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    The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Education, Children’s Services and Skills 2010/11

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    The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Education, Children’s Services and Skills 2010/11 Presented to Parliament pursuant to section 121 of the Education and Inspections Act 2006. Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed 22 November 2011 HC 1633 London: The Stationery Office £37.00

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    © Crown copyright 2011 You may re-use this information (not including logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the Open Government Licence. To view this licence, visit http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/ or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London, TW9 4DU or email: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk. Any enquiries regarding this publication should be sent to us at Ofsted, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, London WC2B 6SE, telephone 0300 123 1231 or email enquiries@ofsted.gov.uk This publication is also available on http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/ ISBN: 9780102975208 Printed in the UK by The Stationery Office Limited on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office ID P002456354 11/11 Printed on paper containing 75% recycled fibre content minimum.

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    Contents Preface ............................................................................................................................................ 6 Commentary .................................................................................................................................... 7 Early years and childcare .............................................................................................................. 14 Children’s centres ......................................................................................................................... 32 Maintained schools ....................................................................................................................... 38 Initial teacher education .............................................................................................................. 74 Independent schools, non-maintained special schools and boarding schools ........................... 80 Learning and skills ........................................................................................................................ 88 Children’s social care .................................................................................................................. 118 Children’s services assessments ................................................................................................. 154 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................ 160 Annexes....................................................................................................................................... 163 Annex 1. Definitions ....................................................................................................................... 163 Annex 2. Inspection evidence........................................................................................................... 166 www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 Annex 3. Other analyses .................................................................................................................. 169 Annex 4. Glossary ............................................................................................................................ 176 3

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    Aviation House 125 Kingsway London WC2B 6SE November 2011 Miriam Rosen Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector Rt Hon Michael Gove MP Secretary of State for Education Sanctuary Buildings Great Smith Street London SW1P 3BT Dear Secretary of State The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 I have pleasure in presenting my Annual Report to Parliament, as required by the Education and Inspections Act 2006. My report begins with a commentary on the outcomes from the full range of Ofsted’s regulatory and inspection activity in the last academic year. Following this are detailed sections setting out findings and trends in each of the main remit areas that fall within Ofsted’s responsibility. The report is informed by evidence from more than 31,000 inspections carried out during 2010/11 – of early years and childcare, schools, colleges, adult learning and skills, children’s social care and local authority services for children. These inspections provide a unique evidence base for our conclusions. It is my hope that this report and its findings will form a useful contribution to the continuing debate on the quality and standards of care, education and skills in this country, as Ofsted seeks further to raise standards and improve lives. Yours sincerely, Miriam Rosen

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    Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector Preface This Annual Report presents evidence from inspection The report therefore stands as a detailed summary and regulatory visits undertaken between September of the findings from our inspection and regulatory 2010 and August 2011 by the Office for Standards activity in 2010/11 in all the areas of our remit, giving in Education, Children’s Services and Skills (Ofsted). a national perspective on provision. For each sector, We take evidence from inspection activity across the we set out an overview of the quality of provision and full range of Ofsted’s statutory remit, which includes of the progress and experience of the learners and early years and childcare, provision for education and children concerned. Where it is appropriate to do so, skills in schools, colleges and adult learning, children’s comparisons with inspection findings from previous social care and local authority services for children. years are included and trends over the lifetime of an inspection cycle are identified. In doing so, we also The report draws upon the findings of both routine explore matters of particular national interest at a time inspection visits and our programme of survey of change for providers and in Ofsted’s inspection and inspections through which we collect information regulatory frameworks. about subjects and specific aspects of provision in children’s social care, education and skills. As in previous years, Ofsted is pleased to recognise and celebrate the success of those providers that have demonstrated exceptionally high-quality work with children, young people and adult learners. This year’s list of outstanding providers is published on Ofsted’s website at the same time as this report. The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 6

