on European postwar transnational memory. or iPhone before even visiting historical sites or reading a history Besides the other projects of Dynamics of memory, carried out at the book. In short, local memories of war and conflict have become uni- University of Amsterdam and NIOD, I am hoping for synergy with the versal, as they are stored in the memory of the world. new VU University projects on the digital representation of the Atlan- 33


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    STAFF RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT tikwall, managed by Koos Bosma, and the archaeology of the Second THE AMPHIBIOUS CULTURE: A VISION ON DISASTROUS World War, managed by Jan Kolen. If this becomes a success, then I FLOODS. THE INAUGURAL LECTURE OF PROF. DR. PETRA think we have created one of the most flourishing European networks VAN DAM. on war heritage and memory, of which many young researchers will profit in the future. Petra van Dam What role does the Memorial Centre of Westerbork play in your plans? For my own research at the Westerbork chair it is important to realize that Westerbork is not only a historic site of the Nazi topography of terror, but also a present-day site of Europe’s postwar topography of memory, connecting the Jewish community of Amsterdam to tens of other Jewish camps in the Netherlands as well as the chain of West and Eastern European Jewish ghettos and concentration camps. Besides Westerbork, Vught, Amersfoort and most of the other camps in Europe also have a prewar and post- war history. From this perspective of their ‘other lives’ as intern- ment camps for political prisoners or fugitives, such as the Dutch Moluccans, they appear to have become contested spaces, as will be studied at VU University by my PhD student Iris van Ooijen within Prof. dr. Petra van Dam during her oration. a NWO project co-sponsored by the three Dutch memory camps. Although professionally familiar with Westerbork for some years, as a Westerbork professor I have gained more and more admiration for The Netherlands are prone to flooding, yet the number of the enthusiasm and passion of its director Dirk Mulder and his team, casualties in the past was often very low. Since the first giving all they get in research, education, remembering, exhibitions, written messages about floods in the sixth century AD, and heritage management. What I realize, when speaking with them hundreds of flood occurred, due both to high water levels at staff meetings or with Jewish camp survivors at Friendship days, in the rivers Rhine and Meuse and storm surges in the is that the war has not become historical culture, as it was for me as a North Sea. Yet only a few floods, about one per century, historian, but a living practice, in which the fire of a barrack in Veen- led to a high number of deaths, the most infamous being dam creates a world-wide support for a search for and replacing of the one of 1953 (nearly 2000 casualties). authentic barracks, and the conservation of the last authentic build- This implicates that the Netherlands were not so ing, the villa of the camp commander, an equal storm of protest! This vulnerable to this type of natural disaster. People had makes Westerbork topical - a dynamic laboratory for (art) historians developed specific cultural adaptations to cope with floods: as well as for cultural and heritage students and scientists. coping mechanisms as these are labeled in international environmental history research. People settled on natural Contact: r.vander.laarse@let.vu.nl. and man-made elevations like river levees and dwelling mounds. Also, they divided the land with compartment dikes (earthen walls). As a result, the flooded surface area was limited and moreover, the flooding slowed down so that people had time to retreat and bring some of their valuable goods such as cattle in safety. A third major adaptation was transport over water. Every farmer had a boat. As a consequence, even if large areas were flooded, provision of goods, communication and mobility 34


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    STAFF RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT of people was still guaranteed to some degree. Both in dry and in wet times, humans could move easily between the high and dry, and low and wet parts of the landscape: an amphibious culture. This inaugural lecture sketches the developments between 800 BC and today. Relevant questions are: are the Dutch still amphibious and what will happen when a major flood would occur in the future? The complete text is available through the homepage of Van Dam http://www.let.vu.nl/nl/organisatie-van-de- faculteit/wetenschappelijk-personeel/medewerkers-alfa- betisch/medewerkers-a-d/prof-dr-p-j-van-dam/index.asp. The team of the Knowledge Network Heritage and Space. From left to right: Joks Jans- Contact: pjem.van.dam@let.vu.nl. sen, Hans Renes, Olga Faber, Eric Luiten and Cees-Jan Pen. Petra van Dam is professor in the History of Water Management appointed as endowed professor Heritage of Town at the History Department of the Faculty of Arts at VU University and Country at the Faculty of Arts of VU University Amsterdam and a member of CLUE. Amsterdam; • Urban planner Joks Janssen has a professorship in Spatial Planning and Cultural History at the KNOWLEDGE NETWORK HERITAGE AND SPACE Environmental Science Group of Wageningen University; Koos Bosma & Monique Eerden • A fourth endowed professorship in Economic Evaluation of Heritage is based at VU University Amsterdam. The The research and education network Heritage and Space appointment procedure for this chair is still running. is the successor of the Education Network Belvedere. The initiative for this cooperation comes from three ministries Together, but from a different perspective, the chairs will (Education, Culture and Science; Infrastructure and the investigate how heritage and space can be connected: Environment; Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation) what solutions they offer each other, but also what fields and three universities (VU University Amsterdam, Delft of tension can occur. The aim in this is to broaden the University of Technology and Wageningen University). The existing network by seeking contact with other universities, Cultural Heritage Agency facilitates the network through research institutes and universities of applied sciences. the appointment of a network manager and secretary (Cees-Jan Pen and Olga Faber). Contact: je.bosma@let.vu.nl & m.eerden@cultureelerfgoed.nl. The academic part of the network consists of four professors: Koos Bosma is professor of History of Architecture and Heritage • Landscape architect Eric Luiten, who has filled the Studies at the Faculty of Arts at VU University Amsterdam and a Belvedere Chair at the Faculty of Architecture of board member of CLUE. Delft University of Technology since 2005, has been reappointed as part-time professor in Heritage and Monique Eerden is project manager National Redevelopment Spatial Design; Program at the Cultural Heritage Agency and precursor of the • Historical geographer Hans Renes has been research and education network Heritage and Space. 35


