avatar Wageningen Universiteit/ Wageningen University Services


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    Wageningen University Forest and Nature Conservation Policy Group Environmental Sciences Group P.O.Box 47 / Droevendaalsesteeg 3 6700 AA Wageningen The Netherlands Tel. +31 / (0)317 / 4-78004 Fax +31 / (0)317 / 4-78005 http://www.dow.wur.nl/fnp  Report 2004 (date: December 2004) Mission and objectives The Forest and Nature Conservation Policy Group focuses on policy processes underlying the various relations between forests, nature and people. Policy processes are interpreted in a broad sense as concerning decision-making processes of governmental, managerial or interest bodies from local to international level. Central departure is taken from the fact that forests and nature mean different things to different people. Representations of forests and nature in policy proc- esses and the related preferences are therefore time and space specific. The research and teaching activities aim at providing insights in the decision-making processes underlying forestry and nature conservation from four different perspectives: 1. in a societal perspective with a focus on the relation of social changes to forest and nature conservation policies, 2. in a governance perspective with attention to institution building and adaptation between the seemingly paradoxical calls for localization and internationalization, 3. in an organizational perspective with a focus on ‘sense-making’ in decision processes within organizations and interest groups, 4. in a community perspective with attention to the dynamics of community-based forestry and nature conservation systems. Through theoretically solid and methodologically sound research, our objectives are to develop: • improved conceptualizations of important or neglected aspects of forest and nature conser- vation policies • constructive critiques of, and inputs into, nature conservation and forest policy processes • suitable forest and nature conservation policy tools as well as methods. -1-

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    Main highlights in 2004 The year 2004 was a year of consolidation and further development of the chairgroup. During the period 2001 – 2003 not only the name of the chairgroup was changed from Forest Policy and Management to Forest and Nature Conservation Policy (FNP), but also major changes in staff composition took place. Furthermore, in this period the educational programme underwent major revisions due to the initiation of the new BSc/MSc teaching programme. All these changes were completed in 2003 and in 2004 the chairgroup was fully operational in its new constellation. A full description of the activities of the chairgroup can be found on Internet at http://www.dow.wur.nl/fnp. Research Within the framework of the further development of the research programme, already in 2003 much attention was given to the preparation of new research proposals; this continued in 2004. In 2004 three major research programmes were approved: • Within the framework of the Dutch Bsik research programme the project ‘Green blue net- works: coordination and design guidelines for achieving sustainable nature and recreation networks’ was approved. This programme will be implemented jointly with Landscape Ecol- ogy group and the Social-spatial Analysis group. Within the framework of this programme in October a new PhD research project ‘Recreation and nature’ was started. • Within the framework of the EU-6thFP-programme on policy relevant issues the project ‘Evalu- ating new modes of governance in European forestry (GoFOR)’ was approved. This project had been prepared together with the University of Vienna; additional partners are from Den- mark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Norway, Romania and Spain. The contract for the project was signed in December 2004. Within the framework of this programme one PhD stu- dent will be recruited. • Within the framework of the EU/INCO-DEV research programme the project ‘Forest manage- ment by small farmers in