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    Miriam Rosen, Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector Commentary It is my privilege to present Ofsted’s Annual Report for In 2010/11 Ofsted carried out more than 31,000 2010/11. inspections, including inspections of: Ofsted inspects and regulates a wide range of services more than 21,000 childcare and early education for children and learners. Throughout the year we providers publish individual inspection reports on our website, nearly 6,000 maintained schools and 314 and each year in our Annual Report we summarise our independent schools findings for Parliament, for the public and for those we inspect. Here we present the outcomes of our work around 2,000 children’s homes, and 170 adoption over the year from September 2010 to August 2011, agencies and fostering services along with insight into some of the key issues arising 133 local authority child protection contact, from inspection over this period. referral and assessment services and 47 local Our purpose is simple: to raise standards and improve authority safeguarding and 46 looked after lives. Inspection allows us to report candidly on the children services quality of services so that informed choices can be 312 colleges and other learning and skills made about them, both by those who use them providers and by those who fund them. Our inspections, and therefore this report, are based on the first- 59 prisons, other secure estate settings and hand evidence and professional judgements of probation services. our inspectors. The core of their work is directly observing the quality of provision and evaluating the outcomes for children and learners. Independent Challenges inspection helps services to improve by highlighting honestly both where things are going well and where Across the range of this provision, a number of key improvements are most needed. challenges stand out. The report covers the whole of our remit, including The first challenge is that of tackling failure. One of the early years, schools, learning and skills, children’s the most difficult but important tasks that Ofsted performs is judging provision to be inadequate, www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 social care and local authority services for children. In each section we present the main inspection findings whether this is in children’s homes, schools, colleges, from the year and, in particular, the proportions of safeguarding or any other part of our remit. Taking each service, or aspect of a service, that we have this step is an important catalyst to change. This judged to be ‘outstanding’, ‘good’, ‘satisfactory’ or year we saw schools emerging from special measures ‘inadequate’. The analysis draws on evidence from this faster than last year – after an average of 18 rather year’s inspections, including our thematic work and than 20 months – and over a fifth of them came out good practice studies, and also from previous years not as satisfactory but as good. The total number to enable a longer view. This commentary picks out a of schools in categories of concern – that is, judged selection of the key findings reported in more detail in inadequate and either in special measures or with a the body of the report. notice to improve – reduced from 553 at the end of last year to 451 at the end of August 2011. We are 7

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    MIRIAM ROSEN, HER MAJESTY’S CHIEF INSPECTOR Commentary also now piloting early visits to inadequate schools The third challenge is to improve the quality of after the initial inspection, so they can start the work teaching. At the heart of every learning institution is of improvement more quickly. good teaching, with a clear focus by the organisation’s leadership on continually improving teaching, which Similarly, in our inspections of local authority leads in turn to consistently high standards of practice safeguarding services, we are equally clear about the by teachers. However, the quality of teaching in our importance of identifying failure where we find it. We schools is still too variable: too much is satisfactory carried out 47 full inspections of safeguarding during and too little outstanding teaching was seen in the the period covered by this Annual Report. In nine local schools inspected this year. Satisfactory teaching authorities, we judged that the overall effectiveness does not deliver good enough progress for pupils of safeguarding practice in that area was inadequate. in the most challenging circumstances. Just 3% of This includes two local authorities for which the secondary schools and 4% of primary schools were judgement was the outcome of a reinspection, judged outstanding for the quality of teaching across following a finding of inadequate overall effectiveness the school. Our new school inspection framework will at the first inspection. However, there is also strong focus more attention on this issue: it is a priority for evidence in this report of the impact that an Ofsted improvement across the school system. This annual judgement can have on stimulating improvement. report includes a particular focus in the maintained This year we have conducted a second annual cycle schools section on good teaching. of unannounced inspections of contact, referral and assessment arrangements. In the great majority of Perhaps the most important and difficult message for cases inspectors found that the weaknesses identified the learning and skills sector in this report is that the in the first inspection, a year earlier, had been quality of teaching needs to rise across the board. Out effectively addressed. of the 312 learning and skills providers we inspected this year, only 15 were judged outstanding for the The second and closely related challenge is raising quality of teaching. All of these were independent ambitions, particularly where provision is stubbornly learning providers or employer providers. None of the satisfactory. Fourteen per cent of all schools colleges, adult and community learning providers or inspected this year, which is nearly 800 schools, prisons we inspected received an overall outstanding have been judged satisfactory for at least their last judgement for the quality of teaching. Part of the two inspections and have no better than satisfactory problem is the variability of teaching quality within capacity to improve. Of the 40 previously satisfactory institutions. It is important to remember that we focus colleges inspected this year, 22 continue to be no inspection in this area on those who need it most, better than satisfactory and two declined. Sixteen for example we inspected no previously outstanding colleges were found to be satisfactory this year at their colleges this year. Nonetheless our findings point The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 third inspection in a row. There are similar challenges to a major issue given that colleges are the largest for social care and childcare providers. Ensuring that providers of 16–19 education and given the economic there is real change and improvement should be a challenges we currently face. matter of urgency for these organisations. This is one of the reasons that we have a proportionate approach to the inspection of schools and learning and skills provision that focuses inspection on those organisations that need it most. 8