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    STAFF RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT FELLOWSHIP ACADEMIA Contact: prietveld@feweb.vu.nl. EUROPAEA FOR PROF. DR. PIET RIETVELD Prof. dr. Piet Rietveld is Head of the Department of Spatial Economics at the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration of VU University Amsterdam. Prof. dr. Piet Rietveld. In 2009, Piet Rietveld joined the Academia Europaea. This academy brings together eminent European scientists in the Humanities, Letters and Sciences, composed of individual members. Membership is by invitation. Invitations are made only after peer group nomination, scrutiny and confirmation as to the scholarship and eminence of the individual in their chosen field. Election is confirmed by the Council of the Academia. Members are drawn from across the whole European continent, not only western Europe. Members also include European scholars who are resident in other regions of the world. Current membership stands at around 2300. Amongst them are thirty-eight Nobel Laureates, several of whom were elected to the Academia before they received the prize. The mission of the Academia Europaea is to promote a wider appreciation of the value of European scholarship and research, make recommendations to national governments and international agencies concerning matters affecting science, scholarship and academic life in Europe, encourage interdisciplinary and international research in all areas of learning, particularly in relation to European issues, and finally identify topics of trans- European importance to science and scholarship, and propose appropriate action to ensure that these issues are adequately studied. The Academy will endeavor to encourage the highest possible standards in scholarship, research and education and further to promote a better understanding among the public at large of the benefits of knowledge and learning, and of scientific and scholarly issues which affect society, its quality of life and its standards of living. 36


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    STAFF RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT THE STAFF MEMBERS OF CLUE Dr. Fokke Gerritsen (landscape archaeology, archaeology of the Near East; also Netherlands Institute in Turkey, Istanbul) Researchers connected to CLUE: Myrsini Gkouma MSc (geoarchaeology, PhD student AGBA) Dr. Joris Aarts (Northwest-European archaeology) Dr. Sabine Go (economic-social history, post-doc Industrial Prof. dr. Jos Bazelmans (heritage studies, archaeological Heritage Den Haag) heritage protection; also the Cultural Heritage Agency) Dr. Maaike Groot (Northwest-European archaeology, Drs. Hans de Beer (PhD student AGBA) zooarchaeology; Veni post-doc) Marieke Berkers MA (art history; PhD student Schiphol project) Prof. dr. Erika Guttmann-Bond (landscape archaeology) Martine van den Berg Msc (geoarchaeology, hydrology; PhD Diederick Habermehl (Northwest-European archaeology; PhD student AGBA) student Villa Landscapes of the Roman North) Don van den Biggelaar MA (archaeology of Central America, geo- Dr. Stijn Heeren (Northwest-European archaeology; post-doc en bioarchaeology; PhD student Biography of the New Land) Odyssee Project Dorestad) Sadiah Boonstra MA (political history; PhD student Sites, Imke van Hellemondt drs. (architectural history, history of Bodies, Stories) landscape architecture) Jolanda Bos (archaeological site management, PhD student Dr. Wouter Henkelman (ancient history, classic; Veni post-doc) AGBA) Rita Hermans MA (heritage studies, ancient studies) Prof. dr. Koos Bosma (architectural history, heritage studies) Drs. Frasie Hertroys (history, PhD student) Drs. Josho Brouwers (Mediterranean archaeology; PhD student Prof. dr. Hans van den Heuvel (public administration) Mediterranean archaeology) Dr. Henk Hiddink (Northwest-European archaeology, landscape Dr. Gert-Jan Burgers (Mediterranean archaeology, landscape archaeology; PhD student Villa Landscapes of the Roman archaeology; also Royal Netherlands Institute in Rome) North) Iris Burgers MA (architectural history; PhD student Schiphol Hege Hollund MSc (archaeology; PhD student AGBA) project) R. Houchin MA (PhD student AGBA) Channah Cohen Stuart MA (archaeology of the Near East; PhD Dr. Dienke Hondius (history; post-doc Dynamics of student AGBA) Remembering) Prof. dr. Matthew Collins (biomolecular archaeology; AGBA) Prof. dr. Leo Huberts (public administration) Dr. Jan Paul Crielaard (Mediterranean archaeology, ancient Joost Huijs MA (ancient studies; PhD student On the efficiency of studies) markets for agricultural products: the case of Babylonia) Laura Crowley (Northwest-European archaeology; PhD student Dr. Rudie Hulst (public administration) Villa Landscapes of the Roman North) Dr. Miranda Jans (medical biology, bioarchaeology; AGBA) Saddha Cuijpers (prehistoric archaeology, physical Drs. Irene Janze (visual artist) anthropology; PhD student AGBA) Karen Jeneson MA (Northwest-European archaeology, landscape Prof. dr. Petra van Dam (economic-social history, water history) archaeology; PhD student Villa Landscapes of the Roman Prof. dr. Karel Davids (economic-social history, technical history) North) Dr. Ton Derks (Northwest-European archaeology) Dr. Harm Kaal (economic-social history; post-doc) Mark van Duijn MSc (economics; PhD student NICIS project Prof. dr. Henk Kars (archaeometry, geo- and bioarchaeology) Economic value of cultural heritage) Drs. Julie van Kerckhove (Northwest-European archaeology, Victor Enthoven (history) landscape archaeology; PhD student The villa of Hoogeloon Dr. Abdel el Makhloufi (economics; post-doc Schiphol project) and the settlement at Riethoven) Dr. Jaap-Jan Flinterman (ancient studies) Dr. Kristin Kleber (ancient studies; Languages and Cultures of Dr. Fredie Floré (architectural history) the Ancient Near East in the first millennium BCE) Michel Geertse MA Mr (architectural history, heritage studies; Maurice de Kleijn MA (spatial information, Project Intergrating PhD student Schiphol project) Heritage) 37


