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2013 Annual Report
INEQUITIES IN DIABETES Rise in Diabetes Prevalence in China U.S. Adults Age 40 and Over with Diagnosed Diabetes who Reported Receiving the Four Recommended Diabetes Services 12 50 10 40 8 30 6 20 4 2 10 0 0 1980 1994 2001 2007 2013 2008 2009 White Black Hispanic Total Data Source: Yu Xu, et al. Prevalence and Control of Diabetes in Chinese Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality National Healthcare Disparities Adults. JAMA. 2013;310(9):948-959. Report, 2012 and Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2008-2009. Note: Four recommended annual services: two HbA1c tests, a foot examination, an eye examination and a flu shot. U.S. Adult Daily Intake of Recommended Daily Fruits and Vegetables Source: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009. Note: Adults age 18 and over are recommended to eat two fruits and three vegetables daily. ON THE COVER Toney McGilberry, a mechanic from Durham, North Carolina, is working to manage his diabetes with the help of a nurse practitioner from the Duke Together on Diabetes project. The nurse practitioner visits him in his home or – if more convenient for him – at his auto repair business. At each visit, she monitors his blood glucose, reviews his medications and together they discuss healthy eating and physical activity goals and options.
A Message from the President The global diabetes epidemic carries with it a particularly complex set of health inequities. There are inequities among populations experiencing high prevalence and poor outcomes; inequities in access to quality medical care, treatment and support; and inequities in the health environments and self-management resources surrounding people living with diabetes. The massive scale and chronic nature of diabetes exacerbate these inequities and require that strategies to address them be broad-based and durable and span clinic, community and home settings. As the Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation’s Together on Diabetes initiative marks its third anniversary, we are proud of the innovations and impact that our grantees are having on diabetes in their communities. Whether in China, India or the United States, they are all pursuing integrated and scalable approaches to achieve equitable and optimal diabetes outcomes. And they are doing so in partnership with people living with diabetes and a creative cadre of public and private sector organizations. Over the past year, new partnerships have been created to comprehensively approach diabetes at the neighborhood level in China, mobilize rural health promoters in India and integrate behavioral and mental health care providers into diabetes care models in the U.S. With the overall initiative and individual grants maturing and generating results, the Foundation and grantees have also sought new strategic partnerships to share lessons learned. For example, in the U.S., the Morehouse School of Medicine/Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation Partnership for Equity in Diabetes at the National Center for Primary Care was created so that stories, tools and lessons from completed grantee projects and other innovative efforts across the country can be made easily accessible to the broader diabetes, primary care, health policy and health equity communities of practice. Our third annual report provides an update on the initiative’s grantmaking and features stories about transformations in the diabetes response taking place at the patient, practice and community levels. The report also summarizes the impact of five grants focused on African American women from the first national request for proposals issued by Together on Diabetes in November 2010 and captures encouraging successes emerging from grantee projects in all three target countries. The U.S. initiative has committed more than $53 million to 25 grantees working in more than 60 communities. The China and India initiative has committed $4.4 million to 9 grantees with broad networks to reach, educate, serve and mobilize people and communities heavily affected by diabetes. Much work certainly lies ahead, but I sense that with the growing awareness of the scale of the epidemic and the human and economic costs, we are almost at a tipping point where understanding, urgency, commitment and action are about to converge and together we can begin to make strides against the global diabetes challenge. John Damonti President, Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation Vice President, Corporate Philanthropy, Bristol-Myers Squibb 1 Together on Diabetes 2013 Annual Report
Together on Diabetes U.S. Programs Uniting to Address Diabetes In more than 60 communities across the United States, Together on Diabetes grantees are bring- ing partners together from many sectors and disciplines to address diabetes. As we make site visits and talk with people in the grantee communi- ties, we see over and over again that their work is serving a much bigger purpose than implementing and evaluating innovative interventions: they are providing hope that the epidemic can be changed and catalyzing individuals and organizations to become robustly and urgently involved in the fight against diabetes. In Durham, North Carolina, Lula Evans a person living with diabetes and an outspoken community advocate, has turned her diabetes journey into an opportunity to help others. As part of the Together on Diabetes partnership with Duke and the Durham County (N.C.) Department of Public Health, Ms. Evans shares her story and tips for controlling diabetes with her community. 2 Together on Diabetes 2013 Annual Report
Duke University Medical Center Combining High-Tech Mapping with Knowledge consulted for their knowledge of the neighborhood, DDC of the Neighborhood to Target Diabetes calls in trained clinical care teams and community health integrators to provide resources and services within the When Lula Evans attended a health fair in November 2012 targeted communities. In addition to community events that was organized by the Durham (N.C.) Diabetes Coali- such as health fairs, the DDC’s clinical teams provide tion (DDC) at Ebenezer Missionary Baptist Church, her home visits for Durham County residents living with family and her health were on her mind. Several relatives type 2 diabetes. had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and Ms. Evans was concerned about her unquenchable thirst, frequent “The real strength of this project comes from marrying need to urinate and increasing fatigue – all symptoms of high-end, state-of-the-art geospatial health informatics the disease. with tailored interventions and community engagement that meets people where they live,” says Marie Lynn During the screening, Ms. Evans’ HbA1c level, a measure Miranda, M.D., professor and dean, School of Natural of glucose in the blood, was 14 percent, well above the Resources and Environment, University of Michigan. 