the Amazon, an opportunity to enhance forest ecosystem stability and rural livelihoods (ForLive)’ was approved. This project is coordinated by the University of Freiburg and includes additional partners from Spain, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. FNP will focus on the institutional aspects of the management systems. The FNP input includes one Dutch and one Sandwich PhD student. The project is expected to start in early 2005. Another scientifically approved research proposal concerned the project ‘Frankincense, myrrh, and gum arabic: sustainable use of dry woodland resources in Ethiopia’. This proposal was formu- lated under coordination of Prof. Frans Bongers (Forest Ecology and Management group) and submitted to the NOW/WOTRO programme on integrated research programmes. Unfortunately, due to financial limitations this project could not be funded; it will be reconsidered in the next round for research proposals in 2005. Education Within the field of education most activities concerned the consolidation and fine-tuning of new courses developed in the previous years; but also two new courses were developed on topics that were not yet sufficiently covered in the educational programme. This programme is predomi- nantly focused on students of the Forest and Nature Conservation curriculum of Wageningen Uni- versity. This curriculum attracts within the WU-context a large amount of students and is at BSc level student-wise the third largest curriculum. In September 2004 45 new students started the cur- riculum. In addition, the new MSc programme attracts a large number of students who obtained a BSc or similar degree from the Dutch professional colleges or from other international universities in Europe or in the tropics. In September 2004 42 new MSc. students started their MSc study Forest and Nature Conservation. FNP is one of the four major chairgroups providing education to stu- dents from the Forest and Nature Conservation curriculum. On average about 30% of the students select the specialization in ‘Policy and Management’ in which the FNP courses form the major component. Several of the FNP courses also attract students from other curricula. The great inter- est of students in the topics taught by FNP is reflected in a large number of students who carry-out their MSc. thesis research with the group; in 2004 33 students completed their thesis and in De- cember 2004 27 students were working on a thesis. The student Madeleen Husselman won on the -2-

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    basis of her thesis ‘Local perspectives on the domestication of indigenous medicinal plants’ (co- authored by Michel Postma) the NiZA thesis price for the best Dutch MSc thesis and proposal for follow-up research on development issues in southern Africa. A new educational activity regarded the involvement of Wageningen University in the recently started international MSc programme European Forestry. This programme involves cooperation between six European universities; it is coordinated by the University of Joensuu in Finland. FNP is responsible for several lectures in the general introductory course to this programme. It is ex- pected that in the future several students of this course will carry out their MSc thesis work in Wageningen. Internationalization In both research and educational activities the attention continued to be focused on forest and nature conservation policy processes and trends in the Netherlands as well as in Europa and tropical regions. This is reflected by the fact that about 50% of the MSc theses were based on re- search outside the Netherlands, and that 75% of the PhD students are of non-Dutch origin. The strong international orientation, without neglecting the Dutch roots, reflects the policy of Wagen- ingen University regarding internationalization. Staff development In the summer 2004 Prof. Heiner Schanz informed that he had been offered a new position at Freiburg University and that for personal reasons he had decided to accept that position. The positive developments that he initiated