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    STAFF RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT Dr. Sjoerd Kluiving (landscape archaeology, physical geography) Dr. Mieke Prent (Mediterranean archaeology) Prof. dr. Jan Kolen (heritage studies, landscape archaeology) Prof. dr. Hans Renes (historical geography, landscape history; Drs. Irmgard van Koningsbruggen (architectural history, heritage also University of Utrecht) studies) Prof. dr. Piet Rietveld (spatial economics, transport economics, Annelies Koopman MSc (landscape archaeology, PhD student cultural heritage) Neolithic Fayum, Egypt) Jeroen Rodenberg MA (history, public administration; PhD Lisette Kootker MSc (osteoarchaeology; junior researcher AGBA) student Biography of the New Land) Karima Kourtit MBA (economics; PhD student NICIS project Matthias van Rossum MA (history, PhD student A World of Economic value of cultural heritage) Difference) Dr. Adrie de Kraker (historical geography, landscape history) Dr. Jan Rouwendal (spatial economics, cultural heritage) Prof. dr. Rob van der Laarse (heritage of War, heritage studies) Prof. dr. Nico Roymans (Northwest-European archaeology, Dr. Marco Langbroek (prehistoric archaeology; Veni post-doc) landscape archaeology) Faroek Lazrak MSc (economics; PhD student NICIS project Inger Schaap MA (history, PhD student War, Heritage and Economic value of cultural heritage) Memory) Dr. Bas van Leeuwen (ancient history; post-doc On the efficiency Dr. Freek Schmidt (architectural history, heritage studies) of markets for agricultural products: the case of Babylonia) Prof. dr. Henk Scholten (spatial information, social geography) Prof. dr. Susan Legêne (political history) E. Semelidu MA (PhD student AGBA) Daphne Lentjes MA (Mediterranean archaeology, landscape Dr. Steven Soetens (geoarchaeology; also Belgian School in archaeology; PhD student) Athens) Drs. Kees Linthout (honorary senior scientist at AGBA) Prof. dr. Bert van der Spek (ancient studies) Ruben van Loon Msc (economics; PhD student Biography of the Tular Sudarmadi MA (history; PhD student Sites, Bodies, New Land) Stories) Karin Lurink MA (history; PhD student De Winter Fonds) Fenneke Sysling MA (history; PhD student Sites, Bodies, Demelza van der Maas MA (cultural sciences; PhD student Stories) Biography of the New Land) Drs. Janneke Tump (history, PhD student The circulation of Dr. Heidi de Mare (comparative art sciences, cultural sciences) technical knowledge in Holland between 1400 and 1720) Sae Matsuno MA (architectural history) Prof. dr. Harmen Verbruggen (economics) Dr. Antoon Mientjes (landscape archaeology; Veni post-doc) Drs. J. Verhagen (PhD student AGBA) Marijn Molema MA (history, PhD student Regional Economic Dr. Philip Verhagen (geo-information, landscape archaeology, Politics in North Netherlands and Northwest Germany) physical geography) Prof. dr. Peter Nijkamp (regional and spatial economics, Dr. Wybren Verstegen (economic-social history, environmental economic geography, cultural heritage) history) Iris van Ooijen MA (history, PhD student Heritage of Loss: Dutch Prof. dr. Ginette Verstraete (cultural sciences) WWII Memorial Camps as contested space) Drs. Ronald Visser (history, PhD Arts and Crafts in Roman Prof. dr. Bauke Oudega (biology) Shipbuilding) Dr. Eleftheria Pappa (Mediterranean archaeology, ancient Machiel Vlasblom (history, PhD student Prosecution Jews) studies, post-doc Merging boundaries) Marc de Vleesschauwer (PhD student Developments and Drs. Jeremia Pelgrom (ancient history) Changes of Polders and Water Board Districts in Middle Dutch Harm Pieters MA (history; PhD student Biography of the New Flanders , 1600 – 1999 AD) Land) Michel Vorenhout MSc (environmental biology, geo- en Reinhard Pirngruber MA (ancient history; PhD student On the bioarchaeology; PhD student AGBA) efficiency of markets for agricultural products: the case of Drs. Yardeni Vorst (history, PhD Arts and Crafts in Roman Babylonia) Shipbuilding) 38


