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    2004 A NNUAL R EPORT THE JOINT JAPAN/WORLD BANK GRADUATE SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM A Capacity Building Initiative for Developing Countries WORLD BANK INSTITUTE Promoting knowledge and learning for a better world


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    Table of Contents Mission Statement ..........................................................................................................................1 Message from the President ...........................................................................................................2 Message from the Vice-President, World Bank Institute ..................................................................3 Program’s Ties to Japan .................................................................................................................5 Program Highlights and Achievements............................................................................................6 Program Description ......................................................................................................................7 (a) Regular Program ................................................................................................................8 (b) The Partnership Program....................................................................................................8 PROGRAM PERFORMANCE & IMPACT .......................................................................................10 (a) Performance in the Regular Program, 1987-2003 ............................................................10 i. Development Themes ................................................................................................10 ii. Profile of Scholars, 1987-2003...................................................................................11 (b) Program Effectiveness and Impact, 1987-1998................................................................13 i. Impact on Capacity Enhancement .............................................................................13 ii. Impact on Socio-Economic Development ..................................................................14 iii. Costs of the Program.................................................................................................14 iv. Results, Conclusions and Recommendations of the Tracer Study VI..........................15 (c) Other Innovations and Outreach Modalities ......................................................................16 i. Website and Electronic Applications...........................................................................16 ii. Expanding the Website since 2003 ............................................................................16 iii. Video Conferences and Seminars ..............................................................................16 PROGRAM PERFORMANCE IN 2004 AND BEYOND...................................................................17 (a) Performance in the Regular Program in 2004...................................................................18 i. Profile of Applicants in 2004.......................................................................................21 ii. Reasons for rejections of applications and the lessons to be learned by prospective applicants ..............................................................................21 ii. Profile of Scholars in 2004 .........................................................................................21 (b) New Developments in 2004 .............................................................................................21 PROGRAM FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE .....................................................................................22 (a) Source of Funds...............................................................................................................22 (b) Use of Funds....................................................................................................................22 (c) Cost Per Scholar ..............................................................................................................22 (d) Length of Awards and the Effects on Program Financing .................................................22 OUR SCHOLARS .........................................................................................................................23 (a) Program Administration ....................................................................................................27 STEERING COMMITTEE 2004......................................................................................................27 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE REGULAR PROGRAM ...........................................................28 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMS..................................................30 APPLICATION PROCEDURES ......................................................................................................32 (a) The Regular Program .......................................................................................................32 (b) The Partnership Programs................................................................................................32 TA B L E S A N D G R A P H S TABLE 1 – JJ/WBGSP Scholars in Regular and Partnership Programs, 1987-2004.......................7 TABLE 2 – Partnership Programs ...................................................................................................9 TABLE 3 – Development Themes 2003........................................................................................10 TABLE 4 – Development Themes 2004........................................................................................19 TABLE 5 – Japan’s Allocation to JJ/WBGSP, FY88-FY04.............................................................22 FIGURE 1 – JJ/WBGSP Regular and Partnership Program Awardees, 1987-2004.......................9 FIGURE 2 – Profile of Scholars by Home Region ........................................................................11 FIGURE 3 – Profile of Scholars by Gender..................................................................................12 FIGURE 4 – Profile of Scholars by Average Age (as applicants) ..................................................12 FIGURE 5 – Profile of Scholars by Host Region ..........................................................................12 FIGURE 6 – Regular and Partnership Program Awards: Distribution by Home Region and Gender, 1987-2004 ............................................17 FIGURE 7– Profile of Scholars by Ineligibility Criteria, 2000-2004 ..............................................18 FIGURE 8– Profile of Scholars by Parent’s Education Level, 2000-2004....................................19 FIGURE 9– Profile of Scholars by Fields of Study, 2003-2004 ...................................................19 FIGURE 10 – Regular and Partnership Program Awards: Distribution by Home Region, 1987-2004 ...............................................................20 FIGURE 11 – Profile of Scholars by Employment Category, 2000-2004........................................20 FIGURE 12 – JJ/WBGSP Regular Program Female Awardees: Distribution by Home Region, 1987-2004 ...............................................................20 S TAT I S T I C A L A P P E N D I X Table A1 – JJ/WBGSP Regular Program Applicants: Distribution by Region and Gender, 1987-2004..........................................................34 Table A2 – JJ/WBGSP Regular Program Applicants: Distribution by Region and Country, 1987-2004 .........................................................35 Table A3 – JJ/WBGSP Scholarship Awards: Distribution by Region and Gender, 1987-2004..........................................................40 Table A4 – JJ/WBGSP Scholarship Awards: Distribution by Region and Country, 1987-2004 .........................................................41


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    M I S S I O N S T AT E M E N T The World Bank has long recognized that the development of human resources, and hence of institutions, is the most important factor in promoting sustainable economic development. The Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program awards scholarships for grad- uate studies to well-qualified mid-career professionals, who are then expected to apply and to disseminate the newly acquired knowledge and skills in promoting the socio-economic development of their own and other developing countries. 1


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    M ESSAGE F ROM THE P RESIDENT The Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program now sponsors nearly 600 scholars from around the world. The program is fully funded by the Government of Japan whose generosity enabled the number of scholarships awarded during the past year to increase by 15 percent. I would like to thank the people of Japan and their elected representatives for their continuing support of the JJ/WBGSP and the humanistic values it represents. The JJ/WBGSP scholars pursue studies in fields such as economics, education, public policy, child care, environment, public health, and agriculture—fields directly related to development and to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Recognizing that Africa faces many development challenges, the World Bank and the Government of Japan this year awarded more than 41 percent of the JJ/WBGSP scholarships to African mid-career professionals; and other awards have been made to African scholars by the program’s four partner universities in Africa (Cocody University in Côte d’Ivoire, Yaounde II University in Cameroon, University of Ghana and Makerere University in Uganda), bringing the total number of JJ/WBGSP scholarships in the region to more than 1,200 since the program’s inception. Again let me express my deep appreciation to the people of Japan for their enormous contribution in helping to build knowledge and skills among the future leaders and decision makers of the developing world. James D. Wolfensohn President, The World Bank 2


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    M ESSAGE F ROM THE V ICE P RESIDENT, W ORLD B ANK I NSTITUTE WBI supports the World Bank’s objectives by helping develop country capacity through sustained knowledge and learning programs that address important national and global priorities. WBI has increasingly focused its attention on some of the world’s poorest countries which sorely lack physical as well as human resources. The JJ/WBGSP supports the Bank’s poverty reduction goal by equipping highly qualified mid-career public sector professionals with the graduate-level knowledge and skills required to help accelerate the development process. The program has also aligned its strategy with WBI’s capacity development efforts by offering a higher percentage of scholarships to candidates from focus countries, especially those working in the public sector. This year, more than 50 percent of scholarships were awarded to applicants from these focus countries including Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Chad, and Vietnam. On behalf of JJ/WBGSP alumni, scholars, and their countries, I would like to thank the Government of Japan for funding the program for the last 18 years. In that time JJ/WBGSP has awarded more than 3,200 scholarships and Japan’s total contribution has exceeded US$130 million, an impressive measure of the Japanese people’s deep commitment to world development. Frannie A. Leautier Vice President, World Bank Institute 3


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    We, the undersigned World Bank Scholars, wish to sincerely thank the Government of Japan for offering us the scholarship that has enabled us to attend the Program in Economic Policy Management (PEPM), at Columbia University, and sharpen our policy analysis and programming skills that we are confident will be most useful to our countries on our return at the end of the summer. PEPM Scholars 2004 Program in Economic Policy Management Columbia University 4


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    T HE P ROGRAM ’ S T IES TO J APAN The Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program has its origins in Japan’s meteoric economic growth, and its astonishing transformation from World Bank borrower to major World Bank lender. When Japan joined the World Bank in 1952, the postwar nation was running chronic trade deficits. The next year, in 1953, Japan borrowed $250 million from the International Monetary Fund to tide it over hard currency shortfalls. Between 1953 and 1966, Japan borrowed $850 million from the World Bank to develop modern highways, the bullet train system and other projects. At one point, Japan was the Bank’s second largest borrower. “We have been striving to build modern Japan as it is, by implementing appropriate economic policies,” the Honorable Ryutaro Hashimoto, then Minister of Finance and later Prime Minister of Japan, explained at the World Bank-IMF annual meeting in 1989. During its development process, Japan became “fully aware of the importance of human resources.” “Japan’s loans from the Bank will be fully repaid in July, 1990,” Mr. Hashimoto announced. And he added, “Hoping that the developing countries will find something meaningful in this Japanese experience, I am pleased to announce that Japan is now prepared to contribute a total of about $300 million to the Bank over a three-year period.” The World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program is supported as a part of this fund — the Policy and Human Resources Development Fund (PHRD) — a Japanese initiative to provide special assistance to strengthen human resources in developing countries. Over the years, Japan has expanded its commitment to this endeavor. Meanwhile, it has contributed over $130 million to the World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program (renamed the Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program in 1995 to reflect Japan’s central role). These funds have covered tuition, subsistence, insurance and travel costs for scholars, as well as the costs of Program administration. Five Partnership Programs were launched in four universities in Japan starting in 1995. One, at Yokohama National University, draws on Japan’s special expertise in infrastructure development. Another, at the University of Tsukuba, focuses on policy management. Three others, at Keio University, Yokohama National University, and Saitama University/GRIPS, specialize in tax policy. These initiatives augment Japan’s commitment to human resources development in the developing world. 5


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    PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS AND ACHIEVEMENTS • 3,265 scholarships were awarded to professionals in over 150 host universities in 32 countries during the past decade and a half, including 423 in 2004. Over 590 scholars are currently receiving financial support (Table 1). Thanks to the scholarship, • About two-thirds of the scholars are from humble and poor I received the opportunity to obtain backgrounds. a highly professional qualification, developing and enriching my • Over 72% of the scholars are experienced public servants; many have worked in high decision-making capacities. previous knowledge and experience in the direction I desired. The • Scholars study in challenging socio-economic development themes, prestige of the education I was able including: to obtain, the overcoming of the o Development Studies/Economics; challenges and requirements I faced, o Public Administration/Public Policy/Management; o Environment; assured me of a fast-track start in o Health/Childcare/Gender Studies; my individual career and o Agriculture; development. o Infrastructure Management; o Information Technology; and o Education Milen Veltchev Minister of Finance • Increasing numbers of scholars are studying in higher education (Bulgaria) institutions in Europe (70%) and developing countries (7.4%). • Further outreach and capacity building was achieved through Partnership Programs with 11 partner universities where 808 scholars have studied. Four partner universities in Africa received training and support in instituting and offering their graduate programs (Figure 1). • 97% of award recipients have completed their degrees. • 83% of alumni are either working in their home country (78%) or in another developing country (5%). The ratio increases to 87% if we include working in the international organizations. 6