6.5 percent threshold for a type 2 diabetes diagnosis. “Combining those two things is allowing us to gain At the health fair, Susan Spratt, M.D., director of Diabetes some ground in the fight against diabetes.” Services at Duke University Health System and physician The project continues to evolve and has exciting potential lead for the DDC, gave Ms. Evans a glucometer and a to identify patients at all levels of risk. prescription for diabetes medication and worked with her over several months to design a treatment regimen that “Two years ago, we determined who was considered at focused on ways to effectively self-manage the disease. risk based on anecdotal experience. Today, we use a risk Today, a year later, Ms. Evans is pleased that her efforts algorithm that analyzes secondary health data to identify to get more exercise, eat healthier foods and adhere to both high-risk and moderate-risk patients,” Dr. Spratt says. her medication regimen have lowered her HbA1c level The risk algorithm predicts the probability that a patient to 6.5 percent. will have a serious outcome in the next year based on Health fairs cast a wide net with the hope of identifying a number of factors: other medical conditions, lifestyle, and treating patients who may not have access to health insurance and lab data, and social environment. That takes care. However, the fair Ms. Evans attended was specifically the guesswork out of the equation for physicians when it comes to determining patient risk. Using secondary data, targeted to her neighborhood, which has a high concentra- the analysis can also identify undiagnosed diabetes. tion of people who are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes and best reached through community-based interventions. Duke successfully applied for a Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Health Innovation Award and received Her neighborhood was identified by a geospatial mapping $9.7 million in additional funding to implement and rep- system. The system was developed by Duke’s Schools licate the approach outside Durham County. Efforts are of Environment and Medicine and enhanced in conjunc- underway to implement it in Quitman County, Mississippi, tion with the University of Michigan’s School of Natural and Mingo County, West Virginia, in collaboration with Resources and the Environment. It is applied through the two other recipients of Together on Diabetes grants, as DDC – an alliance with Durham County Public Health well as in Cabarrus County, North Carolina. and a range of community and faith-based organizations. Their efforts are supported by a five-year Together on “Diabetes continues to be a major cause of death and Diabetes grant. disability,” says Robert Califf, M.D., vice chancellor for Clinical Research, Duke Translational Medicine Institute. Now in its second year, the geospatial mapping project “A big challenge has been in the area of implementing not only has changed the dynamic of how to mobilize a changes at both the individual and community levels to community around an epidemic, but also is introducing reduce risk factors and improve quality of care. We have a new paradigm for prevention. high hopes that this comprehensive approach will be suc- Patients who live in areas identified to be in most need cessful in turning the tide, leading to healthier communities often face significant barriers to health care. Once such with less diabetes and better outcomes for those who an area is identified and community partners have been already have diabetes.” 3 2013 Annual Report 3 Together on Diabetes
Together on Diabetes U.S. Programs Feeding America Helping People with Food Insecurity Eat Healthy to target, one with a high number of uninsured people as well as and Manage their Type 2 Diabetes a high number of people who use a hospital emergency room as Adults who are “food insecure” because of poverty or because a medical home. Food bank staff and volunteers offer diabetes they live in a “food desert” where healthy foods are scarce testing and those who have diabetes may sign up to participate – are twice as likely to develop type 2 diabetes compared to in the six-month program and receive a monthly box of food adults who have good access to healthy foods. specifically for people living with diabetes: 100% whole grain breads, lean dairy and meats, and fresh fruits and vegetables. For those who suffer from a medical condition such as type 2 The box also includes educational materials and recipes for diabetes, food insecurity often leads to inadequate nutrition, preparing some of the ingredients in the box. Additionally, those which can directly impact their ability to maintain their health. clients who need help accessing insurance and finding a doctor Eating healthy in the face of food insecurity can be difficult are referred to the food bank’s local health care partners. and, for those trying to survive from day to day, diabetes is often the least of their worries. “We wanted to provide healthier food options for people with diabetes,” says Georgiana Bradshaw, R.N., C.D.E., director When hard times hit retired Corpus Christi police dispatcher of the Food Bank of Corpus Christi’s Diabetes Hands On Becky Pena, 54, her neighbor suggested she visit the Food program. “It’s not special foods, it’s healthy foods. Through Bank of Corpus Christi for help. Ms. Pena was concerned this grant, we have been able to show people that this is what about eating a healthy diet, especially since she was having everyone needs to be eating.” trouble controlling her diabetes. Clients take a survey at the beginning of the program and The Food Bank of Corpus Christi is one of three food banks have their baseline HbA1c levels taken to give them an idea that are working with Feeding America – the largest hunger of how they are managing their diabetes. Diabetes classes relief organization in the United States – to pilot a three-year and cooking classes are offered during the program and an project to identify people with diabetes who rely on food educational video streams during visits to the food pantries pantries, provide them with healthy foods and educational to reinforce the important concepts of healthy eating and information about nutrition and diabetes, and connect them with health care providers. diabetes management. More than 1,600 people are participating in programs at the “By the end of the program, we have a good sense of their Food Bank of Corpus Christi, where the program was inspired, health status, what they’re eating, changes in their fruit and as well as at the Redwood Empire Food Bank in Santa Rosa, vegetable intake from the start to the completion of the program California, and Mid-Ohio Foodbank in Columbus, Ohio. and also their level of diabetes distress and whether they feel better equipped to manage the disease,” Ms. Prendergast says. When Ms. Pena started the Feeding America program, her HbA1c level (a blood-sugar measure) was 7.7 percent. After A major focus of the project was on creating bi-directional part- three months of receiving diabetes-friendly food boxes and nerships among the food banks and a network of clinics and