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    STAFF RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT Drs. Wouter Vos (ancient history) Management team (MT) of CLUE: Martine de Vries MA (archaeology of the Near East, Prof. dr. Karel Davids geoarchaeology; PhD student AGBA) Dr. Rudie Hulst Prof. dr. Douwe Yntema (Mediterranean archaeology, landscape Prof. dr. Henk Kars archaeology) Dr. Gerard Nijsten Prof. dr. Piet Rietveld Technical advice and support: Prof. dr. Jan Kolen Bert Brouwenstijn (graphic design and cartography) Jaap Fokkema (cartography) Board of CLUE: Benno Ridderhof (IT) Prof. dr. Anton Hemerijck Prof. dr. Bauke Oudega Daily Board (DB) of CLUE: Prof. dr. Harmen Verbruggen Prof. dr. Koos Bosma Prof. dr. Douwe Yntema Prof. dr. Petra van Dam Prof. dr. Jan Kolen Rita Hermans MA Prof. dr. Jan Kolen Advisory Board (The Netherlands): Dr. Gerard Nijsten Janny Rodermond Dr. Freek Schmidt Kees de Ruiter Sim Visser Henk van Zandvoort 39


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    PARTNERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT PARTNERS and provides counseling to students who plan to study abroad. THE NETHERLANDS INSTITUTE IN TURKEY (NIT) The facilities of the institute include a scientific library with extensive collections on the archaeology and history of Anatolia, art history, and the history and heritage of Istanbul. There is an auditorium where the NIT organizes and hosts lectures and conferences, and there are guestrooms for visiting researchers. Junior researchers can apply for a fellowship to conduct work in Istanbul. Much of the research conducted by the staff of the institute takes place within a long-term research project investigating the early farming communities of northwestern Anatolia (7th to 5th millennium BC). Currently, excavations are conducted by an international team co-directed by NIT director Fokke Gerritsen at the Neolithic settlement of Barcın Höyük. Several CLUE members take part in the geo-archaeological component of the project, aiming to situate and understand the settlement within its prehistoric landscape. In recent years, the NIT has begun to develop programmes in heritage studies, made possible by financial support from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture. There are good reasons and ample opportunities for Dutch and Turkish academic and civil-society organizations to collaborate within this broad field, regarding theory as The NIT is housed in Merkez Han, a building complex in the centre of the city. well as practice. The partnership between CLUE and the NIT is an important instrument for the institute to build bridges between heritage specialists in both countries. Fokke Gerritsen Contact: fa.gerritsen@nit-istanbul.org. The Netherlands Institute in Turkey (NIT) fosters higher Info: www.nit-istanbul.org. education and research in the history and heritage of Turkey through the ages. It has been located in the heart Dr. Fokke Gerritsen is director of the Netherlands Institute in Turkey of Istanbul since 1958, and is governed by the Netherlands (NIT), lecturer at the Faculty of Arts of VU University Amsterdam and Institute for the Near East (NINO) and Leiden University. In member of CLUE. addition to being a research institute, the NIT offers and hosts courses to Bachelor, Master and PhD students, in particular in the fields of archaeology, architectural history and museum and heritage studies. It also supports Dutch and Turkish academic institutions in their collaborations, 40