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    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program (JJ/WBGSP) was initiated 18 years ago as part of a special Fund—the Policy and Human Resources Fund (PHRD)—set up by the Government of Japan to encourage and strengthen human resources development in less developed countries. The program mandate is to provide mid-career professionals in developing countries exposure to the latest techniques and knowledge available through graduate studies. Upon completion of their studies, the scholars are expected to return to their home countries in order to apply and to disseminate their newly acquired knowledge and skills to enhance the socio-economic development of their countries. Scholars are not eligible for employment in the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund headquarters and field offices for three years after they finish their academic studies. The JJ/WBGSP utilizes two schemes of operation to deliver its mandate: The “Regular Program” and the “Partnership Programs.” TABLE JJ/WBGSP SCHOLARS IN REGULAR AND PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMS, 1987-2004 1 REGULAR P A R T N E R S H I P P R O G R A M S PROGRAM YNU- YNU- Abidjan- Subtotal Grand Years Columbia McGill CERDI Tsukuba INFRA Keio TAX GRIPS Cocody Yaounde II Makerere Ghana Harvard by Year Total 1987 31 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 31 1988 59 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 59 1989 54 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 54 1990 90 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 90 1991 87 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 87 1992 105 24 - - - - - - - - - - - 24 129 1993 117 26 - - - - - - - - - - - 26 143 1994 102 24 11 11 - - - - - - - - - - 46 148 1995 111 26 8 8 9 9 - - - - - - - - 60 171 1996 116 25 - 8 - - 5 10 - - - - - - 48 164 1997 122 24 8 - 10 15 5 - 5 - - - - - 67 189 1998 147 23 - - - - 5 10 5 6 7 6 5 - 67 214 1999 180 22 - - 10 15 5 - 5 - - 7 6 12 82 262 2000 277 14 - - - - 5 10 5 7 7 7 7 14 76 353 2001 115 15 - - 10 15 5 - 5 7 7 7 7 15 93 208 2002 117 14 - - - - 5 5 5 7 7 7 7 9 66 183 2003 270 13 - - 10 14 5 5 5 7 7 7 - 14 87 357 2004 357 15 - - - - 5 5 5 7 - 7 7 15 66 423 Totals 2457 265 27 27 49 68 45 45 40 41 35 41 32 79 808 3265 7


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    Regular Program This Program is very flexible and allows the scholars from the World Bank member countries to study in any host university of World Bank To the Government of Japan and member countries, except their home countries. Scholars may pursue the JJ/WBGSP team, a graduate study program in any socio-economic development field at the master’s level. The study areas have mostly included economics, I would like to express my sincerest public policy and globalization, sustainable development, including gratitude in granting me the JJ/WBGSP natural resources and environmental management, agriculture and rural which enabled me to pursue the Master’s development, urban and regional planning, infrastructure, and health, population, and education. in Public Administration in International Development (MPA/ID) at Harvard The Partnership Program University. Thanks to the generous financial support from the Government These programs enable the scholars to receive specialized graduate of Japan, both my knowledge base and training in selected universities around the globe. Scholars may pursue a skill set were enhanced and now I can master’s degree in themes related to economics and public policy and management; infrastructure management; public finance and taxation apply these valuable intangibles in policy; and public policy in international development (Table 2). helping solve complex development problems at the UNDP. Since 1992, a number of Partnership Programs have been launched in universities in Canada, France, Japan and the United States. The I would also like to extend my gratitude Programs in Canada and France were transferred, in 1998, to four to the World Bank for their assistance African universities located in Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana and Uganda. The Partnership Programs span the globe and address a and for their impeccable organization variety of development concerns. These programs combine academic and administrative support. Meeting Dr. rigor with specialized training in practical aspects of development Al-Mashat and Mrs. Grossas at the policymaking (Table 2). Harvard gathering in October 2002 was very important for me and the rest The Partnership Programs in Japan, which started in 1995 in four universities, further manifest Japan’s commitment to improving human of the scholars. They demonstrated all resources in the developing world. These programs draw on Japan’s the hard work that the World Bank team expertise in areas of infrastructure development, policy management, puts into this successful program and and tax policy which are all taught in English. they also showed how much care and interest they put into their scholars. Romina Bandura Public Administration in International Development Harvard University (Argentina) 8


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    TABLE PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMS 2 HOST COUNTRY UNIVERSITY PROGRAM SPECIALTY YEAR BEGUN YEAR CONCLUDED USA Columbia University Economic Policy Management 1992 Canada McGill University Economic Policy Management1 1993 1998 France Université d’Auvergne Economic Policy Management2 1993 1998 Japan University of Tsukuba Policy Management 1995 Japan Yokohama National University Infrastructure Management 1995 Japan Keio University Tax Policy and Management 1996 Japan Yokohama National University Public Policy and Taxation 1996 Japan Saitama University/National Public Finance 1997 Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS) Cameroon University of Yaoundé II Economic Policy Management 1998 Côte d’Ivoire University of Cocody Economic Policy Management 1998 Ghana University of Ghana Economic Policy Management 1998 Uganda Makerere University Economic Policy Management 1998 USA Harvard University Public Administration in Int’l. Devt. 1999 JJ/WBGSP REGULAR AND PARTNERSHIP Figure 1 PROGRAM AWARDEES, 1987-2004 450 Regular Program 66 360 Partnership 76 87 270 82 357 180 67 67 93 60 66 270 26 48 277 24 46 90 147 180 117 115 117 102 111 116 122 90 87 105 59 54 31 0 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Source: JJ/WBSP Scholar Database 1 The program at McGill was co-sponsored with the African Capacity 2 The program at the Université of d’Auvergne, Centre d’Etudes et Building Foundation (ACBF). It was taught in English, and focused on Recherches sur Le Développement International (CERDI) was also co- Anglophone Africa. The Program was later transferred to the University sponsored with the African Capacity Building Foundation. It was taught of Ghana at Legon and Makerere University in Uganda in 1998. in French, and focused on Francophone Africa. The program was later transferred to the University of Yaoundé II in Cameroon and the University of Cocody in Côte d’Ivoire in 1998. 9


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    PROGRAM PERFORMANCE AND IMPACT During 1987-2003, the JJ/WBGSP awarded a total of 2,842 scholarships for studying in 150 universities in 32 World Bank member countries, of which 2,100 were in its Regular Program and 742 in its Partnership Programs. Performance in the Regular Program, 1987-2003 The annual scholarship awards under the Regular Program grew from 31 in 1987 to 270 in 2003 (Table 1). Development Themes The JJ/WBGSP has strived to support human resources development in the developing countries by approving awards in critical areas that contribute to addressing the social, institutional, and economic dimension of poverty alleviation in the developing countries. While at the outset of the Program, the themes emphasized the economic, finance, planning and management aspects of development; the scope of the Program has extended in recent years to include studies in areas of sustaining environmental and social development; supporting infrastructure development; building strong and modern financial and information systems. Moreover, to further support the investment in people, studies related to health and population, as well as education are included in the scope of the Program. DEVELOPMENT THEMES AND POVERTY. Over 60% of the scholars in the Regular Program came from humble and poor backgrounds, where the parents had education levels of high school or lower. The majority of scholars (53%) studied economics, development studies, public policy, and management areas; followed by environment (16.7%); and health/childcare and gender studies (13.5%) (Table 3). In many cases scholars are pursuing degrees in fields directly related to poverty reduction. TABLE DEVELOPMENT THEMES 2003 3 DEVELOPMENT THEMES NUMBER OF SCHOLARSHIPS, 2003 (%) DEVELOPMENT STUDIES, ECONOMICS 73 (25.9%) PUBLIC POLICY, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, 73 (25.9%) MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENT 51 (18.1%) HEALTH, CHILDCARE, GENDER STUDIES 37 (13.1%) AGRICULTURE 22 (7.8%) INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT 12 (4.3%) INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY 7 (2.5%) OTHER (POVERTY REDUCTION, MEDIA, ETC…) 7( 2.5%) TOTAL 282 (100%) 10


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    Profile of Scholars 1987-2003 Regional Distribution and Gender Most scholars have come from the Africa region (a total of 969 or 34%), followed by East Asia (555 scholars or 20%) and South Asia (384 or 14%), where the majority of the world’s poor population lives and the poverty alleviation needs are most acute. East Asian countries received a higher number of awards during 1998-2000 in recognition of their financial crisis and in response to the urgent need for highly trained policy making personnel in this region at that time (Figure 2). Female scholars are historically outnumbered by their male counterpart (998 or 35% during 1987-03), but the gap has narrowed over the years (Figure 3). This improvement has been due to special efforts on behalf of the Program to look for qualified female candidates for awarding scholarships. Moreover, the scholars were mostly in their mid-thirties, a further reflection of the Program’s emphasis in selecting mid-career professionals (Figure 4). Most scholars studied for their Masters degrees. About 36% of the scholars attended host universities in Europe, especially in the United Kingdom, while a little under a half studied in North America, especially in the United States. A small but growing number of scholars chose to attend host universities in Australia and New Zealand and developing countries, especially in Asia, Africa, and Latin America (Figure 5). Figure 2 PROFILE OF SCHOLARS BY HOME REGION 45% Africa 40% East Asia & 35% the Pacific Europe and 30% Central Asia Latin America & 25% the Caribbean 20% Middle East & North Africa 15% South Asia Industrialized 10% Countries 5% 0% 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 Source: JJ/WBSP Scholar Database 11


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    Figure 3 PROFILE OF SCHOLARS BY GENDER 90% Male 80% 70% Female 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Figure 4 PROFILE OF SCHOLARS BY AVERAGE AGE (AS APPLICANTS) 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Figure 5 PROFILE OF SCHOLARS BY HOST REGION 80% Europe 70% North America 60% 50% All Other 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 12