education, she had lowered it to 6.3 percent. “The literature in other health care providers in their areas: the food banks refer the food box reminded me how important it is to eat properly patients for medical care and the medical practices connect and manage my own disease,” she says. “It made me realize patients who are diabetic and food insecure to the food banks. what I needed to do to keep my diabetes under control.” Lisa Blair, M.D., a physician at the Timon’s Ministry Clinic in Although final results are not in, interim reports like Ms. Pena’s Corpus Christi, which refers many patients to the Food Bank, are encouraging. Moreover, they are informing the program says the food boxes make it very clear what patients should model that eventually will be shared with all 200 of Feeding eat to help control their diabetes. “It’s a generous supply of America’s member food banks. “We will be able to tell food nutrient-rich food and it helps guide patients on what to eat banks, regardless of where they’re located, that by partnering even when they move out of the program,” she says. with health care providers and making certain foods and “Education and individual efforts are essential to changing education available to a client with diabetes, they can play health outcomes for people with food insecurity issues who a vital role in helping clients improve their health,” says Kim also have diabetes. These health care partnerships play an Prendergast, M.S., R.D., consulting project manager for the integral role. Public health, the health community and the food Feeding America Diabetes Initiative. banks are connected now, and that’s an exciting aspect to The program starts when a food bank identifies a neighborhood what we’re doing,” Ms. Prendergast says. 4 Together on Diabetes 2013 Annual Report
Georgiana Brad- shaw, R.N., C.D.E., (center) and Kate Hilliard, M.S., R.D., (left) review a self-management log with Becky Pena after a diabetes education class and food distribution at Wesley United Methodist Church as part of Feeding America’s innovative pilot to involve food banks and pantries in diabetes screening, care and support. 5 Together on Diabetes 2013 Annual Report
Together on Diabetes U.S. Programs Key Program Successes Despite the many challenges that the U.S. diabetes epidemic poses to prevention and control efforts, Together on Diabetes grantees are making headway one patient, one family, one neighborhood, one community at a time. Successes in the program come in many forms. Sometimes success is proving that a new model of care is effective. Sometimes it is creating a process to powerfully integrate clinic- and community-based care and support. Sometimes it is achieving meaningful improvements in health out- comes. Where the grantees are always succeeding is in their commitment to health equity and staying focused on the needs as well as the strengths and resiliencies of heavily burdened populations. Marie Gravely, a certified diabetes educator with Marshall University (left), teaches a person living with diabetes how to make healthy food choices on a budget at a local grocery store in Williamson, West Virginia. The Mingo County Diabetes Coalition is one of 10 in the Appalachian Region to receive fund- ing and technical assistance to deliver evidence-based community diabe- tes programs under Marshall University’s Together on Diabetes grant. 6 Together on Diabetes 2013 Annual Report
Communities Meeting the Challenge of Diabetes: Sharing Results and Successes As the Together on Diabetes grants mature, our grantees are clinical outcomes were impressive with an average HbA1c reporting important transformations and results at the patient, drop of 0.8%. Interestingly, among those patients who were practice and community levels. Our evaluation and quality assessed at the outset as being at the “beginner” level for improvement partner, the Work Group for Community Health disease and self-management understanding, the gains were and Development at University of Kansas has played a criti- even greater with an average drop of 1.2% in HbA1c. cal role in helping each grantee define indicators and centrally In Camden, New Jersey, the Camden Coalition of Healthcare capture information about their efforts to address equity, build Providers saw HbA1c levels among high utilizers of health care community capacity and support self-management behavior services and high-risk patients served by their project drop change. Here are some key interim results, aggregated across significantly – from 10.8% on average at the start to 9.4% at the grantees: the six-month assessment. They also were able to cut hospital 55 Communities expanded diabetes self-management admissions for this group from 13 prior to the intervention to programs for disparity populations two at the six-month assessment. This was achieved by locating 25,000 People living with type 2 diabetes served directly diabetes care managers in primary care clinics to help patients through grantee programs navigate needed services and engage the patients in DSME 541 Nonprofit and government partner organizations classes offered in community settings such as community mobilized to fight type 2 diabetes at the community level centers and churches. Up to 2.1% Average reduction in reported HbA1c levels for Self-Management Education and Support patients at program implementation sites to date The National Council on Aging (NCOA), Peers for Progress At the individual grant level, there are powerful success stories (PFP) and the American Association of Diabetes Educators and results to share for the core aspects of the overall initiative. (AADE) have each expanded access to DSME and support through innovative strategies. NCOA has partnered in Atlanta Outreach and Patient Engagement and St. Louis with the YMCA and OASIS, a network of senior United Hospital Fund’s (UHF) project in New York City’s centers, to offer DSME to more than 350 Medicare-eligible Washington Heights neighborhood focuses on engaging largely seniors through community-based group classes and online Dominican seniors living with diabetes in self-management classes. PFP and the National Council of La Raza success- education (DSME) while also linking them to resources for fully launched a Compañeros en Salud service for more than healthy eating and active living. After some initial difficulty 4,000 diabetics in care at Alivio Community Health Center in enrolling the target 1,200 patients in the demonstration project, Chicago. The program provides culturally competent care navi- UHF changed its approach from physician and senior center gation, emotional support and disease management education referrals to neighborhood-based outreach using “community through lay peers. street teams.” These teams were deployed to grocery stores, pharmacies and churches to directly engage seniors. Using this Community Supportive Services and Mobilization revised approach, UHF increased enrollment from 400 in the In Appalachia, Marshall University, working in partnership first 12 months of the project to 1,286 