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    PARTNERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT NIEUW LAND HERITAGE CENTRE Here, it is not only the Heritage Centre that communicates, but the visitors themselves that share information: where grandparents tell stories to their grandchildren and children explain things to their parents. What is also very important in Nieuw Land is cooperation with different universities. CLUE is one of them. CLUE cooperates in research and lectures, for example: • The history and perceptions of flood disasters in the Zuiderzee area (CLUE at VU University Amsterdam) (2009-2012); • The surface of the new country. Concepts and tools for sustainable management and presentation of a ‘ Super archive ‘ of climate change, landscape formation and human habitation (CLUE at VU University Amsterdam) The New Land Heritage Centre in Lelystad. (2009-2012); • Ancestors in the polders - the biography of the new Arnaut Agema country and the perceived in science, culture and policy (CLUE at VU University Amsterdam) (2009- Nieuw Land presents and preserves the larger part of the 2012); archives and museum collections of Flevoland: a broad • The administrative design of innovative heritage in outline of the history of the Dutch province of Flevoland. the new country (CLUE at VU University Amsterdam) That fascinating history goes back much further in time (2009-2012); than often imagined. The collections of Nieuw Land • The regional identity of the New Country: economic include six-thousand-year-old archaeological finds development opportunities for the heritage of the from the days when Flevoland was still an extensive town and country (CLUE at VU University Amsterdam) marshland. The collections of Nieuw Land are unique (2009-2012). because of their wealth of information about the Zuyder The research of CLUE at VU University Amsterdam takes Zee Project, the closure and reclamation of the Zuyder Zee place in the context of the broader Research programme and the development of 165,000 ha. new land. Archives The Biography of the New Land in which also falls under with thousands of documents, photographs, films and the Heritage of the loss. Handling and destruction and soundtracks, implements, equipment, engravings migration around farms from the restoration period (CLUE and paintings are evidence of this largest ever land at VU University Amsterdam) (2009-2012) reclamation project. A new exhibition ‘Polderen!’ tells the story of the Zuyder Zee in a new, modern way. Apart from research, Nieuw Land also organized some lectures with CLUE/VU Connected. Lectures which took Nieuw Land will be a cultural market place where history place in Nieuw Land: can be encountered, and where there is an interchange • Ir. Ing. Marco Heijlligers: The Making of Flevoland between concentrated study, knowledge gathering and took place on the 31st of January; entertainment. This also means that the Heritage Centre • Drs. Demelza van der Maas: Identity in Flevoland. Drs. will be offering knowledge in many different ways and at van der Maas also had an interview with the regional many different levels. It is a place where people also go television, and an interview about this subject was together: as a family, in school groups, or study groups. placed in the newspaper NRC. 41


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    PARTNERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT Marketing for the lectures has been carried out with a special flyer which was widely distributed. Other marketing activities include a press release about the lecture and an announcement on the website and other social media (Linkedin, twitter). Info: www.nieuwlanderfgoed.nl. Arnaut Agema is director of the Nieuw Land Heritage Centre. CLUE ESTABLISHED COLLABORATION WITH TOPOI EXCELLENCE CLUSTER Sjoerd Kluiving Research areas of TOPOI Cluster. In contact with professor Britta Schuett, it was agreed in late October 2010 that CLUE and TOPOI should start a of both universities with the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy collaboration for European research grant applications. of Sciences and Humanities (BBAW), the Deutsches With the two interdisciplinary research groups these Archäologisches Institut (DAI), the Max Planck Institute institutions should be able to reinforce their research (MPI) for the History of Science, the Stiftung Preußischer programmes and apply for international projects, focused Kulturbesitz (SPK), and further partners. CLUE researchers on North-western Europe for example. The Excellence are now able to employ new initiatives and to establish Cluster Topoi is hosted by two universities: the Freie international interdisciplinary collaboration projects. Universität Berlin and the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Contact: s.kluiving@falw.vu.nl. The interdisciplinary research association investigates ancient civilizations from the 6th millennium BC to Late Dr. Sjoerd Kluiving is assistant professor at the Department of Geo- Antiquity. Issues in focus are: How did spatial orders and Bioarchaeology at the Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences of VU and knowledge develop? How are space and knowledge University Amsterdam and a member of CLUE. related? Within TOPOI more than 200 scientists from diverse disciplines, such as archaeology, geography, history, cultural studies, linguistics, philology, philosophy, THE ENAME CENTER FOR PUBLIC ARCHAEOLOGY AND theology, and history of science, investigate the formation HERITAGE PRESENTATION and transformation of space and science in about 50 research groups, which are pooled in five research areas. Dirk Callebaut In 2007 the cluster has emerged victorious from the so-called “Excellence Initiative” of the German federal The Ename Center grew out of the experience gained by the and state governments, and is funded by the Deutsche Ename 974 project, which is a comprehensive programme Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). of archaeological excavation, architectural restoration, multimedia interpretation and public outreach based in the The Cluster is based on a concentration of research capacity village of Ename, East Flanders, Belgium. The site is an in Classical Studies to be created by the close cooperation important heritage village that played an international role 42