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    Program Effectiveness and Impact 1987-1998 Studies tracing Program effectiveness and impact have been conducted since 1994. Tracer Study VI (2004), which covers the 1987-98 cohorts, has investigated the impact of the Program in enhancing the capacity and effectiveness of beneficiary scholars; as well as improving the socio- economic development of home countries. More specifically, the studies investigated whether a significant number of scholars funded through the JJ/WBGSP: • successfully completed their study programs and returned to their home countries or other developing countries; • were engaged in positions that disseminated the newly acquired knowledge and skills, and contributed to overall socio-economic development of their own or other developing countries. In addition, the Tracer Study VI discusses the salient cost considerations associated with the overall implementation and delivery of the JJ/WBGSP. Impact on Capacity Enhancement Impact on the capacity enhancement is considered in its multiple dimensions. First, the impact on individual awardees’ skills and knowledge, as measured by degree attainment rates, shows that 97% of the analyzed scholars attained their degrees (a total of 1074 scholars during 1987-98). There were no significant differences by gender, and only marginal variations across individual regions in degree attainment. Second, the impact on development environment, as measured by return rates to home or other developing countries, shows that 83% of respondents returned home or to other developing countries. The results improve to 87% if we include working in the multilateral organization as additional positive impact on development environment, along with return to home and other developing countries. Moreover, the impact on development environment, as measured by the type of employment institution shows that over a half of scholars returned to work in the public sector; while one-third of scholars returned to work at universities and private sector. In addition, there are indications of job mobility between institutions of employment after scholars return home to work. Third, the impacts on career progression and on job effectiveness, as measured by beneficiary scholars’ perceptions, show that scholars ranked the Program highly useful in terms of relevance to their jobs and to their countries’ development needs. The results were less encouraging in terms of career progression, promotion and higher income. Since most scholars returned to public sector after their studies, they were subject to public sector rules and regulations for promotion and salary increase in their countries. These rules are rather inflexible compared to the private sector and often it takes more time to recognize and provide merit to scholars in the form of promotion and salary increases. 13


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    Fourth, the impacts on the Partnership Programs and on Institutional Capacity Enhancement, has been varied. It is too early yet to evaluate the full impact of the Program on capacity enhancement of the Partnership Programs. Host universities, on the other hand, have in general benefited from the Program and the participation of scholars in various ways. For the majority, the presence of the scholars enriched the inter-disciplinary and multi-cultural character of institutions. In addition, the twinning partners devel- oped, experimented and added economic policy and management specialties and disciplines that seemed to be highly beneficial for other candidates as well as the institutions. Impact on Socio-Economic Development Impact on socio-economic development —as measured by contributions to policy and project manage- ment— illustrates that the majority of respondent scholars were working in positions that could influence the policy and developmental programs of their countries as intended by the objectives of the JJ/WBGSP. Moreover, the respondent scholars found their newly acquired skills highly relevant to their countries’ needs. In sum, the scholars are not only contributing to policy and management issues in their countries, but also have formed the requisite skills and the enhanced confidence for undertaking their responsibilities. Impact on socio-economic development, as measured by new and innovative approaches and initiatives pursued by scholars, shows that the majority of respondent scholars not only improved their skills and knowledge but also gained new perspectives and insight they needed to assist in their countries’ devel- opment. They increased their academic and professional partnerships, and developed useful contacts during their study period, which could be used to as conduit for new information and innovation exchange and dissemination. They also could take advantage of, and frequently did, being part of alumni community of both host universities and the JJ/WBGSP and take part in educational and other activities, which are now facilitated through the internet. Costs of the Program The total cost of the Program has varied over the years depending on: the size of new scholar intake and renewals of second-year scholars; increased costs at the host universities, as well as other service providers, for instance travel; inflation and exchange rate variations; and the availability of financing. The average expense per scholar was about US$30,000. These expenses do not reflect tuition waivers and discounts, ranging from 10% to 25%, obtained from various universities, thanks to persistent leveraging efforts of the Secretariat. Additional leveraging efforts, in terms of matching funds and partial funding, increase the impact of the program, in terms of number of scholars financed, by many fold. The total costs of the program also vary depending on the university selected and whether it is privately- run or public. Universities in the United States, Japan and United Kingdom are the most costly among the selected universities. At present there is no restriction on the part of scholars on the choice of the university, just so long as they have admissions, but the average cost per student has remained stable due to shift in the choice of host universities by scholars from American to those of European and other developing countries. 14


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    that the positive results obtained through the program have Results, Conclusions and Recommendations been sustained and the scholars continue to work in areas that of the Tracer Study VI contribute to development. The overall results of the analysis were highly favorable: 97% of There were some lessons learned from the process and the scholars attained their degree; 83% returned to home or recommendations, however. other developing countries (87% if we include international organizations); 62% returned to work for public sector, including First, extensive efforts went into tracking and contacting the universities; while another 17% chose to work in NGOs and the individual scholar. There should be a mechanism instituted to private sector; and the majority of their work involved providing oblige and gauge the scholars to maintain contact policy input, dissemination and management services. with the Secretariat. This mechanism may range from formal Moreover, the responding scholars found the knowledge and obligation at the skills gained during their studies highly useful and relevant to their time the scholar- jobs, and to the development needs of their countries. The schol- ship is offered, to ars also benefited from improved confidence; and forging useful stepping up the academic and professional contacts, and partnerships, which process of providing may be used in improving their effectiveness in discharging their regular opportunities duties. for alumni to register and attend short There were institutional gains for universities, in terms of enriching courses and forum, their cultural exposures as well as experimenting with and intro- perhaps electronically ducing new courses. There were opportunities for “twinning” through web, if not in between developed and developing countries’ universities, which person. brought about valuable lessons for different parties. The institu- tional capacity enhancement is a gradual and iterative process, Second, continuous effort which at time may be challenging, but the payoff is valuable and should be made to collect worth the effort. Such is the case for the African partnership “before” as well as “after” graduation data, to improve the analy- capacity enhancement experience. sis of the future tracer studies. Data can be collected for the type of institutions, nature of work, ranks of the scholars. This data will In conclusion, The Tracer Study VI reiterated that JJ/WBGSP is provide more thorough understanding of the impact of the one of the few development-focused scholarship programs that Program on both scholars and their employment institutions. provide the recipients –mid-career professionals– from the devel- oping countries with the enhanced knowledge and skills; expo- Third, it is imperative to document the data and the operational sure, and confidence needed to serve their countries. Rigorous modality of the databases to ensure continuity and integrity of selection policy and the management of process, including its information, and to ease the preparation of the follow-up tracer high volume logistics, ensures quality at entry; and the two-year studies. scholarship duration limitation, recent employment restriction at the World Bank and the IMF and specific visa requirement, ensure Fourth, individual and group tracer studies at conclusion of the that the scholars return home after completing their studies. African Partnership Program would provide invaluable lessons from these experiences and may be publicized for the developing It is, therefore, of little surprise that an overwhelming majority of countries who intend to follow “twinning” routes. They will also scholars in fact attain their degree, return to their countries, and provide the information and mechanism to improve the perform- engage in gainful employment which contributes to the socio- ance of existing programs. development of their countries, as shown in this report. Contacts with alumni, anecdotal evidence and testimonials have shown 15


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    Other Innovations and Outreach Modalities Website and Electronic Applications To further enhance its outreach efforts, the JJ/WBGSP launched its website in 2001. In addition to providing information on the nature of the scholarships through Regular and Partnerships Programs, applications can now be downloaded directly from the website3. The website has been popular; according to the web statistics reports of the World Bank Institute, between July 2003 and June 2004, there were 1,431,854 page requests from visitors to the scholarship website, 190,193 download requests, and 86,488 visitors used the on-line application form. During this period, the JJ/WBGSP website was consistently ranked among the top three most visited sites within the World Bank Institute. Expanding the Website since 2003 During 2003, significant enhancements were made to the website. An on- line application form was implemented so that applicants could apply via the internet. When entering their information, applicants get automatic validation of their entries based on JJ/WBGSP eligibility criteria. To increase the audience and to provide information on JJ/WBGSP activities the Secretariat now periodically issues Newsletters. Participants can sign up for the Newsletter on-line or send an email to the Secretariat. Another step taken to increase participation over the internet was the creation of a web- based Discussion Forum. The forum was initiated as a platform to engage participants in discussions ranging from development issues to their personal experiences with their programs of study. Discussion topics that the JJ/WBGSP has hosted include: community building, capacity building, and program outreach. The Discussion Forum has provided an interactive space for participants to initiate debates on the current and emerging development issues, explore opportunities of sharing knowledge, and volunteer to provide assistance for colleagues from other regions. A summary of the recent Discussion Forum dialogue is provided in the Newsletter. In recognition of the achievements of the JJ/WBGSP alumni and their contribution to the capacity building of developing countries, the Program publishes profiles of alumni on the website. The profiles are a means to promote the results of the Program, create an alumni community, let members be better informed about each other by drawing attention to their contributions to the development process in their countries, and to provide an opportunity for people interested in the Program to learn directly from the former scholars. Along the same lines the JJ/WBGSP has begun to further support and promote its graduating scholars by posting their CVs on the website. Videoconferences and Seminars Taking advantage of technology to spread knowledge, the JJ/WBGSP arranged interactive tele-seminars on “Sensible Tax Reform” for scholars of Universities of Saitama, Keio, and Yokohama in Japan. Fellows in Washington, from the International Development Policy Program at Duke University, also participated in this event. Additional seminars JJ/WBGSP publications can also be accessed electronically, by logging onto www.jolis.worldbankimflib.org and clicking on the link Jolis Library 3 Catalogue. In the search section, type Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program, which brings up all of the JJ/WBGSP’s publications. 16


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    were also arranged for Partnership Programs in Africa. These included, for instance, a seminar on “State Timber Corporation of Sri Lanka” for scholars at University of Ghana and Makerere University; a seminar on “Policy-Based Finance—The Experience of Postwar Japan,” and on “Japanese National Railways Privatization Study—the Experience of Japan and Lessons for Developing Countries” for scholars of all African Partnership Programs; two seminars on “Tax Evasion and Corruption” and “The Economics of Tax Evasion” for scholars of the four Partnership Programs in Africa and the five Partnership Programs in Japan. The JJ/WBGSP, in cooperation with the relevant departments within WBI, offered a special training on Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Competitiveness for 431 participants. A total of 331 received a certificate of completion from WBI. In the course survey that followed, 86% found the course training useful and relevant to their work, while 73% found the acquired information new and innovative. Additional participation by the alumni of the JJ/WBGSP was also arranged in UN Global e-Conference on “Implementing the Monterrey Consensus: Governance Roles of Public, Private and Advocacy Stakeholders”. The main objective of the Conference was to provide an opportunity for the participants, across the world, to share their expertise and ideas on devising an implementation process, and to communicate their views to the official international community. The latter conference was moderated by a UN Ambassador and prominent academics, and included 550 practitioner participants from 88 countries. PROGRAM PERFORMANCE IN 2004 AND BEYOND In 2004, a total of 423 candidates were awarded scholarships, of which 357 were in the Regular Program and 66 were in Partnership Programs (Table 1 and Figure 6). REGULAR AND PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM AWARDS: Figure 6 DISTRIBUTION BY HOME REGION AND GENDER, 2004 300 Women 250 Men No. of Awards 200 150 100 50 0 Africa ECA LCR MNA Total E. Asia S. Asia Industrialized Source: JJ/WBSP Scholar Database 17