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    The fourth challenge is to ensure the best services Over the previous two years the number of childcare for the children and learners who need them most. providers fell steadily. This caused public concern that Children from deprived backgrounds or who may be the demands of the Early Years Foundation Stage vulnerable or are looked after need the best services were driving providers away. However, that trend has if they are to make good progress and achieve well. stopped during 2010/11. The number of providers in However, this year the fifth of schools serving the the early years and childcare sector levelled out in the most deprived pupils were four times more likely to be first half of the year and has now begun to increase found inadequate than the fifth of schools serving the slightly, reversing the trend seen in recent years of a least deprived pupils. Seventy-one per cent of schools fall in the numbers of providers. serving the least deprived pupils were judged to be It is well understood that good-quality childcare can good or outstanding this year compared with 48% make a big difference to a child’s early development. of schools serving the most deprived. There are also Where it works well, it helps them take the crucial marked differences in the average quality of childcare early steps on their journey through achievement at between more and less affluent areas. We also know school to security in adulthood. It has therefore been that too much of the education provided by children’s a major concern that in each of the past two years homes is inadequate, and that too many children are we have found a large difference in the quality of waiting far too long to be adopted. childcare between areas of high and low deprivation. Yet in every sector we inspect there are organisations This year, just over three quarters of childminders delivering outstanding services in deprived areas to from the 20% most affluent areas were found to disadvantaged young people, proving that it can be be good or outstanding, but less than two thirds of done. Indeed, there are not just a few: this year alone childminders in the 20% most deprived. The gap is we found 85 schools to be outstanding amongst the smaller for providers of childcare on non-domestic fifth of schools serving the most deprived pupils. premises such as nurseries and pre-school provision, Almost all of these schools are in urban areas and over where the corresponding figures were 82% and 74%. a third are in London. It is, however, encouraging that this gap has narrowed slightly this year compared with last year, from 19 to 16 percentage points for childminders, and from 12 to Childcare: an improving eight percentage points for non-domestic settings. sector, now starting to As these figures make clear, nurseries and other providers of childcare on non-domestic premises grow perform more strongly in terms of their overall inspection results than childminders, and this gap is We carry out a large number of inspections of getting bigger. We can also see from the longer run of childcare: over 11,000 inspections of childminders and inspection results that those providers that are longer over 7,000 inspections of childcare on non-domestic established are more likely to be outstanding. For premises such as nurseries took place this year. This example, those that were registered before September was the third year in which we inspected against the 2007 were more than twice as likely to be outstanding www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 requirements of the Early Years Foundation Stage, and at their most recent inspection as those registered the quality of childcare in England has improved over since September 2008. this period. Three years ago just under two thirds of provision was found to be good or better and 5% was inadequate. This year almost three quarters was good or better and 3% was inadequate. One of the drivers of quality is that childcare providers that have been inspected under the Early Years Foundation Stage and have subsequently left the sector are 10 times as likely to have been found inadequate as those who remained in the sector. 9

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    MIRIAM ROSEN, HER MAJESTY’S CHIEF INSPECTOR Commentary The picture for colleges is more mixed, as the Learning and skills: a challenges earlier highlighted in relation to the mixed picture quality of teaching and those institutions stuck at satisfactory. Due to the impact of risk assessment and proportionate inspection, we need to look at the We inspect education and training for young people most recent inspection judgements for all colleges who are mostly over the age of 16 and for adults to get a representative picture of the ‘state of the in a wide range of provision including colleges, nation’. On this basis 23% of colleges were judged to independent learning providers, employer providers, be outstanding for overall effectiveness as at the end adult and community learning providers, prisons and of 31 August 2011, and a further 47% were good. young offender institutions. We take a proportionate This represents a slight increase in the proportion of approach and use risk assessment to focus our all colleges judged outstanding compared with a year inspection activity. All providers have in common earlier, when the figure was 21% at 31 August 2010. the mission to enable learners to develop their skills, Of the colleges we inspected during 2010/11, just especially for employment and for further education over a quarter had improved and just under a quarter and training. The sector is very diverse, and our had declined from their previous inspection, with the inspection evidence shows that its performance is rest achieving the same judgement again. very varied as well. As mentioned in the section on challenges earlier, the key message from inspection in Last year we highlighted the poor quality of learning this sector this year is the need to focus on raising the and skills provision in prisons and young offender quality of teaching across the board. institutions as an area of serious concern. We inspected 24 prisons and young offender institutions The most positive aspect this year has been an this year, and the picture is somewhat more positive, eight percentage point increase in the proportion of with fewer judged inadequate and more judged good, independent learning providers that we found to be but it is still not strong. None of this provision was good or outstanding. These organisations include found to be outstanding, and a high proportion – 15 large and small private, not for profit and voluntary out of 24 – was no better than satisfactory. organisations. They currently deliver the majority of work-based learning, and we inspected 167 of them The 11 independent specialist colleges we inspected this year. Over the year they delivered large volumes this year resulted in a relatively poor set of inspection of both Train to Gain and apprenticeship programmes, results. These colleges provide education and but in the future will focus more on apprenticeships. training for students with learning difficulties and/or Their improved performance is very welcome. disabilities, so this is a matter of particular concern. Employer providers also produced a strong set of Only three of the 11 independent specialist colleges The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 inspection results, as they did last year: 10 of the 16 inspected this year were judged to be good, seven inspected this year were judged to be outstanding or were satisfactory and one was inadequate. None good and six were judged as satisfactory. was outstanding. We have evaluated provision for learners with learning difficulties and/or disabilities more widely in our thematic survey work this year. The key message from Inspectors found that local authorities’ arrangements to provide young people with a learning difficulty inspection in learning and assessment as the basis for their transition to post-16 skills this year is the need to provision were not working effectively. The availability of provision at post-16 was also found to vary focus on raising the quality of significantly, and very little provision was available for teaching across the board. learners with the highest levels of need. 10