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    PARTNERS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT Current projects include: • ICOMOS Charter for the Interpretation and Presentation of Heritage Sites (commonly known as the ICOMOS Ename Charter); • Local and international projects; • International heritage courses and conferences. Special attention is given to the project selected within the Culture 2007-2013 programme: Cradles of European Culture (CEC). In view of the exceptional importance of CEC a separate cell has been established within the non- General view of the heritage village Ename. profit institution, which will exclusively deal with the European project: Ename Center Francia Media (see also International Projects – Francia Media). during the second half of the 10th century and the first half of the 11th century as it was an Ottonian pre-urban settlement Contact: dirk.callebaut@enamecenter.org. along the Scheldt, at that time the border between East and Info: www.ename974.org; www.enamecharter.org. West Francia. Because of the integrated research of the archaeological, monumental and environmental heritage Dirk Callebaut is director of the Ename Centre and a partner of CLUE. linked to innovative public outreach Ename was awarded the European Heritage Label in 2007. As an international expertise centre the main mission of the Ename Center is to study and improve the relationship of heritage to society through: • Sustainable Interpretation (museums/sites/ monuments); • Public Dialogues and Community Activities; • Educational Programming; • Technological Applications; • International Heritage Policy. Themes & Projects The Ename Center’s work is focused on four main themes: • Memory and identity: how does the past shape the present? • Open access to heritage: how do we explore and understand the past? • Sustainable heritage: how do we preserve remains of the past for the future? • Who owns the past: what are the economic and non- economic values of heritage? 43


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    EDUCATION RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION INTERNATIONALIZATION HERITAGE STUDIES Koos Bosma The past two years have seen a lot of work on the broadening of the Master programme Heritage Studies. Apart from the standard programme for Dutch students, from September 2011 foreign students have the possibility to follow heritage courses in the English language, to a total of 60 ECTS. Some important extensions to the existing programme are the heritage excursion to Athens, for which international students and PhD students are recruited this year, and the courses `The Wadden Sea Region as a cultural heritage’ and ‘Post-war Terrorscapes’. Partly because of the contracting of two specialists - the new endowed professors prof. dr. Rob van der Laarse and prof. dr. Hans Renes -, the staff of the Master Heritage Studies can be classed in the category of the best and most internationally oriented university expertise of Europe. Contact: je.bosma@let.vu.nl. Koos Bosma is professor of History of Architecture and Heritage Studies at the Faculty of Arts at VU University Amsterdam and a board member of CLUE. 44


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    MEETINGS & CONFERENCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT MEETINGS & CONFERENCES concept of landscape biography is not easy to define, but is intriguing and stimulates new landscape research. A PECSRL 2010 CONFERENCE IN RIGA/ LIEPAJA, AUGUST publication of the papers of this session is planned within 22-27, 2010 the Landscape & Heritage Series (LHS). The 25th session of PECSRL will be organised in 2012 in the Netherlands. CLUE is represented in the Organizing Committee for the 2012 conference, which is chaired by J. van der Vaart (Frisian Academy). In a country with a troubled history, as is Latvia, heritage is always contested. The grey building was originally built in 1969-1972 on the town hall square as the Latvian Red Riflemen Museum, celebrating the Latvians that had fought Germany during the First World War and had joined the Bolshevik forces in 1917. The museum therefore symbolized the Soviet claims on Latvia. After Latvian independence the planned demolition of the building was Building occupation Latvia. cancelled after national and international protests. The building now houses the Latvian Occupation Museum. Hans Renes On the left of the photograph, a detail of the Black Head’s House can be seen. The house was destroyed in 1941, the CLUE members Jan Kolen, Rob van der Laarse, Antoine remains were demolished in 1948 and the site was planted Mientjes, Hans Renes and Philip Verhagen took part in with trees to destroy the remaining parts of the foundation. the 24th session of the Permanent European Conference After independence the house was reconstructed. for the Study of the Rural Landscape (PECSRL), at Riga and Liepaja (Latvia). The PECSRL conferences, the first Info: www.geo.lu.lv/pecsrl/home/statement. of which took place in 1957, are the oldest and most Contact: renes@geo.uu.nl. important meetings for scientists that study European landscapes. In line with earlier sessions, this very well- Hans Renes is endowed professor of Heritage Studies at the Faculty organized conference included keynotes, paper sessions of Arts at VU University Amsterdam, historical geographer at the and excursions. Faculty of Geosciences of the University of Utrecht and member of CLUE. The main theme of the conference was Living in landscapes: knowledge, practice, imagination. Under this umbrella, a number of more specific themes were formulated, focusing on themes such as landscape heritage, landscape history, landscape and environment, politics of landscapes and research methods in landscape studies. Within the conference Jan Kolen and Hans Renes organized a well-attended special session on The Biography of Landscape; a New Research Tool in Landscape Research. The speakers made clear that the 45