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    Performance in the Regular Program in 2004 Profile of Applicants in 2004 In 2004, the JJ/WBGSP received 3,461 applications, 14.6% higher than the previous year. This increase was mostly due to higher applications from Africa, Latin America and Middle East and North Africa, while there was a decline in the number of applicants from South Asia. The total female applicants (27.8%) were higher compared to previous year, especially from Latin American countries. The higher overall demand for scholarship is a reflection of a need for mid-level professionals from developing countries to seek higher graduate degrees outside their countries and the unique position of the JJ/WBGSP to accord them a chance to fulfill their requirements for financing. Reasons for rejection of applicants and the lessons to be learned by prospective applicants A total of 1,489 applicants (43%) were initially found ineligible in 2004; of which 598 sent incomplete applications; 267 had insufficient work experience; 273 applied for field of studies, that are not supported by the JJ/WBGSP; while 108 were too young (Figure 7). There is a lesson to be learned by the prospective applicants to carefully examine their applications for completeness; to make sure that they have at least the requisite two years full time work experience; to verify that their field of studies are supported by JJ/WBGSP; and that they are of the right age. Profile of Scholars in 2004 DEVELOPMENT THEMES AND POVERTY. The Program has increasing drawn candidates from humble backgrounds. Over 60% of the scholars in the Regular Program came from humble and poor backgrounds, where the parents had education levels of high school or lower (Figure 8). The majority of scholars (49.4%) studied economics, development studies, public policy, and management areas; followed by environment (21.5%); and health/childcare and gender studies (12.3%) (Table 4). In many cases scholars are pursuing degrees in fields directly related to poverty reduction (Figure 9). GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION, AFFILIATION AND GENDER. Similar to previous years, the regional distribution is: Africa (40%), East Asia (16%), Eastern Europe –ECA (10%), Latin America and Caribbean –LAC Figure 7 PROFILE OF SCHOLARS BY INELIGIBILITY CRITERIA, 2000-2004 Profile of Applicants by Ineligibility Criteria, 2000-2003 Profile of Applicants by Ineligibility Criteria, 2004 16% 18% 28% 40% 2% 26% 18% 7% 3% 12% 21% 9% Work Experience Field of Study Degree Age Nationality Incomplete Application 18


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    (15%), Middle East and North Africa –MNA (7%), South Asia (8%), and Part I (4%). The MNA region continues to be underrepresented compared to other regions. There are continuous contacts with the Executive Directors representing the region in order to find ways to encourage more applicants to apply (Figure 10). TABLE DEVELOPMENT THEMES 2004 4 DEVELOPMENT THEMES NUMBER OF SCHOLARSHIPS, 2004 (%) DEVELOPMENT STUDIES, ECONOMICS 83 (25.5%) PUBLIC POLICY, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, 78 (23.9%) MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENT 70 (21.5%) HEALTH, CHILDCARE, GENDER STUDIES 40 (12.3%) AGRICULTURE 14 (4.2%) INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT 13 (4.0%) INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY 7 (2.1%) OTHER (POVERTY REDUCTION, MEDIA, ETC…) 21 (6.5%) TOTAL 326 (100%) Figure 8 PROFILE OF SCHOLARS BY PARENT’S EDUCATION LEVEL, 2000-2004 Profile of Scholars by Parent's Education Level, Profile of Scholars by Parent's Education Level, 2000-2003 2004 37% 39% 63% 61% High School Education or Less Greater than High School Education Figure 9 PROFILE OF SCHOLARS BY FIELDS OF STUDY, 2003-2004 Profile of Scholars by Fields of Study, 2003 Profile of Scholars by Fields of Study, 2004 2% 2% 6% 4% 2% 4% 8% 27% 26% 4% 13% 12% 26% 25% 18% 21% Development Studies, Economics Public Policy, Public Administration, Management Environment Health, Childcare, Gender Studies Agriculture Infrastructure Management Information Systems and Technology Other (Poverty Reduction, Media, Etc...) 19


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    REGULAR AND PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMS AWARDS Figure 10 DISTRIBUTION BY HOME REGION, 1997-2004 Regular and Partnership Program Awards: Regular and Partnership Program Awards: Distribution by Home Region, 1987-2003 Distribution by Home Region, 2004 6% 4% 8% 14% 7% 33% 5% 40% 15% 13% 10% 9% 20% 16% Africa E. Asia ECA LCR MNA S. Asia Industrialized Figure 11 PROFILE OF SCHOLARS BY EMPLOYMENT CATEGORY, 2000-2004 Profile of Scholars by Employment Category, Profile of Scholars by Employment Category, 2000-2003 2004 1% 2% 9% 10% 8% 10% 9% 6% 72% 73% Public Sector Private Sector R/IO NGO Other JJ/WBGSP REGULAR PROGRAM FEMALE AWARDEES: Figure 12 DISTRIBUTION BY HOME REGION, 1987-2004 JJ/WBGSP Regular Program Female Awardees: JJ/WBGSP Regular Program Female Awardees: Distribution by Home Region, 1987-2003 Distribution by Home Region, 2004 5% 7% 9% 6% 4% 4% 32% 32% 14% 18% 12% 12% 24% 21% Africa East Asia ECA LCR MNA South Asia Industrialized 20


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    Looking at where the scholars were applying, it was interesting to note that 69.9% were admitted to European universities, 20.9% to North American Institutions, 3.7% to Asian Institutions, 3.8% to African, Latin American and Middle East institutions, and 1.8% to Oceania. 7.4% of the total number of scholars are admitted to institutions in the developing world. The distribution of the scholars among different types of employers was as follows: public sector (72.4%), private sector (6%), NGOs (10%), and regional and international organization (10%) (Figure 11). About 40% of the scholars in the Regular Program were women, even though only 27.8% of the applicants were women for 2004 (Figure 12). NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN 2004 During 2004, the Secretariat undertook a number of missions to monitor and fine-tune the quality of the Partnership Programs and collaborating universities in US, Japan, France. In US, the Secretariat visited Harvard University, where the majority of high level policy makers from developing countries attend their Masters program. The outcome of the visit was to seek avenues to further encourage the candidate from Africa and Middle East and North Africa to apply to that university; to fine-tune the mix of the economics, institutional and management courses to fit the developmental need of the attending scholars; and delay the increases in tuition and other charges. In Japan, the mission visited the Partnership Programs at the Yokohama National University (YNU), GRIPS, Keio, and Tsukuba. The mission found a confirmation of Program’s contribution to capacity enhancement and human resources development. Scholars studying in the Japanese universities prepared their thesis presentation on subjects directly related to the development issues of their home countries. Both graduates and student scholars expressed their deep appreciations for the knowledge, training and internship they received, thanks to JJ/WBGSP sponsorships. In addition, the mission discussed a number of issues encompassing financing of PhD’s, access to the World Bank data bases, assistance by providing additional courses on thesis preparation methodology, additional Japanese language training, and financial matters. The mission was also informed that the Japanese national universities; including JJWBGSP partners, YNU, GRIPS, and Tsukuba, will become more autonomous and will look for partners in order to generate additional funding and projects to help them improve their quality of education. For these universities, the JJ/WBGSP will be an important showcase in their search for national and international partnerships. The mission to France included visiting CERDI, a very popular university among the JJ/WBGSP applicants. The mission discussed expediting payments arrangements, coordinating future meetings between visiting CERDI faculty and WBI staff, and the possibility of assisting scholars to undertake internship at the World Bank and the IMF. 21


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    inflation for higher education in the princi- By far the largest of the Partnership PROGRAM FINANCIAL pal host countries – the United States Programs in terms of financial outlays are PERFORMANCE and the United Kingdom. In the years the Columbia and Harvard Universities before FY92 – when only the Regular programs, which have had about 15 Source of Funds Program was in operation – a major scholars per year in each cohort. program goal was to increase the Although each of the five Partnership The JJ/WBGSP is funded entirely by the number of new scholars within the Programs in Japan has a high per scholar Government of Japan and administered resources provided by the Government cost, the overall impact on the budget is by the World Bank Institute (Table 5). of Japan. The significant increase in the somewhat lessened by the low number number of new scholars in those years is of scholars. an example of this policy. JAPAN’S ALLOCATION TO JJ/WBGSP, Cost Per Scholar FY88-FY04 (IN US DOLLARS) The launching of the Partnership AMOUNT Programs, starting in 1992, has been a The estimated average annual cost TABLE FY (U.S. DOLLARS) major factor in determining the number per scholar in the various JJ/WBGSP 5 88 1,000,000 of new Regular Program scholarships programs varies from a low of about 89 1,887,000 that can be awarded. JJ/WBGSP was $18,000 to more than $57,000 in the 90 1,887,000 fortunate to receive enough financial Regular Program. 91 3,109,000 92 4,349,000 support to permit it to establish eleven 93 94 5,349,000 6,049,000 Partnership Programs and increase the Length of Awards and the number of scholarships in the Regular 95 96 7,647,500 8,966,000 Program each year from 1992 through Effects on Program 97 11,210,700 2000. A target of 150 new Regular Financing 98 11,870,265 Program scholars was established for 99 12,148,900 00 13,476,541 the 1998 selection, while in 1999, 180 Initial awards are for the first year of 01 10,539,909 were selected. In 2000, the selection of study only. Near the end of the first year, 02 10,159,937 the scholars’ academic performance is 277 scholars in the Regular Program 03 12,523,148 04 13,978,917 created a 50% increase from the previous evaluated and a decision is made as to year. In 2004, by selecting 423 scholars whether to continue a second year of to receive scholarships, the Program has support if the academic program so more than double the number of recipi- requires. More than 50% of all scholars As shown in Table 5, the increase in ents from 2002, and about 18% since are admitted to programs that require funding has varied widely, ranging from 2003. This relatively large increase was two years of study, and the performance no increase (between FY89 and FY90) to only possible due to the Government of of nearly all scholars merit renewal for the nearly 65% (between FY90 and FY91). In Japan’s commitment to the Program. second year. Thus far, only one scholar general, there has been an increase each has not been renewed because of aca- year, except in FY01 and FY02. In FY04 Use of Funds demic inadequacy. the Program received an increase of 11.6% from the previous year. The amounts allocated each year have Many scholars try to increase the dura- made it possible for the Program to tion of JJ/WBGSP financial support by Each year, part of the increase is used to support 3,265 scholars between 1987 making requests for additional degrees offset inflationary trends that result in and 2004 at the annual levels shown or other forms of support. In order to higher education costs. The Program, in Table 5. maximize the number of new scholars however, has been successful in limiting that the Program is able to finance each the increases in the annual average cost year, the Secretariat finds it necessary to per scholar to well below the rate of deny all these requests. 22