within the chairgroup were officially recognized when the University decided that the chair should be continued, and that the profile of the newly to be re- cruited professor should the same as the profile of the chair hold by Prof. Schanz. In autumn 2004 the recruitment procedure started and it is expected that by spring 2005 a new professor will be appointed. The positive attitude towards the work of the chairgroup was also reflected by the offer of the Dutch Forestry Board to fund the position of a guest lecturer at the chairgroup. The task of this staff member will be to further stimulate the interaction between the academic research and educa- tion and the professional forestry sector. -3-

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    Staff Research and teaching staff: • Prof. Dr. H. Schanz Regular Professor, Heiner.Schanz@wur.nl Head of chair group Until August 2004 • B. Kolijn Management Assistant Barbara.Kolijn@wur.nl • T. Ywema Technical Assistant Theo.Ywema@wur.nl • Dr. Dipl.-Fw. A. Blum Assistant Professor Andre.Blum@wur.nl ‘Economic Aspects’ • Dr. ir. B.H.M. Elands Post-Doc Birgit.Elands@wur.nl `Recreation and land use plan- ner‘ • Ir. M.A. Hoogstra, MTD Assistant Professor Marjanke.Hoogstra@wur.nl `Business Management’ • Ir. J.N. van Laar Research / Teaching Assistant Jim.vanLaar@wur.nl • Dr. ir. E. Turnhout Assistant Professor Esther.Turnhout@wur.nl ‘Policy Analysis / Science stud- ies’ • Dr .ir. K.F. Wiersum Associate Professor, Freerk.Wiersum@wur.nl ’Community Forestry and Rural development’ • Drs. M. Van der Zouwen Assistant Professor, Marielle.vanderzouwen@wur.nl ’(comparative) Policy Analysis’ • Drs. J. van Rijsoort Temp. researcher and lecturer Jeannette.vanRijsoort@wur.nl Until May 2004 • Ir. A.J.H. Willems Temp. researcher and lecturer Arno.Willems@wur.nl PhD-students: • T. Abebe, MSc PhD-student (Ethiopia) Tesfayeab@yahoo.com • Ir. C. Benneker PhD-student (NL) Charlotte.Benneker@wur.nl • Ir. S. van Bommel PhD-student (NL) Severine.vanBommel@wur.nl • M. Cocks, MSc PhD-student (South Africa) M.Cocks@ru.ac.za • Dr. E. Kreike PhD-student (USA) • E. Marfo, MSc PhD-student (Ghana) Eomarfo@hotmail.com • Ir. R. van Marwijk PhD-student (NL) Ramona.vanMarwijk@wur.nl Started October 2004 • R. Maryani, MSc PhD-student (Indonesia) Retno.Maryani@wur.nl • G. Nabanoga, MSc PhD-student (Uganda) Nabanoga@forest.mak.ac.ug • R. Shresta, MSc PhD-student (Nepal) Rajesh@snv.org.vn • Ir. E.E.M. Verbij PhD-student (NL) Evelien.Verbij@wur.nl • Y. Yasmi, MSc PhD-student (Indonesia) Yurdi.Yasmi@wur.nl -4-

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    Main research directions: The research activities of the Forest and Nature Conservation Policy Group are grouped around four different perspectives on policy processes underlying forestry and nature conservation: • “Forestry” and “nature conservation” in a societal perspective Empirical focus: relation of social changes to forest and nature conservation policies. Special attention to: social acceptability and communication, participation and represent- tation processes, and forest management and nature conservation between urbanity and rurality. • “Forestry” and “nature conservation” in a governance perspective Empirical focus: institution building and adaptation between the seemingly paradoxical calls for localization and internationalization. Special attention to: policy arenas and their interfaces, coordination-implementation para- doxes, role of information, conflict capabilities. • “Forestry” and “nature conservation” in an organizational perspective Empirical focus: ‘sense-making’ in decision processes within organizations. Special attention to: planning approaches and the role of intuition, time horizons and per- spectives, coping with uncertainties. • “Forestry” and “nature conservation in a community perspective Empirical focus: dynamics of community based forestry and nature conservation systems. Special attention: collaborative and joint forest management activities, adaptive forest man- agement systems. The chair group participates with its research