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    MEETINGS & CONFERENCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT CONFERENCE CAA Nederland, Leids Universitair Fonds, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster and Sensys. Geophysical prospection and remote sensing are very important fields for the detection and monitoring of archaeological sites and features, and have experienced rapid growth and development over the past five years. Furthermore, an increasing synergy between different prospection methods is seen because of the increase of available data sources like high-resolution multi- and hyperspectral imagery and LiDAR-based elevation models, and the use of new mobile sensor platforms (drones). Invited speakers from the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany presented high-quality papers on new developments and applications of archaeological remote sensing and geophysics. The keynote lecture was given by Professor Kenneth L. Kvamme (University of Arkansas). Almost 90 colleagues from Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria and the UK attended the conference. We hope to organize a similar conference in two years’ time. An overview of the lectures can be found at www.caa-d.de/ caanlde/index.html. Contact: jwhp.verhagen@let.vu.nl. Dr. Philip Verhagen is researcher at the Department of Archaeology of the Faculty of Arts at VU University Amsterdam and member of CLUE. Poster Conference CAA (Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeol- ogy). EXPERT MEETING ON PLAGGEN SOILS, VELDHOVEN- Philip Verhagen ZILVERACKERS On the 19th – 20th of November 2010, the two-day conference Sjoerd Kluiving “Behind the scenes: new developments in archaeological remote sensing and geophysics” took place in Münster On the 10th of September 2010 CLUE organized an expert (Germany). It was organized by the Dutch-Belgian and meeting on plaggen soil research in the Netherlands and German chapters of CAA (Computer Applications and abroad. Almost thirty interdisciplinary scientists from Quantitative Methods in Archaeology), DECARS (Dutch geology, archaeology and historical geography debated Expertise Centre for Archaeological Remote Sensing), and the current status of plaggen soil research. Currently and the Archaeolandscapes network. CLUE members Philip in the next years, a large-scale archaeological research Verhagen and Steven Soetens played an important role in programme is taking place in Veldhoven-Zilverackers, this. Financial support was provided by Digitaal Erfgoed the Netherlands. The city council of Veldhoven has the 46


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    MEETINGS & CONFERENCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT applying historical and archaeological research methods next to a suite of earth-scientific methods. The results of this expert meeting will be used to enforce the current research proposal of plaggen soil research in Veldhoven– Zilverackers. Publication: Kluiving, S.J. (red.) Expertmeeting akkerde- konderzoek Veldhoven Zilverackers. CLUE, VU University Amsterdam. Contact: s.kluiving@let.vu.nl. Dr. Sjoerd Kluiving is assistant professor at the Department of Geo- and Bioarchaeology at the Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences of VU Veldhoven-Zilverackers: probe trenches on a landscape scale suitable for plaggensoil University Amsterdam and a member of CLUE. research ©Fokko Kortlang. ambition and policy to attach a landscape ‘dimension’ ANNOUNCEMENT: LAC2012 IN BERLIN to this archaeological research, specifically including plaggen soil research. The plan area of Zilverackers offers an excellent chance to explore the transformation to the Late Medieval and Early Modern landscape, in a large area with a great variation in land use. During the meeting, after the seven lectures, the research proposal for the plaggen soil research was presented in a lively discussion across disciplinary boundaries. An important research objective is to establish how these open field systems developed opposed to the small-scale parceling of plaggen soils. How were fields subdivided and over which periods were they in use? Are soil type differences a consequence for differential types of fields and plaggen soil formation? Who were the initiators of the activities that started the The audience of LAC2010, in January 2010, at the auditorium at the VU University transformation process of the Late Medieval and Early ©Marco Langbroek. Modern landscape? The starting point for the expedition of the plaggen soil research is the fast transformation of the Sjoerd Kluiving landscape in the Middle and Late Iron Age, and the impact on structure and order of the landscape in later periods It was anticipated that the first international Landscape until the initiation of the plaggen soil. A related issue Archaeology Conference 2010 would be an inspiring event is the economic and demographic growth of the region that stimulated all to explore new topics and research in the Middle Ages. These developments prepare the lines at the interface of archaeology, earth sciences, landscape situation preceding the initiation of the plaggen historical geography and ecology. LAC2010 attracted soil in the years 1400-1600 AD. The research proposed is more than 220 visitors from different disciplines, and to excavate 6 to 8 pits of 100 m2 in the plan area while therefore this first edition can be considered as a great 47


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    MEETINGS & CONFERENCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT success. This made it clear that there is a strong need for interdisciplinary research, as well as the recognition of all disciplines to each other. Currently an international debate on future research themes in landscape archaeology has started which can be considered as an important result of LAC2010. The success of LAC2010 led to the fact that the Freie Universität Berlin in collaboration with the TOPOI Excellence Cluster accepted the organization of LAC2012 to continue this interdisciplinary initiative in the field of landscape archaeology. In the autumn of 2010, Sjoerd Kluiving (CLUE) visited the Freie Universität Berlin to discuss the future organization of LAC2012. Since this meeting in Berlin the organization of LAC 2012 has made some progress. The dates have been set for June 2012, including presentations on the 7th and 8th of June and an excursion on the 9th. Arrangements have already been made for the facilities. LAC2012 conference will take place at the Seminaris Campus Hotel in the University campus of Berlin. The mission of the organizers is to attract a similar spread of disciplines as LAC2010, as well as to attract more Eastern-European landscape archaeologists. Possibly the conference concept of parallel sessions will be adopted, although care must be taken not to separate disciplines. Contact: s.kluiving@let.vu.nl. Dr. Sjoerd Kluiving is assistant professor at the Department of Geo- and Bioarchaeology at the Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences of VU University Amsterdam and a member of CLUE. 48