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    outstanding in around half these children’s homes. Social care: progress and However, in 11% education was inadequate – much challenges too high a proportion. The picture in relation to local authority safeguarding We inspect children’s social care providers, including arrangements is more mixed. Out of the 133 children’s homes, adoption and fostering services, and inspections of local authority contact, referral and residential special schools. In addition, for the past assessment arrangements carried out without notice, two years, we have inspected local authority contact, only three identified an area of serious weakness, referral and assessment arrangements for child placing children at risk of inadequate protection. protection without notice, and also inspected local In addition, evidence shows that local authorities authority arrangements for looked after children and are acting on the weaknesses identified at previous safeguarding. These inspections have provided a new inspections of these services. However, as indicated challenge to the sector, and a new source of evidence earlier, of the 47 full safeguarding inspections about this kind of provision. Building on what we which we undertook this year we judged nine local have learnt from these inspections, and informed by authorities to be inadequate overall and none was Professor Eileen Munro’s independent review of child outstanding. protection, we are now revising our local authority Inspection identified a range of issues that meant inspection arrangements so that they will focus even these nine local authorities were not effective in more on the quality of the work for children and on keeping children and young people safe. We found the outcomes achieved by children.1 problems with delays in responding to the needs of Children’s homes have improved steadily over the children and families; in poor quality partnership past four years under the framework that ended in working and a lack of shared understanding of March 2011. We inspect every home every year, so systems, processes and thresholds; and, critically, we have an unusually complete picture of this sector. in the performance management, development and Over that time the proportion of homes which are oversight of social workers. We also found that in outstanding has almost trebled to 17% this year, and seven out of nine cases where the services were not the proportion which is inadequate has fallen from effective, challenge and oversight from the Local 11% to 3%. Safeguarding Children’s Board were also weak. In April 2011 we introduced a new inspection framework, and between then and the end of August carried out 731 full inspections of homes under the Schools: a focus on new arrangements. Seventy-seven per cent of these were judged good or outstanding. This maintains the standards clear trajectory of improvement seen since September Both the schools system and the way in which schools 2007 when just 58% were good or outstanding. Over are inspected are undergoing significant change. In two thirds of homes that were judged satisfactory September 2009 we introduced an improved school three years ago were found to be good or better this inspection framework, with higher expectations, www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 year in their inspections under the new framework. a more targeted approach to inspection and more This is encouraging. The new arrangements are inspection time spent in classrooms. The government providing richer inspection reports that will be more is taking legislation through Parliament to focus the informative for commissioners of care, managers, inspection of maintained schools and academies on staff and the young people living in children’s homes four key areas: achievement, teaching, behaviour themselves. There is, however, a specific issue with and safety, and leadership and management. These education provided through children’s homes. There issues have always been central to our inspections, are 327 children’s homes that also provide education and the new framework will allow us to focus even or are linked to education providers. At their most more on them. I would like to thank all those who recent inspection this education was judged good or contributed to our consultation on how we will revise our inspection framework, and especially those schools 1. The Munro review of child protection: final report, Department for Education, 2011. 11