in the last nine months. with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Among this group, 524 have participated in DSME. Appalachian Regional Commission, has provided technical The Sixteenth Street Community Health Center in Milwaukee, assistance and minigrants to 10 community diabetes coalitions Wisconsin, is identifying and re-engaging patients who have a to develop community resources for healthy eating and active diabetes diagnosis but have fallen out of care. Sixteenth Street living so that patients can more easily put into practice what not only developed an outreach and re-engagement protocol but they are learning in diabetes self-management programs. The also examined and addressed the different barriers to care that STEP Diabetes Coalition in Graham County, North Carolina, need addressing by the health system, agency and patient. In significantly increased ”walkability” by engaging people living the first six months of the project, 503 patients were identified with diabetes, as well as schools, the Graham County Health and reached through community health worker calls, letters Department, U.S. Forest Service, the Eastern Band of Chero- and home visits and then reengaged in care. kee Indians, the Town of Robbinsville and town planning experts to build and improve walking paths and trails and to increase Improving Clinical Outcomes their use. In West Virginia, the Mingo County Diabetes Coalition American Pharmacist Association Foundation recently increased access to healthy foods by collaborating with local completed a three-year project to implement an evidence- businesses and government, health departments and economic based practice of pharmacist coaches called the Asheville development agencies to create a weekly farmer’s market, Model in 25 high-need communities across the U.S. The cooperative orchard, community garden and walking programs. 7 Together on Diabetes 2013 Annual Report
Together on Diabetes U.S. Programs Reﬂecting on the Impact of the African American Women Grants One of the Together On Diabetes core diabetes self-management education Each grantee tracked the impact of strategies for promoting innovative solu- (DSME) and community support. Their these models on clinical outcomes and tions for health equity is focusing on high- projects not only served African Ameri- self-management behaviors as well as risk, high-disease burden populations. can women but also engaged them to program goals. Key results include: advise and inform the interventions prior 1,458 Number of African American Because African American women to their implementation through advisory women reached with services represent one of the highest-risk groups boards and focus groups and to deliver (goal was 750) for type 2 diabetes, this population was interventions as community health work- the focus of Together on Diabetes’ first 7.1% - >10% Range of HbA1c at ers and mobilizers. baseline national request for proposals (RFP) in November 2010. In several projects, the patients them- 0.5% - 1% Range of average selves undertook efforts to help their improvement in reported HbA1c The RFP took a strengths-based communities. In Williamston, North across projects approach to African American women, Carolina, for example, Margaret Askew 38 Community health workers trained seeking to bring their resilience, spiritual (pictured above, far left) secured a and cultural traditions, and social bonds ✓ All of the projects expanded access classroom in her school building so that to bear on diabetes. The objective was to DSME by offering it in clinic and the project participants could meet as a to encourage, identify and promote community settings support group on the weeks when they culturally competent and evidence-based were not having formal DSME with their ✓ All the projects incorporated social approaches to empowering African support into DSME Community Health Ambassador. In Char- American women to improve control lottesville, the women in the University of ✓ All of the projects improved linkage of their diabetes while also taking into Virginia project helped create and were to community supportive services account the opportunity they have to featured in a video to promote “10,000 and resources for healthy living model self-management behaviors, impart Steps,” which is now part of a Move2He- The real impact is perhaps best revealed knowledge and positively impact the alth campaign in Albemarle County. through the voices an African American health of their families and communities. woman served by and serving in one of Each project undertook intense patient these innovative projects: Five organizations were selected (from engagement efforts and provided among more than 180 applications) to DSME. The supportive interventions “As a patient with diabetes for the past receive $300,000, two-year grants: ranged from using text messaging to 20 years, I have come to understand that Black Women’s Health Imperative send affirmations and self-management managing diabetes takes a lot of personal (Washington, D.C.), East Carolina efforts and discipline. Working as an behavior reminders and reaching affected University (Greenville, North Carolina), ambassador with the Together on Diabe- women through partnerships with women tes program helped me reach out to other University of Virginia (Charlottesville), empowerment organizations, shelters, members of my community struggling to United Neighborhood Health Services churches and housing developments to live a healthy life and going through the (Nashville, Tennessee) and Whittier incorporating a fitness professional into doors of emergency rooms as a result Street Health Center (Roxbury, Massa- the clinical team to work one-on-one with of an acute complication of the disease. chusetts). Over the past two years, these women on increasing physical activity Now, I regularly teach members of my grantees developed, adapted and imple- and training and deploying community community and church about diabetes.” mented a range of effective community- health workers as health coaches and – Linda, Community Health Ambassador, based models of patient engagement, resource navigators. Whittier Street Health Center 8 Together on Diabetes 2013 Annual Report