in the Mansholt Graduate School as well as in CERES Graduate School. Research projects: The research projects of the chairgroup can be grouped according to four dominant perspec- tives in the research programme. Forest and nature conservation in a societal perspective • The “socialization” of nature conservation and the changing role of expertise Researcher: S. van Bommel (2003 – 2007, PhD-study, external) in co-operation with prof. Rol- ing. • Coordination of recreation in forest and nature management Researcher: B.H.M. Elands (2003 – 2006, Post-Doc) Mansholt GS • Green blue networks: coordination and design guidelines for achieving sustainable nature and recreation networks – subproject Recreation and Nature Researcher: R. van Marwijk (2004-2008 , PhD-study, Bsik-program)Manholt GS, in co-operation with prof. J. Lengkeek (SRA)and prof. P. Opdam (NCP) Forest and nature conservation in a governance perspective • Intersectoral policy co-ordination and multifunctional forestry Researcher: E Verbij (2001 – 2005, PhD study within COST-E19 “National Forest Programmes in a European Context”) Mansholt GS -5-

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    • Local governments and forest conservation in the East Kalimantan, Indonesia - an institutional analysis of forest policy decentralization Researcher: R. Maryani (2001 - 2005, PhD-study, Nuffic - Tropenbos Kalimantan Project) CERES GS • Managing forest conflicts – rationalities, power and institutions, case study in Ghana Researcher: E. Marfo (2002 - 2006, sandwich PhD-study, Tropenbos Ghana Project) CERES GS • Institutionalization of conflict capabilities in the co-management of natural resources Researcher: Y. Yasmi (2003 - 2007, PhD-study in co-operation with CIFOR) CERES GS • New modes of governance for sustainable forestry and nature conservation in Europe (GoFor) Researcher: M. van der Zouwen, E. Turnhout, 1 PhD-student (2005-2009 EU-FP6) • ‘Nature for biodiversity’ and ‘nature for people’: the practices of steering and the role of ex- pertise’ Researcher: E. Turnhout (2004-2008) Forest and nature conservation in an organizational perspective • Coping with time and uncertainty in forest and nature management Researcher: M. Hoogstra (2002 – 2006, PhD-study) Mansholt GS • Efficiency and efficacy in community-based forest conservation Researcher: C. Benneker (2003 – 2007, PhD-study) CERES GS Forest and nature conservation in a community perspective • Significance and development options for ‘Khoryia’ cultivation in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal Researcher: R. Shresta (1992 - 2005, PhD-study)CERES GS • Agro-ecosystem diversity and its effects on productivity and sustainability: the case of home garden agro-forestry systems of Southern Ethiopia Researcher: T. Abebe (1997 - 2005, PhD-study) CERES GS, in co-operation with prof. F. Bongers (FEM) • The dynamics of indigenous agro-forestry systems in Angola and Namibia Researcher: E.H. Kreike (1997 - 2005, PhD-study external) CERES GS • Gendered indigenous/local knowledge systems of utilization and management practices of forest resources in Uganda Researcher: G. Nabanoga (2000 – 2005, PhD-study, NORAD), in cooperation with prof. P. Howard-Borjas, CERES GS • Sense-making of community based forest management Researcher: K.F. Wiersum (2002 - 2006) CERES GS • Significance of household stratification on NTFP utilization and cultural practices – implications for bio-cultural diversity in South Africa Researcher: M. Cocks (2002 - 2006, sandwich PhD-study, SANPAD, International Foundation of Science) CERES GS • Stabilizing Forest Ecosystems and Improving Rural Livelihoods – Strategies for the Restoration and Management of Forests in the MERCOSUR (ForLiv) Researcher: K.F. Wiersum, C.E.B. Benneker, 2 PhD-students (2005-2009, EU-INCO-DEV) -6-