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    PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT PUBLICATIONS commemoration activities. In fact, education about the war began during the war, as teachers and students continued LESSONS OF WAR. EDUCATION ABOUT WORLD WAR to meet each other in the classroom. Even in hiding places II AND THE HOLOCAUST SINCE 1945. NEW BOOK BY and in concentration camps a lot of educational activity, DIENKE HONDIUS sometimes very improvised but equally determined, continued to take place. From individual parents teaching their children to read and write, to academic lectures and debates in the camps, to lessons of teachers in hiding to students in hiding, learning continued, demonstrating encouragement and expressing hope for a future in freedom. Dienke Hondius’ new book ‘Oorlogslessen’ (Lessons of War) is about the lessons for young people in the post-war period: about hope, concern, expectations, and about what this meant in practice. The core of the study is an analysis of the role of eyewitnesses as teachers in transmitting knowledge and insight to young people in the classroom, in textbooks, and in guiding tours at memorial places, in museums and at exhibitions. Around 1980, the war generation became much more involved in these educational activities than before, and their voices were soon recognized as valuable first-person accounts and incorporated in a multitude of testimony projects. As the possibility to get into direct conversation with this generation is slowly disappearing, now is a good moment to reconstruct what they have tried to convey to young people and with which effects. This is the first book about the development of an educational memorial culture, focusing on the Netherlands, within an international context. The intense coherence between the lessons of war and national identity, pride and shame are analyzed. Every nation and age has its own focus and trends, but the longing for national pride can be found across and beyond Europe. The book provides an overview of trends in historiography Cover book Lessons of War. as well as a critical analysis of educational projects and encounters, including those that were well-intended but resulted in misunderstandings and intriguing frictions. Everyone who has gone to school in the Netherlands has The unintended consequences of these developments lead grown up with lessons about the history of the Second to clear-cut conclusions and recommendations for lessons World War and the Holocaust. The generation that was alive about the Second World War and the Holocaust in the near during those years was determined to tell young people what future, when the generation that lived through this will no had happened, and soon encouraged them to engage in longer be with us. 49


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    PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE HERITAGE AND HISTORY OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT 1ST PUBLICATION LANDSCAPE AND HERITAGE SERIES (LHS): THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE & HERITAGE PARADOX BY TOM BLOEMERS ET AL. Koos Bosma CLUE initiated a series of peer-reviewed books, proceedings and readers aimed at the international community of landscape and heritage researchers. LHS is an English-language series about history, heritage and transformation of natural and cultural landscapes anywhere in the world. The series is published by Amsterdam University Press. The series promotes new directions as well as the rediscovery and exploitation of Flag show during the Parade of Young People, 5 May 1960. lost tracks in landscape and heritage research. The first Proceedings in this series was published in 2010: Within CLUE, Dienke Hondius and Rob van der Laarse Tom Bloemers, Henk Kars, Arnold van der Valk and Mies coordinate the new Research Cluster on Memory of Wijnen (eds.), The cultural landscape & heritage paradox. War and Conflict Studies. In January 2010 a first expert Protection and development of the Dutch archaeological- seminar was held, and in January 2011 a presentation of historical landscape and its European dimension, existing and new research took place during the Graduate Amsterdam University Press 2010, ISBN 9789089641557. Seminar at VU University Amsterdam . One of the plans is The book is the result of an international conference, to make an international edition of Oorlogslessen/Lessons but can also be seen as the synthesis of the long-term of War, with the use of a lot of international source research project of the Netherlands Organisation for material acquired during the research phase of the first Scientific Research called Bodemarchief in Behoud en Dutch edition. Ontwikkeling (BBO), Protection and Development of the Dutch Archaeological Landscape Programme (PDL). Publication info: Dienke Hondius, Oorlogslessen. Onderwijs over de oorlog sinds 1945. Bert Bakker, The basic topic that is tackled in the book is to what extent Amsterdam 2010. ISBN 978-90-351-3579-6. we can know past and mainly invisible landscapes, and how we can use still hidden knowledge for actual sustainable Contact: dg.hondius@let.vu.nl. management of the landscape’s cultural and historical values. It has also been acknowledged that heritage Dr. Dienke Hondius is Associate Professor of Contemporary History management is increasingly about the management of at the Department of History of the Faculty of Arts of VU University future change rather than simply protection. This presents Amsterdam and member of CLUE. us with a paradox: to preserve our historic environment, we have to collaborate with those who wish to transform it and, in order to apply our expert knowledge we have to make it suitable for policy and society. The answer of BBO/PDL is an integrative landscape approach which applies inter- and transdisciplinarity, 50

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