Together on Diabetes U.S. Programs New U.S. Partners and Projects During 2013, Together on healthy eating and active living Diabetes awarded new grants resources, and promote policy and provided supplemental WA ME changes by demonstrating funding to existing grants in OR MT ND MN VT the positive impact the PCMH NH the United States to promote ID SD WI NY MA RI model can have on health care WY MI health equity and improve IA PA CT NJ costs and outcomes. CA NE OH DE health outcomes for adults NV UT IL IN WV DC Understanding the Impact CO MD living with type 2 diabetes KS MO KY VA of Care Innovations on by advancing replicable and AZ OK TN NC Diabetes Prevalence Health Care Costs NM AR SC sustainable community-based MS GA <7 AL Johns Hopkins Center for 7.1 to 8 solutions. TX LA 8.1 to 8.9 American Indian Health 9 to 10.4 >10.5 NEW GRANTS HI AK FL (JHCAIH) received $1.29 mil- Depression, Distress lion to continue its work and Diabetes Click here to access an pioneering public health interactive version of this map. innovations in four tribal Type 2 diabetes and depres- communities in the Southwest. sion is a common co-morbidity community health, public health and Since 2011, JHCAIH has been associated with poorly controlled dia- primary care practice communities. working with 250 families to adapt a betes and suboptimal outcomes. The family health coach model for diabetes daily demands of managing diabetes Coordinating Self-Management that provides at-risk children and their can be overwhelming and take a toll on American Association of Diabetes families with medical care coordination an individual’s mental and emotional Educators received a $2.25 million, and culturally competent home-based health. Diabetes care models and self- four-year grant to design and test a DSME. The new grant will help JHCAIH management programs that help patients culturally appropriate and replicable evaluate the success of these efforts manage these conditions together can diabetes self-management program and support a health economics analysis improve well-being, quality of life and at community health centers. The pilot of the family health coach intervention. health outcomes. will employ two interwoven strategies: Supporting the Grantee Network Together on Diabetes awarded a coordinated care model of diabetes and Advancing Policy $450,000, three-year grants to the self-management education (DSME) National Network of Public Health following organizations to develop and and ongoing support services delivered Institutes (NNPHI)received $216,127 implement programs to address the by a multi-level team of professional to develop and host a two-day grantee management of diabetes, depression and lay health care workers. summit in 2014 and support the learning and distress: East Carolina University SUPPLEMENTAL GRANTS collaborative for Together on Diabetes (Greenville, North Carolina), Health Changing Diabetes in the Delta grantees. NNPHI also will continue to Choice Network of Florida (Miami, leverage its expertise and network to Florida), Regents of the University Mississippi Public Health Institute inform the annual summit and learning of Michigan (Ann Arbor, Michigan), received a $2.68 million, 3½-year grant community activities, provide leadership and University of Colorado-Denver. to pilot a Patient-Centered Medical and professional development opportuni- Dissemination and Replication Home (PCMH) model for Medicaid ties for grantees and enhance relation- patients who have type 2 diabetes in ships between grantees and the broader Morehouse School of Medicine Mississippi’s Delta Region. public health practice community. received a five-year, $2.1 million grant from Together on Diabetes to create Using findings from assessments of Harvard Law School Center for Health the Morehouse School of Medicine/ patients, caregivers, health care provid- Law and Policy Innovation received Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation ers, community leaders and policy $91,324 to expand its efforts to research Partnership for Equity in Diabetes. makers that were funded by a 2011 best practices, develop state and federal The partnership will share successful Together on Diabetes grant, the institute level policy recommendations for com- models and best practices emerging will expand access to DSME in Holmes prehensive diabetes care and support from Together on Diabetes and other and Attala counties, mobilize these com- and provide policy and advocacy techni- innovative programs with the broader munities to increase access to and use of cal assistance to grantees. 9 Together on Diabetes 2013 Annual Report
Together on Diabetes China and India Programs Focusing on Health Equity Changing lifestyles, low levels of disease awareness and prevention education and poor access to treatment are contributing to the growing prevalence of type 2 dia- betes in China and India, the world’s two most populous nations. Together these countries account for more than 40 percent of confirmed type 2 diabe- tes cases worldwide: more than 114 million in China and more than 61 million in India. Millions more are undiagnosed. In fact, the International Diabetes Federation estimates that globally as many as half of the people living with diabetes are unaware of their condition. The prevalence of diabetes in India has grown roughly four-fold since the early 1970s – from about 2 percent of the population in 1972 to 8.3 percent today – due to factors ranging from genetic pre- disposition to lifestyle and dietary changes. Together on Diabetes is working with five leading health care organizations in India to improve diabetes education, prevention and care and increase health care worker capacity in rural and tribal areas and among the urban poor. 10 Together on Diabetes 2013 Annual Report
MAMTA Health Institute for Mother and Child Lay Community Volunteers Offer a Ray of Hope The Arogya Kiran are not only trained in diabetes and for Health in Southeastern India hypertension prevention and aspects of maternal health, but also learn the importance of identifying “influencers” Venkateswarao Rao, a day laborer by trade, has long been an active community health volunteer in his village in in the village and in individual households who could Andhra Pradesh, India. Mr. Rao, 34, is an Arogya Kiran – help effect change, especially in diet, exercise and other in Hindi, literally a “ray of hope for health” – for the 5,000 health-related habits. people in his village’s subcenter. (Photo, Page 15) Dr. Sogarwal says the widespread use of tobacco, espe- Mr. Rao goes from house to house providing information cially chewing tobacco by men, and the use of ghutka – an to people living with type 2 diabetes to help them better addictive mild stimulant that mixes crushed betel nuts and adhere to their medication regimen and sometimes refers chewing tobacco – by women, are significant challenges. them to a larger health center for additional care. The impoverished population uses too much oil in their cooking and too few vegetables (about 60 percent of “I have an interest in serving society and feel I have a social those surveyed by the project had eaten vegetables only responsibility to serving my community,” says Mr. Rao, one once in the previous month). Also, only about 10 percent of 600 community volunteers in Andhra Pradesh who have get any regular exercise. been trained by MAMTA Health Institute for Mother and Child as part of a pilot intervention supported by Together “All these influence the high rates of hypertension and on Diabetes. “Some of my relatives and neighbors are diabetes in this region,” she adds. “Our other big challenge affected with diabetes and hypertension and I wanted to was to integrate an understanding of both modern medi- support them. cal practices and traditional AYUSH (an ancient holistic healing system) practices into our Arogya Kiran training, “I talk