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    ...I also take this opportunity to convey my gratitude to the Government and the people of Japan for their generous support through this Scholarship Program and in coming forward to invest in human resource development. I am sure these efforts will go a long way in contributing towards capacity building and assisting the developing countries in finding the solutions better suited to their individual Our Scholars developmental needs... Aaisha Makhdum Public Administration - Mason Program Harvard University (Pakistan) ...En effet, le programme JJ/WBGSP est né de l’énergie et du désir du Gouvernement du Japon et de la Banque Mondiale de contribuer au développement des pays en développement par la formation des cadres hautement qualifiés. Aujourd’hui, il s’est vu reconnaître un rôle essentiel dans la promotion du développement humain et durable... Katsongo Kamathe Amenagement du Territoire Universite Laval (Congo, Democratic Republic of) 23


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    ...I want to send my immense thanks to the World Bank and to Mr. Abdul Monem Al-Mashat, administrator of the Joint Japan/World Bank Scholarship Program, for granting me with the necessary funds to undergo my Master of Science program. My thanks also go to the people of Japan, for their generosity towards the World Bank, and indirectly, towards myself. Dr. Alberto M. Larco Management of Agricultural Knowledge Systems Wageningen University (Ecuador) ...As a recipient of the 2003/04 Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate Program, I am indeed grateful for the opportunity this scholarship gave me to complete my program at the Center for Development Economics, Williams College, Massachusetts. RoseMarie KaiKai Broadbell Development Economics Williams College (Sierra Leone) ...It is pertinent that I express my sincere appreciation for an award provided through the JJ/WBGSP to pursue graduate studies at the Center for Development Economics, Williams College, during the academic year 2003/2004... Colin Cannonier Development Economics Williams College (St. Kitts and Nevis)


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    ...Thanks to the Government of Japan it was possible for me to attend the John F. Kennedy School of Government, which has offered me the opportunity to meet with outstanding and inspiring people, including my classmates, professors and world leaders regularly invited as speakers... Karol Acon Monge Public Administration in International Development Harvard University (Costa Rica) ...I would like to express my gratitude to the Government of Japan and the World Bank for the Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program (JJ/WBGSP) which supported my two year studies at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University... Guang He Public Administration in International Development Harvard University (China) ...We would like to say “Thank you very much” to the Government of Japan, all of the Japanese people and also to all of the author- ized persons of the JJ/WBGSP. If I hadn’t received the scholarship from the JJ/WBGSP, I probably wouldn’t have been able to study in another foreign country because I come from a simple and ordinary family... Cho Cho Latt Tun Gender and Development Asian Institute of Technology(Myanmar)


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    ...Ending my letter, I have nothing more to say except that I would like to place my hands over my head and pray that God takes care of the people and the Government of Japan, and sees over their longevity, happiness, good fortune, jobs, and prosperity in the future... Thanks to generous support from the Government of Keamony Nong Japan, I was able to pursue my Ph.D. at Stanford Water & Environment Resources University. I would like to take this opportunity to express Management Asian Institute of Technology (Cambodia) my sincere gratitude and appreciation to the Government of Japan for having provided me with a precious opportunity to study at Stanford University. It was ...First of all let me express my deepest gratitude indeed a great honor to have been awarded this valuable to the Government of Japan for their outstand- scholarship. ing mission and genuine commitment to the world of development. ... I am sure the I am currently working as Economist in the Africa JJ/WBGSP is one of the best projects in the Region at the World Bank. Without the extraordinary World Bank portfolio in supporting its mission generous support from the Government of Japan, it would of building up the “World free of poverty”. not have been possible for me to pursue this career. The academic training at Stanford University has enhanced Sergei Perapechka my skills and knowledge in economics that I can apply Development Economics for the betterment of people and the progress University of Sussex (Belarus) of developing countries. I truly appreciate the opportunity the Government of ...I hope the JJ/WBGSP is successful in Japan and JJ/WBGSP provided me. Thank you supporting graduate students from all over the very much for your great support. world. Many thanks to the Government of Japan and the World Bank! Hiromi Asaoka Economics of Education Amal Kamal Ali Stanford University (Japan) Economics Florida State University (Egypt) 26


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    In my first assignment after the MPA-ID program, I will have the PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION chance to work as an advisor to the governor of the State of São Paulo on The administration of the JJ/WBGSP is under- taken through a Steering Committee and a issues of state reform and economic Secretariat. The Steering Committee provides the planning; a huge jump in my career as overall policy and direction for the program and annually selects candidates to receive scholarships. a public manager and a direct result of The Secretariat is responsible for the day-to-day function of the JJ/WBGSP. The current members the network and the expertise I developed of these entities are shown below. during the MPA-ID program. STEERING Marcos J. P. Monteiro COMMITTEE 2004 Public Administration in Chairman International Development Frannie A. Léautier Harvard University (Brazil) Vice President, World Bank Institute Deputy Chairman SECRETERIAT 2004 Yuzo Harada Executive Director, for Japan, World Bank Administrator Abdul-Monem Al-Mashat Members Neil Hyden, Program Officer Executive Director, for Australia, Korea, Marie des Neiges Grossas New Zealand, World Bank Geoffrey B. Lamb, Program Assistants Vice President, Resource Mobilization, World Bank Song Li Ting Fong Wafik Grais, Maria-Isabel Ruiz-Galindo Senior Advisor, Financial Sector, World Bank Katherine Marshall, Junior Professional Associates Director, Development Dialogue on Value and Timothy Mark Maruska Ethics, World Bank Francis Coloso Sunaz Louis A. Kasekende, Executive Director, for Botswana, Burundi, Ethiopia, World Bank Marito H. Garcia, Sector Manager, Education, Latin America and the Caribbean Region, World Bank 27


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    D ETAILED D ESCRIPTION OF THE R EGULAR P ROGRAM DURATION OF THE BASIC ELIGIBILITY SCHOLARSHIPS CRITERIA Most scholarships are granted to complete a master’s All Applicants degree or its equivalent. Awards are given for one year at a time and may be extended to a second consecutive year if To apply for any JJ/WBGSP scholarship, the applicant must: the scholar has maintained satisfactory academic perform- ance and the academic program so requires. • Be a national of a World Bank member country eligible to borrow. THE AMOUNT OF • Be under 45 years of age, preferably under the age THE AWARD of 35 and normally 25 years and above. • Hold a bachelor’s degree or its equivalent in a The average annual scholarship award is about $30,000. development-related field; have a superior record in However, award amounts vary by host country and university. previous academic work. • Have at least 2 (preferably 4 to 5) years of recent, EXPENSES full-time professional experience in the applicant’s home COVERED country or in another developing country, and preferably in public service. Specifically, awards cover: • Secure an admission to a master’s degree program. • Tuition and required medical insurance for the scholar only, payable directly to the university; Applicants to the Regular Program • Subsistence allowance covering living must also: expenses; and • Two economy-class one-way tickets between the home • Submit evidence of current unconditional admission country and the host university, in addition to an (copies of formal acceptance letters) to at least one allowance to cover expenses incurred while traveling. university and proof of application to another university located in any World Bank member country except the EXPENSES applicant’s country; and NOT COVERED • Propose a program of study related to development. Usually this will be in a field such as economics, busi- • Expenses for the scholar’s family; ness, management, environment, urban/rural planning or • Additional travel, including field trips during the study a related area. The Program has also made awards in program; such development-related fields as health, education, • Educational equipment, such as computers; population, agriculture, engineering, information systems • Expenses related to research, supplementary education- and aquatic resources provided that the focus of the al materials, or participation in workshops or seminars study is on public policy aspects of these fields. while at the university. 28


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    OTHER SELECTION CRITERIA The Regular and Partnership Programs give priority to: • Applicants from low-income countries. • Women. • Applicants with few other resources and from lower income groups. • Applicants who have had no previous opportunities for graduate study outside their home country. In addition, the selection process in all JJ/WBGSP programs: • Seeks to maintain a geographical balance among regions of the world, and World Bank member countries. The Program does not support: • Applicants who already hold a graduate degree from Executive Directors, their alternates, staff of the World an industrialized country and from institutions such Bank Group (the World Bank, International Finance as the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) in Thailand Corporation, International Development Association, or the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), in India. Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, and • Applicants who are residing, working, or already International Center for Settlement of Investment studying for a graduate degree in an industrialized Disputes), consultants, and relatives of the aforemen- country. tioned are excluded from consideration. • Permanent residents or nationals of an industrialized country. In accepting the scholarships, the awardees consent • Applicants who are refugees or have a political to the employment restriction policy of the asylum status. JJ/WBGSP and recognize that they will not be able • Applicants for MBA degrees. to work at the World Bank or IMF Headquarters and • Applicants for Ph.D. and M.Phil. degrees. field offices for three years after completion of their • Applicants for J.D., L.L.M. or S.J.D. academic programs. degrees unless related to human rights or environment. 29


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    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMS PROGRAMS IN USA COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Program in Economic Policy Management CONTENT: Eleven courses, not previously offered, form the nucleus of the one-year academic segment of COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY this program, followed by a three-month internship in a multilateral aid organization. The internship is a requirement for graduation. Upon successful completion of the program, scholars receive a master’s degree in Public Administration from Columbia University. The one-year academic program starts with a required introductory summer preparatory session that empha- sizes language and mathematical skills, computing, accounting, and statistics. The regular academic program includes three core courses that span two semesters: microeconomics policy management, macroeconomics policy management, and management skills for policymakers. The courses are based on an analysis of case studies and real-world economic policy issues. Additional perspective courses provide a broad understanding of the nature of development in a global economy. Staff from the World Bank deliver lectures, present seminars, and discuss case studies. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: The basic eligibility criteria are the same as those for the Regular JJ/WGBSP. In addi- tion, applicants must meet Columbia University’s admission requirements, such as successful achievement on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). APPLICATION PROCESS: Each year, Columbia receives many applications for the program. Columbia faculty screens the applications and nominates about 30 candidates for consideration by the JJ/WBGSP Steering Committee, of which 15 candidates are selected for financial support. HARVARD UNIVERSITY Program in Public Administration in International Development CONTENT: The Partnership Program with Harvard University started in the fall of 1999. The program of study leads to a Master of Public Administration in International Development (MPA/ID). The MPA/ID program is a rigorous economics-centered program designed to prepare development practitioners. H A R VA R D UNIVERSITY The duration of the program is 21 months including a three-month internship. The JJ/WBGSP sponsors a maximum of 15 new scholars each year for the contracted five years. 30