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    Publications • Blum, A. \ 2004 Forest functions In: Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences, Elsevier: 1121-1126 • Blum, A. \ Hoogstra, M.A. \ 2004: Das 'Programma Beheer' – von der flächenorientierten zur ergebnisorientierten finanziellen Förderung In: Forst und Holz 59: 385-389 • Bommel, S. van \ Röling, N. \ 2004 The Drentsche Aa in the Netherlands, SLIM (Social Learning for the Integrated Management and Sustainable Use of Water at Catchment Scale) Case Study Monograph 1, http://slim.open.ac.uk. • Bommel, S. van \ 2004 Social learning and the changed construction of nature conservation. In ‘Farming and Rural Systems Research and Extension: European Farming and Society in Search of a New Social Contract - Learning to Manage Change’, Conference proceed- ings of the 6 th European IFSA conference. Vila Real, 3-8 april 2004, pp 711 - 722. • Cocks, M.L. \ Dold, A.P. \ 2004 A new broom sweeps clean: the economic and cultural value of grass brooms in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. In: Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 13: 33-42. • Elands, B.H.M. \ O’Leary, T.N. \ Boerwinkel, H.W.J. \ Wiersum, K.F. \ 2004 Forests as a mirror of rural conditions; local views on the role of forests across Europe In: Forest Policy and Economics 6: 469-482. • Hoogstra, M.A.\ Schanz, H.\Wiersum, K.F. \ 2004: The future of European forestry – Between urbanization and rural development In: Forest Policy and Economics 6: 441-445 • Hoogstra, M.A. \ Flier, D. \ 2004 Kleine boseigenaren in Nederland - leefstijlen en beheer In: Vakblad Natuur, Bos, Landschap 1: 21-24 • Hekhuis, H.J. \ Schanz, H. \ 2004 Das produktorientierte Planungs- und Steuerungssystem des niederländischen Forstdienstes. [The product-oriented planning and controlling system of the Dutch Forest Service]. In: Forst und Holz 59: 389-393 • Schanz, H. \ Maas, D.W.\ 2004 Forstwirtschaft und Forstpolitik in den Niederlanden zwischen Verstädterung und ländlicher Entwicklung. [Forestry and forest policy in the Netherlands between urbanization and rural de- velopment]. In: Forst und Holz 59: 371-375 • Schanz, H. \ 2004 Sustainable forest management In: Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences, Elsevier: 1345-1350 -7-

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    • Turnhout, E. \ Hisschemöller, M. \ Eijsackers, H. \ 2004 The Role of Views of Nature in Dutch Nature Conservation: The Case of the Creation of a Drift Sand Area in the Hoge Veluwe National Park. In : Environmental Values, vol. 13, nr 2 : 187-198. • Wiersum, K.F. \ 2004 Forest gardens as an ‘intermediate’ land-use system in the nature-culture continuum: charac- teristics and future potential. In: Agroforestry Systems 61:123-134. • Wiersum, K.F. \ 2004 Social and community forestry In: Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences, Elsevier: 1136-1143 • Wiersum, K.F. \ Elands, B.H.M. \ O’Leary, T.N.\ 2004 What do urbanised and rural societies in Europe expect from their forests? In: International Union of Forest Research Organisation, IUFRO World Series Vol. 14, p. 233-253. • Wiersum, K.F. \ Elands, B.H.M. \ O’Leary, T.N. \ 2004 Landowners’ perspectives on the future of rural Europe: consequences for farm forest In: Freiburger Forstliche Forschung. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Contribu- tions of family-farm enterprises to sustainable rural development: 105-126. • Wiersum, K.F. \ Elands, B.H.M. \ 2004 Bosbouw en plattelandsontwikkeling. In: Vakblad Natuur, Bos, Landschap 9: 12-14. • Wiersum, K.F. \ Singhal, R. \ Benneker, C.E.B. \ 2004 Common property and collaborative forest management: rural dynamics and evolution in community for estry regimes In: Forests, trees and livelihoods14 (2/3/4): 281-293. • Nijland, D. \ Willems, A.J.H. \ 2004 Kooperationsstrukturen in der niederlandischen Forstwirtschaft In: Forst und Holz 59: 381-384 • Wijdeven, S. van \ Willems, A.J.H. \ Groot Bruinderink, G. \ 2004 Gaten in het bosbeheer In: Vakblad Natuur, Bos, Landschap 1(8): 18-19. • Yasmi, Y. \ 2004 Book review: Natural resource conflict management case studies: an analysis of power, par- ticipation and protected areas. FAO, Rome. In: Forest Ecology and Management 193(3): 427-428. • Wulan, Y.C. \ Yasmi, Y. \ Purba, C. \ Wollenberg, E. \2004 Analisa Konflik. Sektor Kehutanan di Indonesia 1997-2003 In: CIFOR publication , Bogor Indonesia -8-