to decision makers in the family – often the women something that has never been attempted.” – about healthier food habits,” he adds. In Andhra Pradesh villages, about half of those suffering Andhra Pradesh is one of India’s largest states. Each vil- from hypertension or high glucose levels seek help from lage has subcenters whose most basic health needs are traditional AYUSH practitioners, Dr. Sogarwal notes, “so provided by a midwife, a male health worker and five health educators. Volunteers like Mr. Rao supplement their efforts. it is important, even if it is challenging, to integrate both medical practices into our treatment and community- MAMTA, a national organization based in New Delhi and based awareness methods.” operating in 14 Indian states, recognizes there are gaps and disparities in that support network and seeks to develop a Another Arogya Kiran, M. Chennamma, says: “In these community-based model to more effectively address them. villages 20 percent of the men and women suffer from In particular, MAMTA is working to raise awareness about hypertension and diabetes.” From her perspective, the a growing tide of type 2 diabetes cases and ensure appro- main risk factors are chewing tobacco and ghutka as priate treatments are available to help India’s vast rural well as alcohol consumption. population effectively prevent and manage the disease. She recently identified a young woman who chewed ghutka “We wanted to train both male and female community five to six times a day, with blood pressure and glucose volunteers to serve as a bridge between the community and levels dangerously elevated. With Ms. Chennamma’s help, the government health system,” says Dr. Ruchi Sogarwal, the young woman went to a district hospital for treatment, MAMTA’s project director. “We decided we needed to do and has stopped using ghutka and eating sweets. She is a better job to screen families within the village for diabetes better controlling her weight and getting regular checkups. and related non-communicable diseases, refer them to “Although the government is trying very hard, we have found medical professionals and help them change their lifestyles among the population only a limited understanding about to prevent problems or better manage their health.” diabetes, what causes it, how to treat it and what may pre- The project’s village surveys also found that those under vent it,” Dr. Sogarwal says. “That’s because we have been treatment were not receiving adequate community-based operating on an acute care model for too long and it is time, support so that they would adhere to treatments and follow from a community perspective, to create a continuum of healthier lifestyles. care approach. Arogya Kiran fit perfectly into that model.” 11 Together on Diabetes 2013 Annual Report
Together on Diabetes China and India Programs Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention Preventing and Controlling Type 2 Diabetes in Rural China my blood sugar through regular doctor visits and follow-up While the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in China is a growing education and intervention. I also hope to share my experi- concern, the issue takes on even greater urgency in the vast ences with other patients.” rural areas where nearly half of China’s 1.3 billion people live. Madame Guo, a 61-year-old housewife who was diagnosed with Nearly one in 12 adults in rural China has type 2 diabetes and type 2 diabetes six years ago, has had a hard time consistently the prevalence is increasing at a faster pace than in urban controlling her blood sugar levels. She also believes better edu- areas. Rural areas are less well-equipped to cope. They have cation about self-management could help. “Whenever I found far fewer resources to prevent or manage the disease and often my blood sugar returning to normal, I would reduce the amount offer less-effective treatment options due to cost. A scarcity of the medicine I was taking. If it went up, I would take more.” of rural health care providers and a poorer population whose The China CDC program’s community health workers advise growing medical expenses further exacerbate their poverty her to seek professional assistance before altering doses. compound these challenges. More also must be done to expand health care capacity in the “We need to develop effective and comprehensive measures district. While Dazu has about 2,200 health care providers, including diet, exercise, weight control, blood pressure and only four community health workers focus directly on non- glucose management to improve the quality of a patient’s life communicable disease management, especially diabetes. Yet and reduce the financial burden of the whole society,” says about 34 percent of adults in the district suffer from high blood Wang Linhong, executive deputy director of the National pressure, one-third are overweight and nearly 12 percent are Center for Chronic and Non-Communicable Disease Control obese. What’s more, while the local health system has identi- and Prevention at the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC). fied about 65,000 patients with diabetes, less than 20,000 are receiving any kind of medical treatment. Of those, only A project supported with a three-year grant from Together on about one-third admit that they regularly exercise, are careful Diabetes aims to do just that with a two-pronged model program with their diet and take their medicines. both to build rural health care capacity and to empower patients for more effective disease self-management. “Our hospital already uses every opportunity to create greater diabetes awareness,” says Zhong Caineng, director of a hos- The demonstration project focuses on villages and townships pital in Dazu’s Baoding Township. “Our doctors visit patients in Shanxi Province and Chongqing Municipality in western and central China, including the Dazu District. Dazu, located at home if they don’t seem to be following instructions, we in the western part of Chongqing, has a population of about promote diabetes knowledge when patients come in for immu- 1 million and encompasses 24 townships and three urban nizations and we instruct health care providers about offering neighborhoods. diabetes consultations during regular visits to villages.” Wang Erxiang, a 71-year-old retiree who has lived with diabetes But there are additional challenges that he hopes the Bristol- for more than 17 years, is among those who hope to benefit from Myers Squibb Foundation grant will help him address. “The the China CDC project. He used to be a member of a diabetes older people often are not open-minded,” he says. “They are patient club at the local People’s Hospital, but the club stopped reluctant to attend diabetes screenings and other activities, meeting, so he lost contact with others in similar circumstances. partly because of their educational background.” Mr. Wang knows he needs help managing his diabetes and Mr. Zhong also points to a need for more support from local believes the China CDC program will help. Managing