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    MIRIAM ROSEN, HER MAJESTY’S CHIEF INSPECTOR Commentary involved in the pilot inspections we ran in the summer Few outstanding schools are now inspected: only 3% term. The revised school inspection framework will be of the schools we inspected this year were judged at implemented from January 2012. their previous inspection to have been outstanding compared with 8% last year. These schools, with the Each year at the time of our annual report there exception of nursery schools, were all selected on the is a high level of public interest in the ‘state of basis of a risk assessment process or, in a few cases, the nation’s schools’ as indicated by inspection because the nature of the school had changed. When outcomes. For this reason, we present for the first they were inspected 40% were found to be no longer time in this annual report data on the most recent outstanding. This highlights the need for outstanding inspection judgements for all schools that were open schools to focus on maintaining their drive for on 31 August 2011. These schools have not all been improvement, and the importance of retaining inspected under the same inspection arrangements, inspection where concerns arise and there are signs of but all have had a judgement made on their overall a decline in performance. effectiveness on the same four-point scale from outstanding to inadequate. Twenty per cent of all A core aspect of our school inspections is a focus on schools at that time had been judged outstanding behaviour. The large majority of schools are orderly for their overall effectiveness, and a further 50% places where pupils’ behaviour is at least good, and were good at their last inspection. Twenty-eight per where teaching is good pupils’ behaviour is usually cent were satisfactory and 2% were inadequate. A at least good as well. Pupils’ behaviour was good or comparison with the previous year shows a similar outstanding in 87% of all schools inspected this year. picture, with slightly more schools now outstanding However, it was less strong in secondary schools, and slightly fewer schools now satisfactory or where 22% were judged to have satisfactory behaviour inadequate, but no major change overall. and 2% were inadequate. Based on a review of the inspection reports of over 100 of these secondary Of the schools that were inspected in 2010/11, schools, in more than a third inspectors noted that 57% were found to provide their pupils with a good learning in the school was passive because teaching was or outstanding education overall. However, it is dull and was not well enough matched to the abilities of important to recognise that because we have not pupils. Inspections also identified weaknesses in these inspected a representative sample of schools, we schools in applying behaviour policies consistently. Our cannot infer that the same proportion of all schools revised school inspection framework will focus even are good or better. We are increasingly focusing more sharply on behaviour issues. our resources on the schools that are likely to need inspection the most. In the past year we have only This year will be the last year in which most of the inspected outstanding primary and secondary schools academies we inspected were sponsor-led academies, The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 where risk assessment identified concerns or because which were often established in the most challenging the nature of the schools had fundamentally changed, areas to address longstanding weaknesses in for example as a result of an amalgamation. The educational provision. From 2011/12 onwards there schools we did inspect this year were more likely to will be more ‘academy converters’, many of which are have improved than to have declined compared with schools we have previously judged to be outstanding their previous inspection. Around a third improved, along with other schools that have received approval nearly half achieved the same judgement, but nearly a from the Secretary of State to convert to academy fifth declined. status under the Academies Act 2010. Of the 75 academies inspected this year, 40 were judged to be good or outstanding and five inadequate for overall effectiveness. The proportion of academies judged good or outstanding is therefore similar to that for all secondary schools, but the proportion found outstanding was higher at 16 out of 75 compared with 14% for all secondary schools. 12

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    This year we inspected the Teach First programme One of the key challenges the Committee set us was across the country, and the results were impressive. to improve the way in which we communicate the Teach First recruits very skilled and highly qualified evidence we generate from inspection. This year we participants, almost all of whom have a first class launched a new and more powerful website, with or upper second class degree and many of whom better accessibility and search powers and more might not otherwise have considered teaching. options for customisation and feedback for visitors. In The programme is very successful in supporting response to widespread requests we have launched a its participants and in addressing educational Good Practice website to help other providers learn disadvantage through their placements. We found from the best. We have also begun to publish far more that, during their first year of training, Teach First detailed inspection data each quarter across the whole trainees have a considerable positive impact on the of our remit. We will continue to progress down this achievement of the students in their schools. Overall path of increased transparency: it is absolutely in line we found the provision to be outstanding. with the principles by which we work. Our own accountability Changes at Ofsted This year the Education Select Committee undertook As well as developments in the way we inspect, this an inquiry into the role and performance of Ofsted. year has seen other significant changes at Ofsted. In The headlines following the publication of the report March 2011 Baroness Sally Morgan of Huyton joined focused on its recommendation that Ofsted’s work us as Chair of the Ofsted Board. Later in the year new should be carried out by two separate inspectorates, members further strengthened the board, particularly one for care and one for education. Ofsted agreed in terms of social care, learning and skills, finance, with the government’s response that this kind of organisational change and commercial expertise. The re-organisation would be costly and would lose the Ofsted Board sets our strategic direction and helps benefits brought by having a single inspectorate for to ensure that we remain focused on encouraging children and learners. But there was much in the improvement, the needs of those who use our report that we welcomed, in particular its recognition inspections and the effective use of resources by the of the value of our work and our impact on raising services in our remit. The Board members bring a great standards across the sectors we inspect and regulate. depth of senior skills and experience to our work, and The Committee emphasised the importance of their individual interests cover the whole range of our independent inspection, and endorsed the direction remit. of travel for inspection being proportionate to risk, In concluding this commentary, I want to take the based on first hand observation, and focused on what opportunity to say a brief and personal word about matters most to children and young people. Christine Gilbert, who finished her term as HMCI We also recognise the challenges that the Committee during the year. Christine brought the new Ofsted sets out. Over the coming years to 2014 our Spending together from its predecessor organisations in 2007. Review settlement means our resources will reduce She brought extraordinary energy and personal www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 by 30% in real terms. Since the creation of the new drive to the service of children and learners. She Ofsted five years ago we have already improved passionately believed not only that everyone deserves efficiency and reduced costs by a similar amount. We the best from the services they use, but that every will do so again. However, this will mean being more child can and should achieve and do well. That has selective about what we inspect, and it will not be been the vision which has animated Ofsted for many easy to withdraw the reassurance of inspection where years, and it continues to do so today. the public, and especially those who use the services we inspect, have come to expect it. 13