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    Presentations • Blum, A \ 2004 Sense or non-sense? An economic perspective on timber production in the Netherlands. KNBV studiekring, 24 september 2004 • Elands, B.H.M. \ 2004 Call for local say in forest policies and programmes; European research on opinions on local say, public involvement and (desired) rural future for forests. International Symposium The evaluation of forest policies and programmes. EFI & IUFRO 6.12.00 Forest Policy and Forest Administration, Epinal, France, June 27 – July 3, 2004 • Nabanoga, G. \ Howard, P. \ 2004 Transgressing boundaries: gendered rights within forested landscapes in central Uganda. International Society of Ethnobotany Nineth International Congress and Society foe Economic Botany 45th Annual Meeting, Canterbury, UK. • Rijsoort, J. van \ Jinfeng, Z. \ 2004 Participatory Resource monitoring as a means for sense-making and social change in Yunnan, P.R. China. Paper Symposium on biodiversity and resource use monitoring for management in devel- oping countries, Copenhagen, Denmark, April 2004. • Verbij, E.E.M. \ 2004 The quest for inter-sectoral coordination and the evolution of new political structures. International Symposium The evaluation of forest policies and programmes. EFI & IUFRO 6.12.00 Forest Policy and Forest Administration, Epinal, France, June 27 – July 3, 2004 • Wiersum, K.F. \ 2004 The scope of improving forest-based livelihoods on the basis of non-timber forest produc- tion. Workshop on Non-timber Forest Products: potentials and prospects. Jimma University, Col- lege of Agriculture, Ethiopia, July 5-6, 2004. • Wiersum, K.F. \ 2004 Use and conservation of biodiversity in East African forested landscapes. Institute for Social and Economic research, Rhodes University, South Africa, September 7, 2004. -9-

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    Education The chairgroup is responsible for the following BSc-courses: • FNP-10806 – Social Concepts in Forest and Natural Conservation (in Dutch, 6 ECTS) • FNP-21306 - Business Management for Forest and Nature Conservation (in English, 6 ECTS)) • FNP-21806 – Introduction into Forest and Nature Conservation Policy (in English, 6 ECTS) • FNP-22303 – Forest and Nature Products (in English, 3 ECTS) The chairgroup also participates in the following joint BSc courses with other groups: • RDS-10306 – Introduction to the Use and Management of Natural Resources (in Dutch, BSc, 6 ECTS) • SAL-10306 - Human Dimension of Land-use (in English, 6 ECTS) • NCP-10806 – Forest and Nature Management I: introductory Field Course (in Dutch, 6 ECTS) • FEM-20909 - Forest and Nature Management II: Field course Management Planning (in Dutch, 9 ECTS) • FNP-30306 – StrategicPlanning in Forest and Nature Conservation (in English, 6 ECTS) • NCP-80812 – Bachelorafsluiting (in Dutch, 12 ECTS) The chairgroup is responsible for the following MSc-courses: • FNP-31806 - Forest and Nature Conservation Policy (in English, 6 ECTS) • FNP-32306 – Economic Aspects of Forest and Nature Conservation (in English, 6 ECTS) • FNP-5040x – Capita Selecta Forest and Nature Conservation Policy (in Dutch/English, 1-6 ECTS) • FNP-704xx - Internship Forest and Nature Conservation Policy • FNP-804xx - MSc-Thesis Forest and Nature Conservation Policy The chairgroup also participates in the following joint MSc courses with other groups: • TNV-31306 – Trends in Forest and Nature Conservation (in English, 6 ECTS) • FNP-31306 - Community Based Conservation and Rural Development (in English, 6 ECTS) • YES-60*06 – Academic Master Cluster Environmental Sciences (in English, 6 ECTS) - 10 -