blood government community workers or cadres. “Currently health sugar levels is important because, when left untreated, high management is not included in their regular work, but we need blood sugar levels can lead to diabetic complications such them to help motivate the involvement of villagers because they as damage to the eyes, nerves and limbs. are much closer to them,” he adds. “In addition, some cadres When Mr. Wang recently had his blood sugar levels tested, have no training in health management. We have to change that.” they were nearly 50 percent higher than an earlier test. Changing villager lifestyles won’t be easy, however. “The key “Yesterday, I enjoyed a dinner party, but didn’t take my insulin for diabetes management is to ask people to eat healthy foods,” injection,” he says, noting that the twice-daily insulin injections he says. “But when they start making more money, the first thing consume about 10 percent of his monthly retirement income. they do is eat more meat. People also use too much oil when “I believe this program will help me do a better job of managing cooking spicy food. It is a tradition and difficult to change.” 12 Together on Diabetes 2013 Annual Report
Together on Diabetes is working to enhance the capacity of rural health care providers to manage and prevent type 2 diabetes at the village level in Western China, where diabetes is growing faster than in China’s cities and where rising medical costs are an important factor lead- ing to poverty. The initiative also focuses on urban areas such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. One in six (16 percent) of Shanghai’s residents have diabetes, more than 6 percentage points above the national average. 13 Together on Diabetes 2013 Annual Report
Together on Diabetes China and India Programs Addressing Diabetes in China and India Click here to access an interactive version of this map. Like other developing and industrialized countries, China being provided to patients and health professionals and a and India face daunting challenges to stem the rising tide diabetes education tool kit includes easy-to-use tools such of type 2 diabetes. Changing lifestyles, health disparities, as a body mass index and a glycemic index of common low levels of disease awareness and prevention education foods are being distributed to the general population and and poor access to treatment are contributing to the the food and hospitality industry. growing prevalence of diabetes in the world’s most popu- Shanghai Charity Foundation’s efforts in Shanghai, lous nations. a city of 23 million people, focus on empowering the Working with government and NGO partners in China aged and the young and affluent in four lifestyle areas: and India, Together on Diabetes is promoting health equity eating healthy foods, getting regular exercise, eliminating and improving health outcomes among people living with smoking and alcohol consumption, and “keeping the type 2 diabetes by supporting empowering solutions that mind peaceful.” address local needs. Working with the Shanghai Center for Disease Control CHINA and the Shanghai Public Health Bureau in the city’s In China, for example, Together on Diabetes is working with Lianyang and Ruijin districts, Shanghai the foundation is the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention leveraging existing management systems and technology on a three-year project to enhance the capacity of rural to build, pilot and integrate a community-based model of health care providers to manage and prevent type 2 diabe- disease prevention and management that can be deployed tes at the village level in western and central China, where throughout Shanghai and other Chinese cities. diabetes is growing at a faster rate than in China’s cities. Technology is not only being used to measure, record and China CDC’s efforts in Chongqing and Shanxi Provinces analyze patient health data but also to help people better focus on identifying high-risk rural populations and ensur- manage their disease while on the go. The Shanghai foun- ing timely interventions to prevent disease onset. These dation is working with Shanghai Kunhao Technology to interventions include health care provider training, disease develop mobile communications platforms for physicians screenings and patient education. China CDC also is and patients and Ruijin Hospital is serving as a technical mobilizing government and community leaders to prioritize support center for community doctor training and patient diabetes disease management. peer leader training. Primary care providers in rural settings are being trained The community health center in Lianyang is providing to better communicate with patients about the need 12 free glucose tests a year to registered patients. About to prevent, treat and control diabetes consistent with 6,000 people were screened by July 2013 and patient national guidelines. Physicians also are leading patient self-management support groups established in both self-management groups that discuss healthy living habits Lianyang and Ruijin continue to grow as more diabetes and diets. Handbooks on diabetes self-management are patients are identified through expanded screening efforts. 14 Together on Diabetes 2013 Annual Report
Together on Diabetes China and India Programs Click here to access an interactive version of this map. In May 2013, the Beijing Diabetes Prevention and Treat- The Arogya Kiran are also working on a mapping and ment Association began a three-year project to pilot a screening exercise to gain a better understanding of the peer support model for diabetes that integrates lifestyle health status of each village while implementing various modification skills with social and emotional support. community interventions. School-based Arogya Kiran are Adapting the U.S.-developed Peers for Progress approach working with 100 schools to raise awareness and provide that employs peers who share similar experiences with health education and counseling on health topics, includ- a health problem, the model seeks to help patients better ing diabetes and hypertension. control their disease, lower the rate of diabetes complica- All India Institute of Diabetes and Research and the tions and reduce the financial burden of the disease for Swasthya Diabetes Hospital are working with the Indian both the government and individual families. Institute of Public Health on a two-year project called Also in May 2013, the China Soong Ching Ling Foun- Conquer Diabetes to improve access to diabetes educa- dation began a three-year project to pilot a new family- tion, prevention and care for patients using public health centric model for diabetes management that promotes centers in rural districts and tribal blocks and among the home and community-based education and interventions urban poor in Gujarat. anchored by outreach teams at 15 hospitals in Beijing, The project has trained nearly 80 public health care Shanghai and Guangzhou. The project seeks to prevent medical officers, including a number of AYUSH doctors, complications