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Early years and childcare

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    Key findings The Early Years Foundation Stage was introduced in The difference in the quality of provision between September 2008 and Ofsted inspects all early years providers in the most deprived areas and the least providers registered to deliver it for children aged deprived areas remains too large, particularly from birth to five years. There are just over 26,000 for childminders. However, since 2009/10 the childcare providers on non-domestic premises and just gap in the proportion of providers judged good over 57,000 childminders. Overall, however, childcare or outstanding between the most and least providers on non-domestic premises offer around four deprived areas has narrowed slightly, from 19 to times as many places as childminders. 16 percentage points for childminders, and from 12 to eight percentage points for providers of The number of providers in the early years and childcare on non-domestic premises. childcare sector increased in 2010/11, reversing the trend seen in recent years of a fall in the Early years providers perform less well in relation number of providers. to the effectiveness of their self-evaluation and their engagement with parents than in other The early years and childcare sector continues aspects of provision inspected. However, in to perform well. In 2010/11, the third year of both these aspects of provision the percentage inspecting against the requirements of the Early of providers judged good or outstanding Years Foundation Stage, the proportion of early has risen since last year. The rise has been years registered providers judged as good or particularly pronounced in the effectiveness of outstanding for overall effectiveness increased to self-evaluation, which has increased by nine 74% from 68% in 2009/10. percentage points. Childcare providers that have been inspected The better providers have a planned and against the requirements of the Early Years systematic approach to children’s learning Foundation Stage and have subsequently left the and development – particularly in the areas of sector are 10 times as likely to have been found communication, language and literacy. In the inadequate than those that remained in the sector. best settings there is a concerted effort to plan This suggests that inspection against Early Years more purposeful activity led by adults to develop Foundation Stage requirements has contributed to children’s language and communication, including an overall increase in quality. their emerging skills for early reading and writing. Childcare on non-domestic premises, for example This has a positive impact on their progress. nurseries and playgroups, continues to outperform childminders in terms of the quality of provision. The difference between the two in the percentage judged good or outstanding has increased for the last two years. Of the providers judged inadequate under the previous framework and that have since been inspected under the Early Years Foundation Stage, 98% are now judged satisfactory or better. Of the providers judged satisfactory under the previous framework, 56% improved at a subsequent Early Years Foundation Stage inspection. www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 Time and experience help childcare providers develop outstanding quality. A childcare provider that has been registered for four or more years is more than twice as likely to be judged outstanding under the Early Years Foundation Stage as a provider that has been registered for a year or less. 15

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Early years and childcare consultation with parents, providers and others, Introduction Ofsted intends to introduce this new framework alongside the revised Early Years Foundation Stage in 1. Three major reviews carried out this year have September 2012. had a substantial influence on government policy in relation to early years provision, and are leading to 3. In response to the Tickell review, the government significant changes in the context in which childcare has recently consulted on the revised Early Years providers operate. In December 2010 Frank Field MP Foundation Stage, and published its vision for the published his review on poverty and life chances;2 early years.5 A number of themes which are central then, in January 2011, Graham Allen MP published to the government’s vision for the early years are his review of early intervention;3 and finally, in March highlighted in this Annual Report. A key focus of the 2011, Dame Clare Tickell published her review of government’s vision is on children’s development so the Early Years Foundation Stage.4 Together these that by the age of five children are ready to take full reviews have re-emphasised the critical importance of advantage of the next stage of learning and have laid the early years of a child’s development, particularly down foundations for good health in adult life. This aged from birth to two, in securing their future good year’s Annual Report highlights important evidence outcomes. The reviews focus on the importance of on how the most effective childcare providers are parenting and getting the right support for parents supporting children’s development against two early and families when children are very young. Effective learning goals: communication, language and literacy; and carefully targeted early intervention is known and personal, social and emotional development. to benefit a child’s long-term education and has the These are absolutely fundamental to preparing potential to avoid the need for costly intervention at a children for their next steps in learning. later stage. 4. Supporting families in the foundation years 2. The Tickell review is likely to have the most also re-emphasises the need for practitioners to direct impact on how future inspections under the engage parents strongly in their child’s learning and Early Years Foundation Stage are conducted. The welfare, including helping professionals to use all review found that the Early Years Foundation Stage interactions with families as opportunities to identify had clearly contributed to improvements in quality any additional needs of both parents and other across the sector and recommended that there key family members and offer further support. This should continue to be a framework for all providers year’s Annual Report draws attention to how the working with children in the early years. However, most effective providers are successfully involving the review also identified areas in which the Early parents in their child’s learning, and conversely Years Foundation Stage could be improved, including: some of the weaknesses in this crucial area in those The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 increasing the involvement of parents and carers in providers judged no better than satisfactory. This is their child’s learning; providing earlier assessments a particularly important issue for childcare providers of children’s development to support good-quality working with children from disadvantaged families early intervention; and substantially simplifying and and communities, where Ofsted’s evidence continues streamlining the early learning goals and Early Years to show that there is a persistent difference in quality Foundation Stage profile. In addition, the review made between childcare offered in the most deprived areas a number of recommendations for Ofsted that will be and childcare in the least deprived areas. addressed through a revised inspection framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage. Following 2. The foundation years: preventing poor children becoming poor adults – the report on the independent review of poverty and life chances, Frank Field, December 2010. 3. Early Intervention: The next steps – an independent report to Her Majesty’s Government, Graham Allen MP, January 2011. 4. The Early Years: Foundations for life health and learning – an 5. Supporting families in the foundation years, Department for independent report on the Early Years Foundation Stage to Her Education, 2011; Families in the Foundation Years, Department for Majesty’s Government, Dame Clare Tickell, March 2011. Education, 2011. 16