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    MSc-Thesis The following MSc-thesis were completed in 2004: • Joana A. Ameyaw: “State forest policies and Local community use of forest resources in Ghana” (Blum) • Andi Indra Jaya Asaad: “Local institutional and property rights in mangrove forest rehabilita- tion in Sulawesi, Indonesia” (Wiersum) • Niek van den Berg: “Onzekerheid in bos- en natuurbeheer” [Uncertainty in forest and nature conservation] (Hoogstra) • Flores Boom: “Ontwikkeling van beheersplannen voor Natura 2000 gebieden” [Development of management plans in Natura 2000 areas](Turnhout, vd Zouwen) • Roel Boschma: “Discourses on self government in forest management by First Nation commu- nities in Brunswick, Canada” (Wiersum) • Jilske de Bruin: “Time perspectives in forest and nature management” (Hoogstra) • Alvaro Cabrera Paredes: “The importance of non-timber forest products in rural livelihood strategies. A case study in the Ampay National Sanctuary, Apurimac, Peru” (Wiersum) • Daan Cornelisse: “De discussie rondom de schelpdiervisserij in de Waddenzee verder belicht” [The discussion about the molusce fishing in the Waddensee] (Turnhout, van der Zouwen in co-operation with B. Ens, Alterra Texel) • Kim Dekkers and Rutger de Wolf: “Natural areas for livelihood improvement of local communi- ties in Romania” (Hoogstra, in co-operation with KNNV-Romania project) • Marie Djosetro: “Evaluation of the Galibi Nature Reserve Management Plan 1992-96” (Ottitsch) • Paul Eijskoot: ‘The use of scientific information by different interest groups in FNP” (Ottitsch) • Valle Cava Esteban: “Opinions on the role of non-timber forest products for the rural commu- nity of Lagunaseca, Spain” (Wiersum) • Caroline Frijlink: “Incense under fire, the fairytale of fair trade” (Wiersum) • Lilito D. Gavina: “The importance of non-timber forest products in rural livelihood strategies. A case study in the Ampay National Sanctuary, Apurimac, Peru” (Wiersum) • Arnaud Guidal & Adrian Peyre: “Dynamics and tree management in Kerala homegardens, India” (Bongers in coöperation with Wiersum) • Nicolette Hoogmalen: “Visie op de houtoogst. Het Nederlandse natuurbeleid in relatie tot de huidige economische situatie van de bos- en houtsector” (Willems) • Tessa Koppert:” Natuur voor Mensen?” [Nature for People?](Elands) • Ruben Kremer: “Beleving in beleid. Een verkennend onderzoek naar de toepassing van bele- vingsonderzoek in de beleidspraktijk” (Elands) • Susilo Kuncoro: “Sustaining a Traditional Practice. A case study of Prioritising Areas for Biodi- versity Conservation in Jungle rubber systems, Sumatra, Indonesia” (Hoogstra) • Mart Kwakkel: “Grondverwerving Natuurmonumenten” [landacquirement of Natuurmonu- menten] (Hoogstra) • Mirko Marseille: “ Learning from wildlife conservation conflict: issues, actors and empowerment strategies. A case study at Mole National Park in Northern Ghana” [Ottitsch] • Marcella Oerlemans: “Kinderen en natuur. Een onderzoek naar het natuurbeeld van kinde- ren” [Childeren and nature] (Elands) • Remco Pijper: “De rol van tropische bossen bij armoedebestrijding” [The role of tropical woods at the combat of poverty] (Wiersum) - 11 -

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    • Remco Polhuis: “Celebrities or Scientists? Reason(s) why and how there are both rational and emotional advertising strategies to sell a certain wood product” (Blum) • Koen de Rijck: “EU agricultural and nature conservation policy - consequence for acceding Central and Eastern European countries” (Ottitsch) • Wanne Roetemeyer: “The European Landscape Convention and the Netherlands, a perfect match?” (van der Zouwen) • Dickson Adjei Sakyi: “Local institutions participation in collaborative forest management. A Case of community forest committeees in Ghana” (Hoogstra) • Egbert Schram: “Hoe natuurlijk ben jij? Een onderzoek naar de bepalende factoren voor de houding, de kennis en het gedrag ten aanzien van natuur en milieu” (Willems ism Stichting Veldwerk Nederland) • Bibi Shagufta: “Intensity or Extensity in Forestry – Factors influencing decision-making on the the intensity of state forest management” (Blum) • Martijn Snoep: “The actual and historical relation between land usse and biodiversityt on the riverbank of the Tuxcacuexco River, Mexico” (Wiersum in co-operation with Gerard Ver- schoor, Rural Development Sociology) • Martijn Snoep: “De rol van bosbouw binnen plattelandsontwikkeling