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    PROGRAMS IN AFRICA The University of Ghana, in Ghana, Makerere University, in Uganda, The University of Cocody, in Côte d’Ivoire, and The University of Yaoundé II, in Cameroon THE UNIVERSITY OF GHANA The JJ/WBGSP and ACBF jointly sponsor 30 scholars in each program to study for their master’s degree in Economic Policy Management (EPM). The duration of the anglophone programs at Makerere University, in Uganda, and the University of Ghana at Legon, in Ghana, is 18 months, including a three-month internship. MAKERERE The duration of the francophone programs at Cocody University, in Côte d’Ivoire, and Yaoundé II University, UNIVERSITY in Cameroon, is 15 months, including a three-month internship. PROGRAMS IN JAPAN ELIGIBILITY: The five Partnership Programs in Japan are open to applicants from all World Bank member THE UNIVERSITY OF countries that are currently eligible to borrow. However, the programs differ from the other JJ/WBGSP COCODY Partnership Programs in one important respect: they are open only to scholars who are selected and sup- ported by JJ/WBGSP. Details regarding the JJ/WBGSP Partnership Programs in Japan are provided in the sections that follow. UNIVERSITY OF TSUKUBA THE UNIVERSITY OF Program in Policy Management YA O U N D É I I This two-year master’s degree program is designed to admit cohorts of 10 scholars in odd alternate years. The Graduate School of International Political Economy (GSIPE) manages the program within the university, although scholars may study in many parts of the institution. The university nominates 20 applicants for each cohort and JJ/WBGSP selects 10 nominees for sponsorship. UNIVERSITY OF YOKOHAMA NATIONAL UNIVERSITY TSUKUBA Program in Infrastructure Management Yokohama National University’s (YNU) program in infrastructure management aims to help mid-career profes- sionals gain expertise in the economic and engineering aspects of managing all forms of infrastructure. Within the university, the School of International and Business Law administers the program, although schol- ars may study in many parts of the institution. The JJ/WBGSP scholars in this program gain valuable practi- cal experience with the assistance of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). New cohorts in this two-year program start in April of odd alternate years. The number of scholars increased from nine in the first cohort to 15 in the following cohorts. Y O K O H A M A N AT I O N A L UNIVERSITY Program in Public Policy and Taxation The Graduate School of Economics of YNU manages the program in Public Policy and Taxation, drawing on coursework from many other parts of the institution. This program is entirely separate from the infrastructure management program also located on the YNU campus. However, some faculty members teach in both programs. 31


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    KEIO UNIVERSITY Program in Tax Policy and Management Keio University is well known internationally as one of Japan’s leading private universities. It holds the distinc- KEIO tion of being the first Japanese university to admit foreign students, a tradition which began in the 19th UNIVERSITY Century. Scholars have opportunities to study in many parts of the university under the overall management of the Graduate School of Business and Commerce. The first cohort began studies in April 1996. New cohorts begin their studies in April each year. The JJ/WBGSP and Keio University signed a new agreement for a renewed partnership in 2003. NATIONAL GRADUATE INSTITUTE FOR POLICY STUDIES (GRIPS) Master’s Degree Program in Public Finance The major aim of the Program is to train future fiscal leaders in taxation. Particular emphasis is placed on the education and training of government officials from developing countries worldwide who work in tax adminis- tration or equivalent departments. Administrative aspects of taxation are taught in the context of developing countries’ economic and social development. An internship at the national Tax Administration (NTA) con- tributes to the students’ experience of real problems faced during daily operation of tax administration. The master’s degree one-year program in Public Finance is taught in English. The JJ/WBGSP and GRIPS signed a new agreement for a renewed partnership in 2003. APPLICATION PROCEDURES THE REGULAR PROGRAM Application forms for the Regular Program are available from the end of September through January 31st of each year. Forms are available in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese. Candidates may download the forms or apply online at the program web site: http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/scholarships Requests for application forms by mail should be sent to: The World Bank The JJ/WBGSP Secretariat 1818 H Street NW Washington, DC 20433 USA FAX: (202) 522-4036 THE PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMS Application forms for the Partnership Programs are available from the cooperating university at different times depending on each Program’s application cycle. 32


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    AFRICA JAPAN Yokohama National University Professor Tatsuhiko Ikeda Makerere University in Uganda Keio University Director, Program in Infrastructure Professor J. Ddumba-Ssentamu Professor Mitsuhiro Fukao, Director Management Graduate School of Head, Department of Economics Program in Taxation Policy and Management International and Business Law Social Science Building Graduate School of Business & Commerce 79-4 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku P.O. Box 7062 International Center Yokohama 240-8501, Japan Kampala, Uganda 15-45, Mita 2-chome FAX: (81-45) 339-3610 FAX: (256-41) 532-355 Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8345, Japan Email: Infra.office@iblaw.ynu.ac.jp Email: maecon@uol.co.ug FAX: (81-3) 5427-1638 Website: http://www.igss.ynu.ac.jp/ Website: http://www.makerere.ac.ug/ Email: jjwbgsp@Fbc.keio.ac.jp index-e.htm economics/ Website: http://www.fbc.keio.ac.jp/ directory/directory.html Yokohama National University University of Cocody in Côte Professor Shinjiro Hagiwara, Director d’Ivoire National Graduate Institute for Director, Master’s Program in Public Professor Seca Assaba Paul Policy Studies (GRIPS) Policy & Taxation Director, Programme de Professor Reiko Nakamura, Director Public 79-3 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku Formation en Gestion de Finance Program Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501, Japan la Politique Economique 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-Ku FAX: (81-45) 339-3504 UFR-SEG/CIRES Tokyo 162-8677, Japan Email: is-mpe@ynu.ac.jp 05 BP 129, Abidjan 08 FAX: 81-3-3341-0590 Website: http://www.igss.ynu.ac.jp/ Côte d’Ivoire Website: http://www.grips.ac.jp/ index-e.htm FAX: (225-22) 48-8284 index-e.html Email: gpe@globeaccess.net UNITED STATES OF University of Tsukuba AMERICA University of Ghana in Ghana Professor Neantro Saavedra-Rivano, Professor Yaw Asante Director, Program in Policy Management Columbia University Head, Department of Economics Graduate School of International Professor Arvid Lukauskas P.O. Box 57, Legon Political Economy Acting Director, Program in Economic Policy Accra, Ghana Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573, Japan Management FAX: 233-21-501-486 FAX: (81-0-298) 53-6797 1034 International Affairs Building Email: Economics@ug.gn.apc.org Email: wbgsp@gsipe.kokusai.tsukuba.ac.jp 420 West 118th Street Website: http://www.ug.edu.gh Website: http://www.tsukuba.ac.jp/ New York, NY 10027 USA index-e.html FAX: (212) 854-5935 University of Yaoundé II Website: http://www.columbia.edu/ Professor Roger Tsafack Nanfoss Director, Faculty of Economics and Harvard University Management Carol Finney Economic Policy Management Program Director, MPA/ID Program P.O. Box 1792 75 John F. Kennedy Street Yaoundé, Cameroon Cambridge, MA 02138 USA FAX: (237-23) 73-89 FAX: (617) 495-9671 Email: gpe@uycdc.uninet.com Website:http://www.ksg.harvard. edu/programs/mpaid/ 33


  • Page 36

    Table A1 APPENDIX JJ/WBGSP Regular Program Applicants: Distribution by Region and Gender 1987-2004 Region Africa E. Asia ECA LCR MNA S. Asia Unknown Part 1 Total 1987-1999 Total 16,606 2,499 909 2,445 1,080 3,465 18 580 27,602 # Male 13,954 1,629 535 1,641 856 2,941 17 347 21,920 # Female 2,652 870 374 804 224 524 1 233 5,682 2000 Total 2,275 372 146 352 199 480 0 45 3,869 # Male 1,827 189 82 200 159 378 0 19 2,854 # Female 448 183 64 152 40 102 0 26 1,015 2001 Total 2822 288 145 419 258 457 0 34 4,423 # Male 2,283 150 69 232 188s 358 0 16 3,296 # Female 539 138 76 187 70 99 0 18 1,127 2002 Total 1,542 260 105 313 88 365 0 50 2,723 # Male 1,252 129 52 165 66 278 0 20 1,962 # Female 290 131 53 148 22 87 0 30 761 2003 Total 1,830 263 93 329 93 362 0 50 3,020 # Male 1,449 137 34 166 78 275 0 24 2,163 # Female 381 126 59 163 15 87 0 26 857 2004 Total 2,178 234 100 407 149 331 0 62 3,461 # Male 1,793 128 52 205 126 250 0 24 2,578 # Female 385 106 48 202 23 81 0 38 883 Grand Total Total 27,253 3,916 1,498 4,265 1,867 5,460 18 821 45,098 # Male 22,558 2,362 824 2,609 1,473 4,480 17 450 34,773 # Female 4,695 1,554 674 1,656 394 980 1 371 10,325 34


  • Page 37

    Table A2 JJ/WBGSP Regular Program Applicants: Distribution by Region and Country 1987-2004 AFRICA 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Total Angola 67 12 10 4 2 6 101 Benin 341 37 69 22 37 42 548 Botswana 54 5 7 3 9 9 87 Burkina Faso 287 42 45 38 41 44 497 Burundi 79 6 19 5 5 6 120 Cameroon 551 66 129 42 86 126 1,000 Cape Verde 9 11 3 1 3 1 28 Central African Republic 50 8 9 7 12 11 97 Chad 139 67 64 21 31 31 353 Comoros 14 3 4 1 3 4 29 Congo, Democratic Republic of 576 45 100 48 53 88 910 Congo, Republic of 184 68 61 21 18 35 387 Cote d’Ivoire 363 38 55 18 32 42 548 Djibouti 13 7 2 1 1 3 27 Equatorial Guinea 7 0 2 6 0 0 15 Eritrea 15 5 12 30 16 14 92 Ethiopia 875 134 180 143 213 205 1,750 Gabon 25 3 8 2 2 2 42 Gambia, The 111 15 12 14 21 21 194 Ghana 1,376 187 214 166 183 199 2,325 Guinea 170 42 67 23 31 30 363 Guinea Bissau 23 0 0 1 3 2 29 Kenya 1,383 266 231 113 111 95 2,199 Lesotho 64 9 12 8 10 12 115 Liberia 118 8 11 3 2 3 145 Madagascar 242 38 28 12 52 28 400 Malawi 308 46 66 40 29 35 524 Mali 201 13 21 7 10 20 272 Mauritania 62 5 8 6 9 15 105 Mauritius 17 0 1 6 3 2 29 Mozambique 41 10 17 4 3 2 77 Namibia 35 7 6 2 2 1 53 Niger 131 15 52 47 33 24 302 Nigeria 3,058 411 605 298 348 506 5,226 Rwanda 140 14 26 8 23 25 236 Sao Tome & Principe 7 1 2 2 0 1 13 Senegal 269 50 70 24 27 36 476 Seychelles 4 0 0 0 0 2 6 Sierra Leone 343 30 39 18 10 36 476 Somalia 104 4 0 0 1 1 110 South Africa 99 5 11 9 8 11 143 Sudan 530 36 35 19 16 19 655 Swaziland 51 14 3 4 4 6 82 Tanzania 1,599 186 177 102 101 127 2,292 Togo 154 34 42 32 33 41 336 Uganda 1,358 145 128 73 91 107 1,902 Zambia 535 87 110 69 87 91 979 Zimbabwe 424 40 49 19 15 11 558 Grand Total 16,606 2,275 2,822 1,542 1,830 2,178 27,253 35