and reduce the socio-economic burden of and more than 800 paramedical staff at primary care and diabetes management for families and public health facili- urban health centers. These medical professionals provide ties by using the Internet and home visits to provide better care for 40,000 people. tools for both physicians and individuals for family-based The medical officers are using Skype for face-to-face disease self-management. communications with district or regional diabetes medical INDIA experts who can provide additional assistance as needed In Andhra Pradesh, MAMTA Health Institute for Mother for individual cases. The project also is documenting the and Child and its partner, Lepra Society, have trained 600 prevalence of diabetes in selected rural areas of Gujarat. lay community health volunteers known as Arogya Kiran Sanjivani Health and Relief Committee is conducting to provide diabetes risk-management education and family a household-by-household study in about 350 villages in counseling for non-communicable diseases such as rural Gujarat to identify people with type 2 diabetes, hyper- diabetes and hypertension. The volunteers are working tension and heart disease as part of a four-year project. in three districts encompassing about 600 villages. The project’s eight mobile medical clinics visit as many The project is also linking patients to health care providers as 13 villages a day and screenings are done at 14 cen- in order to promote healthy lifestyles, early detection and ters across the region. Patients diagnosed with diabetes healthy behaviors. receive free medicines and are monitored regularly. Some 15 Together on Diabetes 2013 Annual Report
Together on Diabetes China and India Programs receive additional health workups to detect possible about 800 community members, 10,000 adult work- organ damage. About 100 patients – most of whom ers from informal sectors and 2,000 municipal school are poor – receive free diabetes screenings each week. teachers in the city of Mumbai. The project also has conducted about 126 “camps” – Testing camps for early detection also are planned. village-level events offering fasting blood glucose testing A baseline survey of 74 villages in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, and patient counseling – with an average of 130 to 150 by Humana People to People found that about 70 people screened at each camp. Special camps are being percent of the 12,000 respondents had little knowledge arranged for various demographic groups (children in schools, for example) to increase disease awareness. of diabetes. Those who knew about diabetes learned about the disease because a family member is afflicted. United Way Mumbai Helpline is working on a two-year project to prevent, detect and manage type 2 diabetes Humana is working on a two-year project to increase among adults working in the informal sectors plus public awareness of diabetes testing and control measures, health workers and public school teachers in Mumbai. improve nutrition and enhance existing health services through in-home testing, door-to-door outreach educa- The project targets unorganized industry workers who tion and community activities that focus on healthy living. have limited access to health care facilities due to their Humana has registered more than 115,000 people and income or the nature of their employment. The project helped more than 35,000 through individual and group also targets public health workers and public school teachers who can influence children and their parents visits. More than 5,000 people have been referred to about diabetes. health centers for additional screenings and treatment. United Way Mumbai Helpline is mobilizing Angan- The project is using street plays based on local folklore wadi workers who focus on maternal and child care and community support groups called TRIOs to over- to include diabetes education along with the health come illiteracy and other obstacles among adults 40 education and nutritional services they already provide. and older. Each TRIO consists of a patient, family mem- Anganwadi are health workers from the government- ber and volunteer, who work together to help the patient sponsored Integrated Child Development Scheme who manage their disease. In addition, 100 self-help groups work in various communities. The project expects to involving more than 1,000 women focus on improving reach 2,000 Anganwadi workers, each of whom serves the dietary habits of women who cook for their families. 16 Together on Diabetes 2013 Annual Report
Grants and Partnerships The mission of the Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation Together on Diabetes is to promote health equity and improve the health U.S. Expert Advisory Council outcomes of populations disproportionately affected by serious diseases and conditions by strengthen- John Buse, M.D. ing community-based health care worker capacity, Director, Diabetes Center integrating medical care and community-based University of North Carolina supportive services and mobilizing communities in the fight against disease. Jo Ivey Boufford, M.D. President, New York Academy of Medicine Together on Diabetes grant funding is awarded to nonprofit organizations through invited requests for James R. Gavin III, M.D., Ph.D. proposals. The Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation Chief Medical Officer & Chief Executive Officer, and Together on Diabetes also welcome and seek Healing Our Village, Inc. opportunities to join forces and resources with other foundations and charities, corporate social responsibil- Kate Lorig, R.N., Ph.D. ity initiatives from diverse industries and government Director, Patient Education Research Center programs and agencies. For more information about Stanford University School of Medicine the U.S. program, contact firstname.lastname@example.org. For more information about the China and India Robert E. Ratner, M.D. program, contact email@example.com. Chief Scientific & Medical Officer American Diabetes Association For updates and to visit Together on Diabetes online go to www.togetherondiabetes.com George Rust, M.D., M.P.H. Director, National Center for Primary Care Foundation Staff Morehouse School of Medicine John L. Damonti, President Patricia M. Doykos, Ph.D. Mildred Thompson, B.S., M.S.W. Catharine Grimes Director, Center for Health and Place Beryl Mohr PolicyLink Phangisile Mtshali Ken Thorpe, Ph.D. Christine Newman Professor, Rollins School of Public Health Vivienne Stewart-Seaton Emory University Damon Young Lilibeth Zandueta Contact Us Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation 345 Park Avenue New York, NY 10154-0037 212-546-4000 Additional information and updates about the Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation are available online at www.bms.com/foundation. Together on Diabetes™ is a trademark of Bristol-Myers Squibb. Produced by Bristol-Myers Squibb Public Affairs. Copyright © 2013 Bristol-Myers Squibb Company. All rights reserved.
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