in de ogen van beleids- makers” [Policymakers’ perspectives of forestry’s role in rural development] (Elands) • Martijn Tak: “The management program; a waste of money?” (Blum) • Maarten Woltjer: “Time horizons of forest and nature managers” (Hoogstra) Ongoing MSc-thesis: • Yaw Boakye Agyeman: “ Social evaluation of ecotourism: the case of Bobiri forest reserve” (Elands) • Tefera Belay: “ The dynamics of indigenous beekeeping practice along landscape gradient in south western Ethiopia” (Wiersum) • Rob den Boer: “ Media analyse Drentse AA ontwikkeling” (van Bommel) • Duco van den Broek: “Conserving Costa Rica’s nature by privatizing it?” (Elands) • Melanie Brunigs: “Geïntegreerd bosbeheer, hoe verder?” (Willems) • Nathalia Eernstman: “Incorporation of indigenous knowledge in formal environmental educa- tion, the example of the AOFG programme on organic agriculture in NE India” (Wiersum in co- operation with A. Wals, EDU) • Daniel Ende: “Stromingen en beleid in de Nederlandse bosbouw sinds 1945” (Willems) • Nguyen Manh Hiep: “Participation of local people in protected areas management in Viet- nam” (Hoogstra in cooperation with Chris van Koppen, Environmental Policy) • Claire van der Hulst: “Public Private Partnerships as a mean to support natural resource man- agement - case of Argentina” (Blum) • Paul Lamers: “Behavior of recreationists in selecting routes in nature areas” (Elands and van Marwijk) • Sanne Lohof: “Hoe verschillende natuur- en milieuorganisaties wetenschappelijk onderzoek gebruiken om hun eigen standpunten te onderbouwen” (Willems) • Wouter Lubberts: “Relaties tussen de natinale politieke arena en internationale politieke arena m.b.t. bosbelied” [Relation between international and national forest policy areas] (van der Zouwen) - 12 -

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    • Wieneke Maris: “topic unknown” (Blum) • Alemayehu Negassa: “Trust and common property forest resource management” (Willems) • Marinke Paulussen: “The role of nature views and visions in establishing and implementing ac- creditation guidelines: the case of the Atlantic Whale Foundation at Tenerife” (Elands in co- operation with Mr. Ed Bentham, Atlantic Whale Foundation) • Rizki Pandu Permana: “ Land use rights as a reward option in market-based mechanisms of environmental service” (Blum) • Mathieu van Rijn: “Market based instruments for sustainable forest management” (Blum) • Md. Nazmus Sadath: “ The relationship in awareness of forest conservation and forest deple- tion, a case-study in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh” (Blum) • Arnel Sanchez: “Local Participation in Mt Isarog Natural Park – Phillipines” (Hoogstra) • Petra Schmitz: “Cross-boarder co-operation in forest- and nature policy, and the role of Natura 2000 in this process” (van der Zouwen) • Erik Stronkhorst: “Potentials of Livelihood activities and use of forest products, engaged within a mutually beneficial relationship with the tourism industry – within a broder perspective of links between forest related livelihood activities and conservation” (Wierum in co-operation with S.P. Cottrell, Socio-Spatial Analysis) • Dian Sukmajaya: “The effect of decentralization on forest certification efforts in Indonesia” (Blum) • Devesh M. Tripathi: “NTFP management in community forets in Nepal: comparison of official management plans and reality” (Wiersum) • Rene van der Vegt: “ Waarden in het Nederlandse natuurbeleid” (Elands in cooperation with Arjen Buijs, Alterra) • Jet-Anne Vos: “topic unknown” (Blum) • Frederik Winkel: “Compatibility of EU and member states’ policy regarding rural development and forestry’ (Elands and van der Zouwen) • Rutger de Wolf: “How do perceptions on forests and forest use influence the relation between indigenous communities and Community Forest Enterprises in Bolivia?” (Benneker and Wier- sum) • Jaime Lopez Wolters: “Investigate the community participation process in the TREES project in Los Angeles, California” (Willems, in cooperation with Loes Maas, Social Sciences) - 13 -

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