  • Page 38

    Table A2 JJ/WBGSP Regular Program Applicants: Distribution by Region and Country 1987-2004 E. ASIA 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Total Cambodia 73 14 12 14 11 10 134 China 1024 70 46 56 81 47 1324 East Timor 0 0 0 0 0 6 6 Fiji 12 3 0 6 1 1 23 Indonesia 384 94 64 54 29 27 652 Kiribati 2 1 0 1 0 0 4 Korea 67 11 7 0 0 0 85 Lao PDR 21 5 8 1 5 7 47 Malaysia 57 4 3 2 7 12 85 Mongolia 30 21 15 10 11 13 100 Myanmar 76 34 58 46 40 62 316 Papua New Guinea 11 3 1 3 10 6 34 Philippines 450 64 37 34 35 20 640 Solomon Islands 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 Thailand 139 23 12 9 8 4 195 Tonga 9 0 0 0 1 0 10 Vanuatu 0 0 2 0 1 0 3 Vietnam 132 25 23 24 22 18 244 Western Somoa 10 0 0 0 1 1 12 Grand Total 2,499 372 288 260 263 234 3,916 JJ/WBGSP Europe and Central Asia Applicants: Distribution by Region and Country 1987-2004 ECA 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Total Albania 65 13 5 8 5 3 99 Armenia 15 7 5 3 2 4 36 Azerbaijan 16 3 2 2 2 4 29 Belarus 30 6 3 5 2 3 49 Bosnia 10 1 2 0 0 0 13 Bulgaria 84 10 10 12 6 4 126 Croatia 8 0 0 1 4 2 15 Czech Republic 16 2 0 0 1 0 19 Estonia 9 2 2 3 1 2 19 Georgia 21 10 17 12 8 9 77 Hungary 63 1 3 2 1 0 70 Kazakhstan 20 4 7 3 4 1 39 Kyrgyz Rep. 23 7 13 7 5 9 64 Latvia 7 2 1 0 4 1 15 Lithuania 6 4 6 3 2 1 22 Macedonia 5 0 2 0 2 0 9 Moldova 12 4 3 5 2 5 31 Poland 48 3 0 2 2 0 55 Portugal 10 1 0 0 0 0 11 Romania 84 13 16 6 6 9 134 Russia Federation 77 13 13 6 8 3 120 Serbia and Montenegro 51 1 3 1 2 2 60 Slovak Republic 17 2 3 1 1 0 24 Slovenia 6 0 1 3 0 1 11 Tajikistan 3 2 2 2 4 8 21 Turkey 150 18 7 10 10 20 215 Turkmenistan 2 0 0 0 1 1 4 Ukraine 35 8 10 3 3 2 61 Uzbekistan 16 9 9 5 5 6 50 TOTAL 909 146 145 105 93 100 1498 36


  • Page 39

    Table A2 JJ/WBGSP Regular Program Applicants: Distribution by Region and Country 1987-2004 LCR 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Total Antigua 4 0 1 1 0 0 6 Argentina 194 24 22 30 27 26 323 Bahamas 10 1 0 1 0 0 12 Barbados 25 1 2 0 1 2 31 Belize 9 0 0 0 1 0 10 Bolivia 97 11 20 15 18 23 184 Brazil 156 25 31 17 20 21 270 Chile 139 6 14 19 12 21 211 Colombia 282 48 46 30 29 73 508 Costa Rica 51 3 8 7 2 5 76 Cuba 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 Dominica 17 1 2 2 1 23 Dominican Republic 22 5 3 0 1 3 34 Ecuador 130 15 26 11 10 9 201 El Salvador 32 8 4 1 1 3 49 Grenada 8 3 0 0 1 1 13 Guatemala 28 3 2 4 1 0 38 Guyana 43 6 8 6 5 2 70 Haiti 66 25 52 25 25 21 214 Honduras 26 1 7 2 4 9 49 Jamaica 65 7 7 12 7 5 103 Mexico 443 68 48 45 55 73 732 Nicaragua 25 2 7 7 8 4 53 Panama 15 1 2 4 0 1 23 Paraguay 26 0 1 2 1 2 32 Peru 283 58 74 51 62 61 589 St. Kitts 2 1 0 1 1 3 8 St. Lucia 28 1 6 1 1 0 37 St. Vincent 12 0 0 0 1 0 13 Suriname 9 0 0 0 0 0 9 Trinidad & Tobago 45 1 7 1 2 0 56 Uruguay 81 18 14 13 22 19 167 Venezuela 71 8 6 4 9 19 117 West Indies 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 Grand Total 2,445 352 419 313 329 407 4,265 37


  • Page 40

    Table A2 JJ/WBGSP Regular Program Applicants: Distribution by Region and Country 1987-2004 MNA 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Totals Afghanistan 11 2 2 0 1 5 21 Algeria 135 29 46 14 17 29 270 Bahrain 4 0 0 0 0 0 4 Egypt 390 93 68 17 34 25 627 Iran 59 15 16 3 3 21 117 Iraq 18 1 4 1 1 0 25 Jordan 109 9 14 16 3 11 162 Kuwait 6 0 1 0 0 0 7 Lebanon 23 4 1 0 1 0 29 Libya 6 0 0 0 2 0 8 Malta 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 Morocco 132 15 48 10 10 5 220 Oman 6 0 1 5 1 2 15 Saudi Arabia 11 0 0 0 1 0 12 Syria 25 1 9 1 1 1 38 Tunisia 76 2 26 6 2 2 114 West Bank and Gaza 16 15 10 10 11 27 89 Yemen Republic 51 13 12 5 5 21 107 Grand Total 1,080 199 258 88 93 149 1,867 JJ/WBGSP Regular Program Applicants: Distribution by Region and Country 1987-2004 SOUTH ASIA 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Totals Bangladesh 717 62 53 57 51 54 994 Bhutan 25 4 8 5 9 5 56 India 1,030 96 83 114 119 108 1,550 Maldives 38 2 3 3 0 0 46 Nepal 703 94 103 67 61 71 1,099 Pakistan 740 199 172 100 100 67 1,378 Sri Lanka 212 23 35 19 22 26 337 TOTAL 3,465 480 457 365 362 331 5,460 38


  • Page 41

    Table A2 JJ/WBGSP Regular Program Applicants: Distribution by Region and Country 1987-2004 PART I 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Total Australia 13 0 0 0 0 0 13 Austria 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Bahrain 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Belgium 4 1 0 0 0 0 5 Canada 34 1 0 0 0 0 35 Cyprus 21 0 0 0 0 1 22 Finland 4 0 0 0 0 0 4 France 36 0 0 0 0 0 36 Germany 22 1 0 0 0 0 23 Greece 31 1 0 0 0 0 32 Iceland 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Ireland 9 0 0 0 1 0 10 Israel 16 2 0 0 1 0 19 Italy 21 0 0 0 0 0 21 Japan 173 35 31 50 45 56 390 Korea, Rep. 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 Kuwait 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Qatar 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Netherlands 7 0 0 0 0 0 7 New Zealand 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 Norway 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 Saudi Arabia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Singapore 16 1 3 0 2 1 23 Spain 18 2 0 0 1 0 21 Sweden 4 1 0 0 0 0 5 Switzerland 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Taiwan 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 United Kingdom 44 0 0 0 0 0 44 United States 97 0 0 0 0 0 97 Grand Total 580 45 34 50 50 62 821 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Total Total of Developing Member Countries 27,004 3,824 4,389 2,673 2,970 3,399 44,259 Total of Industrialized Countries 580 45 34 50 50 62 821 Unknown 18 0 0 0 0 0 18 Total Member Countries 27,602 3,869 4,423 2,723 3,020 3,461 45,098 39


  • Page 42

    Table A3 JJ/WBGSP Regular Program Awards: Distribution by Region and Gender 1987-2004 Region Africa E. Asia ECA LCR MNA S. Asia Part 1 Total 1987-1999 Total 532 362 161 229 90 248 119 1,741 # of Men 386 210 90 141 68 194 91 1180 # of Women 146 152 71 88 22 54 28 561 2000 Total 147 61 26 41 22 47 9 353 # of Men 94 29 14 23 15 31 4 210 # of Women 53 32 12 18 7 16 5 143 2001 Total 78 41 20 26 10 25 8 208 # of Men 42 22 10 13 8 19 4 118 # of Women 36 19 10 13 2 6 4 90 2002 Total 72 33 14 25 12 17 10 183 # of Men 43 19 9 16 9 11 5 112 # of Women 29 14 5 9 3 6 5 71 2003 Total 140 58 40 41 14 47 17 357 # of Men 94 33 17 27 11 36 6 224 # of Women 46 25 23 14 3 11 11 133 2004 Total 170 67 41 63 31 34 17 423 # of Men 115 30 21 33 25 24 6 254 # of Women 55 37 20 30 6 10 11 169 Grand Total Total 1139 622 302 425 179 418 180 3,265 # of Men 774 343 161 253 136 315 116 2,098 # of Women 365 279 141 172 43 103 64 1,167 40