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    5. In this section of the Annual Report Ofsted Figure 1 Number of registered providers as at summarises the strengths and weaknesses of current 31 August 2011 early years provision and looks forward to the Provision on: Providers improvements needed from 2012 onwards. Ofsted is responsible for the regulation and inspection of All registers 70,771 early years and childcare providers and maintains two Early Years Register and compulsory part of the Childcare 4,700 registers: the Early Years Register and the Childcare Register Register. The findings in this year’s Annual Report Early Years Register and voluntary part of the Childcare 152 include evidence from the regulation and inspection Register of early years and childcare providers on both these Early Years Register only 7,738 registers. Where registered providers are inspected and found not to be meeting the requirements of the Compulsory part of the Childcare Register and voluntary 972 part of the Childcare Register registers, Ofsted takes action as the regulator to bring about improvement. Compulsory part of the Childcare Register only 92 Voluntary part of the Childcare Register only 11,748 Size and composition of Total 96,173 the childcare sector 8. Figure 1 shows the number of providers on the Early Years Register, and on the compulsory and 6. The Early Years Register is a list of providers voluntary parts of the Childcare Register. A large that look after children aged from birth to 31 August majority of providers are on the Early Years Register following their fifth birthday. Providers on this and both the compulsory and voluntary parts of the register must meet the requirements of the Early Years Childcare Register. For example, childminders that Foundation Stage. Ofsted inspects each provider on wish to care for primary school children before and this register at least once in a defined period laid down after school, as well as caring for pre-school children, by government – currently 47 months – to judge their must register on both the Early Years Register and the effectiveness. compulsory part of the Childcare Register. They may 7. The Childcare Register has two parts: a also wish to care for children’s older siblings during compulsory part, on which providers must register if school holidays, so may choose to join the voluntary they care for children aged from five to seven; and part of the Childcare Register. In most cases, providers a voluntary part, on which providers may register if that meet the requirements for the Early Years Register they care for children aged eight and over. A range will be able to meet the requirements of the Childcare of other providers, such as nannies, are exempt from Register, which are less stringent. compulsory registration. They may choose to register 9. There are four main types of provider in the early on the voluntary part of the Childcare Register. Each years and childcare sector: year Ofsted inspects a 10% sample of providers that are only on the Childcare Register – including any Childminders work with no more than two other www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 about which there have been complaints – to make adults, such as other childminders or childminder sure that they continue to meet the requirements for assistants. They care for children on domestic registration. The Childcare Register provides only a premises, most often in the childminder’s home. basic level of assurance that those that register meet There are 57,191 childminders on the Early Years the requirements for registration at that point, and Register and a further 855 only on the Childcare that very basic standards for safeguarding children – Register. Childminders account for around 60% for example, through a Criminal Records Bureau check of early years and childcare providers overall and – are met as part of the registration process. The offer around 281,000 childcare places. government is considering the future of the Childcare Register and is carrying out informal discussions with Ofsted and other interested parties. 17

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Early years and childcare Childcare providers on non-domestic premises include nurseries, playgroups, pre- This year there was a net school provision, crèches, out of school clubs and holiday play schemes. There are 26,041 providers increase of 2,701 providers. in this group on the Early Years Register and a This reverses the trend seen in further 2,149 on the Childcare Register only. Childcare providers in this category account for recent years of a falling number around 30% of early years and childcare providers of childcare providers. and offer around 1,023,000 places. Childcare on domestic premises is provided where four or more adults work together on domestic premises to care for children. Most often these providers are groups of childminders 10. Figure 2 shows the quarterly change in numbers and assistants that choose to work together in of providers by provider type since the introduction of the home of one of them. There are 129 such the Early Years Foundation Stage in September 2008. providers on the Early Years Register and a further 11. There is a high level of turnover in providers that five providers only on the Childcare Register. This offer early years and childcare provision. During the very small proportion of providers offers around period 1 September 2010 to 31 August 2011, 15,004 2,000 childcare places. new providers joined the registers while 12,303 left. Home childcarers are mainly nannies who care This represents a net increase of 2,701 providers. This for children in the children’s own home. They are reverses the trend seen in recent years of a falling not required to register but may choose to do so. number of childcare providers. This increase is most There are 9,803 home childcarers on the voluntary pronounced for childminders and home childcarers. part of the Childcare Register. Figure 2 Number of providers since September 2008, by provision type 61,929 60,915 60,178 70,000 59,323 58,603 58,046 57,732 57,663 57,228 57,204 56,882 56,710 60,000 50,000 40,000 29,690 29,458 29,228 29,128 29,037 28,820 28,715 28,558 28,478 28,439 28,353 28,190 The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 30,000 20,000 9,803 9,630 9,153 8,452 7,867 7,493 7,214 6,808 6,348 6,042 5,481 4,516 10,000 0 31 Aug 11 31 Mar 09 31 Mar 10 31 Mar 11 30 Jun 09 30 Jun 10 30 Jun 11 31 Dec 08 31 Dec 09 31 Dec 10 30 Sep 09 30 Sep 10 Childminder Childcare on non-domestic premises Home childcarers Figures exclude childcare on domestic premises, which comprise less than 1% of all registered provision. 18