  • Page 43

    Table A4 JJ/WBGSP Scholarship Awards: Distribution by Region and Country 1987-2004 AFRICA 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Total Angola 2 3 1 0 0 1 7 Benin 16 6 0 1 4 4 31 Botswana 3 1 0 0 0 3 7 Burkina Faso 21 5 2 2 7 8 45 Burundi 7 2 1 2 3 3 18 Cameroon 20 7 3 4 5 4 43 Cape Verde 1 1 0 0 1 0 3 Central African Republic 1 3 2 2 3 2 13 Chad 8 4 1 3 2 4 22 Comoros 1 1 0 2 0 2 6 Congo, Democratic Republic of 5 2 3 3 2 3 18 Congo, Republic of 7 4 2 2 3 4 22 Côte d’Ivoire 14 3 3 2 3 4 29 Djibouti 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Eritrea 2 1 1 0 2 5 11 Ethiopia 33 7 5 3 7 9 64 Gabon 4 0 1 0 1 0 6 Gambia 5 1 1 0 3 3 13 Ghana 53 6 4 6 5 9 83 Guinea 14 4 2 0 4 4 28 Guinea-Bissau 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Kenya 38 8 6 5 12 8 77 Lesotho 1 2 0 1 1 3 8 Liberia 6 1 1 0 0 2 10 Madagascar 16 4 3 1 5 6 35 Malawi 12 4 1 2 1 3 23 Mali 7 2 0 1 3 4 17 Mauritania 4 0 1 1 2 3 11 Mauritius 1 0 0 1 1 0 3 Mozambique 2 0 1 0 0 0 3 Namibia 3 0 1 0 0 0 4 Niger 5 4 2 1 4 3 19 Nigeria 55 8 5 3 7 9 87 Rwanda 9 3 1 1 6 4 24 Sao Tome & Principe 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 Senegal 12 5 3 2 5 7 34 Seychelles 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 Sierra Leone 9 5 3 3 6 5 31 Somalia 3 0 0 0 0 1 4 South Africa 6 0 2 0 3 3 14 Sudan 16 7 3 3 4 7 40 Swaziland 3 1 0 1 0 3 8 Tanzania 27 9 3 3 8 7 57 Togo 7 4 1 3 4 7 26 Uganda 40 6 5 4 7 4 66 Zambia 18 8 3 3 5 5 42 Zimbabwe 12 3 1 1 1 3 21 TOTAL 532 147 78 72 140 170 1,139 41


  • Page 44

    Table A4 JJ/WBGSP Scholarship Awards: Distribution by Region and Country 1987-2004 EAST ASIA & PACIFIC 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Total Cambodia 12 1 5 4 5 3 30 China 126 8 7 5 8 10 164 Fiji 2 0 0 0 0 1 3 Indonesia 32 9 4 4 8 7 64 Kiribati 0 1 0 0 1 Korea 15 1 0 0 0 0 16 Lao PDR 9 2 1 1 1 6 20 Malaysia 5 1 0 1 2 3 12 Mongolia 17 9 3 3 5 5 42 Myanmar 21 10 5 4 12 11 63 Papua New Guinea 3 1 0 1 1 3 9 Philippines 47 7 5 2 5 6 72 Thailand 19 5 5 1 2 1 33 Tonga 2 0 0 0 1 0 3 Vietnam 50 7 6 6 8 10 87 Western Somoa 2 0 0 0 0 1 3 TOTAL 362 61 41 33 58 67 622 JJ/WBGSP Scholarship Awards: Distribution by Region and Country 1987-2004 EUROPE & CENTRAL ASIA 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Total Albania 9 1 0 2 1 3 16 Armenia 8 1 1 0 4 1 15 Azerbaijan 4 1 1 0 1 2 9 Belarus 6 0 0 2 0 0 8 Bosnia 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Bulgaria 17 3 4 1 3 1 29 Croatia 2 0 0 0 1 0 3 Czech Republic 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 Estonia 3 0 0 0 0 1 4 Georgia 9 3 1 1 4 4 22 Hungary 11 0 0 0 1 0 12 Kazakhstan 6 0 2 1 2 2 13 Kyrgyz Republic 2 2 2 1 2 3 12 Latvia 4 0 0 0 1 0 5 Lithuania 2 1 2 0 1 1 7 Macedonia 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 Moldova 3 1 0 2 0 3 9 Poland 3 1 0 0 1 0 5 Romania 14 3 1 1 5 3 27 Russia Federation 18 0 0 0 3 1 22 Serbia and Montenegro 2 0 0 0 1 1 4 Slovak Republic 4 0 0 0 0 0 4 Slovenia 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 Tajikistan 2 1 0 1 0 2 6 Turkey 9 3 1 1 4 7 25 Turkmenistan 0 0 1 0 0 2 3 Ukraine 6 3 2 0 0 0 11 Uzbekistan 9 2 1 1 4 4 21 Total 161 26 20 14 40 41 302 42


  • Page 45

    Table A4 JJ/WBGSP Scholarship Awards: Distribution by Region and Country 1987-2004 LCR 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Total Argentina 18 4 2 3 2 3 32 Bahamas 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Barbados 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Belize 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 Bolivia 8 1 1 1 2 6 19 Brazil 16 3 2 3 2 8 34 Chile 16 2 2 0 4 5 29 Colombia 24 5 4 1 4 4 42 Costa Rica 4 0 1 2 0 1 8 Dominica 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 Dominican Republic 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 Ecuador 13 2 1 1 1 1 19 El Salvador 2 1 2 1 1 0 7 Grenada 1 1 0 0 0 1 3 Guatemala 6 0 0 1 1 0 8 Guyana 13 2 1 1 1 2 20 Haiti 11 4 0 3 2 1 21 Honduras 1 0 1 0 1 3 6 Jamaica 4 1 0 1 0 2 8 Mexico 28 5 4 1 5 8 51 Nicaragua 2 0 0 1 2 1 6 Panama 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Paraguay 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Peru 35 5 3 2 6 6 57 St. Kitts 1 0 0 0 1 2 4 St. Lucia 2 0 1 1 0 0 4 St. Vincent 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 Suriname 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Trinidad & Tobago 5 0 0 1 1 0 7 Uruguay 6 3 1 1 2 3 16 Venezuela 5 1 0 0 1 4 11 TOTAL 229 41 26 25 41 63 425 JJ/WBGSP Scholarship Awards: Distribution by Region and Country 1987-2004 MNA 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Total Afghanistan 1 0 0 0 1 1 3 Algeria 10 4 2 2 1 3 22 Egypt 30 5 3 1 3 7 49 Iran 11 3 1 1 2 6 24 Iraq 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 Jordan 12 1 1 2 1 3 20 Lebanon 1 1 0 1 0 0 3 Morocco 13 3 2 1 1 1 21 Oman 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Syria 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 Tunisia 6 0 1 1 1 1 10 West Bank & Gaza 3 3 0 2 2 5 15 Yemen Republic 1 1 0 1 2 3 8 TOTAL 90 22 10 12 14 31 179 43


  • Page 46

    Table A4 JJ/WBGSP Scholarship Awards: Distribution by Region and Country 1987-2004 SOUTH ASIA 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Total Bangladesh 30 8 3 2 9 6 58 Bhutan 9 0 3 3 5 3 23 India 101 14 8 4 11 10 148 Maldives 4 1 0 0 0 0 5 Nepal 43 5 3 3 5 5 64 Pakistan 45 15 6 3 11 4 84 Sri Lanka 16 4 2 2 6 6 36 TOTAL 248 47 25 17 47 34 418 JJ/WBGSP Scholarship Awards: Distribution by Region and Country 1987-2004 PART I 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Total Australia 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Belgium 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Canada 4 0 0 0 0 0 4 Cyprus 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Ireland 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Italy 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Japan 103 9 8 10 17 17 164 Sweden 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 United Kingdom 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 United States 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 TOTAL 119 9 8 10 17 17 180 TOTAL AWARDEES 1987-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Totals Total of Developing Member Countries 1,622 344 200 173 340 406 3,085 Total of Industrialized Countries 119 9 8 10 17 17 180 Total Member Countries 1,741 353 208 183 357 423 3,265 44


  • Page 47

    S TEERING C OMMITTEE , 1987-2003 CHAIRMAN Louis A. Kasekende (2003-Present) Director, World Bank Institute Chang-Yuel Lim (1990-91) Christopher Willoughby (1987-90) Pedro Malan (1987-88) Amnon Golan (1990-94) Moises Naim (1991-92) Vinod Thomas (1994-99) Julio Nogues (1994-96) Franco Passacantando (1997-99) VICE PRESIDENT Jorge Pinto (1989-90) World Bank Institute Walter Rill (1994-96) Vinod Thomas (1999-2001) Mohd. Ramli Wajib (1989-95) Frannie A. Léautier (2002-Present) VICE PRESIDENTS AND SENIOR MANAGERS DEPUTY CHAIRMAN Yoshiaki Abe (1991-94) Mitsukazu Ishikawa, Executive Director (1987-90) Shinji Asanuma (1987-91) Masaki Shiratori, Executive Director (1990-92) Jean Baneth (1987-89) Yasuyuki Kawahara, Executive Director (1992-95) Marito H. Garcia (2002-Present) Atsuo Nishihara, Executive Director (1995-98) Wafik Grais (2003-Present) Satoru Miyamura, Executive Director (1999-2000) Isabel Guerrero (1998-2000) Yuzo Harada, Executive Director (2000-Present) Aklilu Habte (Advisor) (1987-89) Motoo Kusakabe, VP, RMC (1999-2002) MEMBERS Geoffrey B. Lamb (2003-Present) Executive Directors Callisto Madavo (1987-89) Girmai Abraham (2001-2002) Katherine Marshall (1990-Present) Joaquim R. Caravalho (1997-98) Ontefetse K. Matambo (1993-94) John W. Cosgrove (1991-94) Mustapha K. Nabli (2000-2002) Godfrey Gaoseb (1999-2000) Gobind Nankani (1996-97) Jonas H. Haralz (1989-91) Mieko Nishimizu, VP, SAR (1995-2000) Ulrik Haxthausen (1987-88) Michel Petit (1989-95) Neil Hyden (2000-Present) S ECRETARIAT, 1987-2002 Supervising Manager Program Assistant Timothy King (1987-91) Maria-Isabel Ruiz-Galindo (1998-present) Armand Van Nimmen (1991-95) Maria Orellano (1999-2002) Alexander H. ter Weele (1995-96) Song Li Ting Fong (2001-present) Ray C. Rist (1997-2000) Michael N. Sarris (2000-2002) Junior Professional Associates Karin C. Millett (2003) Timothy Mark Maruska (2003-present) Kabir H. Ahmed (2002-Present) Francis Coloso Sunaz (2003-present) Administrator Information Technician A. Robert Sadove (1987-91) Logan Van Tassel (1991-95) Frank Farner (1991-98) Anita Woods (1996-2000) Abdul-Monem Al-Mashat (1998-present) Team Assistant Program Officer Shirly Rajan (1997-98) Maribel de Liedekerke (1988-2000) Monica Civali (1999-2000) Shobha Kumar (1991-2000) Marie des Neiges Grossas (1995-present)


  • Page 48

    JOINT JAPAN/WORLD BANK GRADUATE SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM (JJ/WBGSP) Phone: 202-473-6849 Fax: 202-522-4036 www.worldbank.org/wbi/scholarships/ Email: jjwbgsp@worldbank.org THE WORLD BANK 1818 H. Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 USA www.worldbank.org/ Information Line: 202-458-2498 Email: wbi_infoline@worldbank.org


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