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    12. Since December 2010 there has also been a 14. Figure 3 shows that 10% of providers that left slow but steady increase in the number of childcare the sector following an inspection under the Early places, which reverses the previous declining trend. Years Foundation Stage had been judged inadequate. Childminders account for the majority of this increase. Around 24,000 providers, in addition, left the sector For the whole year, from 1 September 2010 to 31 without receiving an inspection under the Early Years August 2011, the number of places covered by Ofsted Foundation Stage. In comparison, just 1% of providers registration decreased by just under 2,000 compared that had an Early Years Foundation Stage inspection with the same period last year when it fell by just and remained active were judged inadequate. This under 30,000, suggesting that the number of places continues the trend also observed in last year’s Annual in the sector is levelling out. A range of factors are Report. This evidence suggests that inspection against likely to be contributing to this, and it is not possible the Early Years Foundation Stage requirements has to be definitive about the reasons why. However, contributed to an overall increase in quality. the Early Years Foundation Stage has now been in 15. At their most recent inspection, 934 childcare place for three years and providers are likely therefore providers had no children on roll. Of these, 41% left to be more familiar with its requirements and more the sector following the inspection. The providers confident that they can meet them. This may be one that had no children on roll and left the sector were factor contributing to the changes seen this year. three times more likely not to meet the requirements 13. Of those providers on the Early Years Register, for registration than those providers remaining active 8,597 providers, accounting for almost 49,000 vacant in the sector, and 4% of them had enforcement childcare places, did not have any children on roll at action taken against them at the ‘no children on roll’ the time of inspection during this cycle. Consequently, inspection. these inspections were deferred and rescheduled to take place at a later date.6 From September 2011, powers introduced under the Childcare Act 2006 came Overall effectiveness of into effect that allow Ofsted to cancel the registration of childminders that have not looked after children for early years and childcare a period of more than three years. providers Figure 3 Overall effectiveness of early years registered providers that left the sector between 1 September 2008 Figure 4 Overall effectiveness of active early and 31 August 2011 compared with the overall effectiveness years registered providers inspected under the Early of those that remained active (percentage of providers) Years Foundation Stage framework, by inspection year Inspected then left the sector, 2008/2011 (7,028) (percentage of providers) 5 46 38 10 2010/11 (19,323) 12 62 23 3 Active at 31 August 2011 and inspected (56,232) 2009/10 (18,827) 11 61 27 1 www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 10 58 29 3 Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate 2008/09 (24,793) Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. 9 56 30 5 Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate Annual figures relate to inspections carried out between 1 September and 31 August each year for providers active at the end of each period. Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. 6. The actual number of providers not looking after children will fluctuate over time and is likely to be higher than this figure. For example providers may retain their registration, having already received an Early Years Foundation Stage inspection, but not currently be in operation. 19

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Early years and childcare 16. Figure 4 shows the overall effectiveness of early remaining 24%, Ofsted set actions telling providers years registered providers since the introduction of what they must do to meet requirements. These the Early Years Foundation Stage. In this third year proportions were very similar, irrespective of whether of inspection, 97% of providers were judged as the providers were registered on the compulsory or satisfactory or better, and 74% were judged as good voluntary parts of the Childcare Register. or outstanding, an increase from 68% in 2009/10. This shows a continuing trajectory of improvement in Figure 5 Overall effectiveness of active early years provision, with the proportion of good or outstanding registered providers inspected between 1 September 2010 providers increasing in each of the three years since and 31 August 2011, by provider type (percentage of the Early Years Foundation Stage was introduced. This providers) suggests that the providers inspected in this third year Childminder (11,875) have benefited from having more time to embed its 11 60 26 3 requirements into their practice and this is leading to better quality provision among these providers. Childcare on non-domestic premises (7,407) 17. The proportion of providers judged to be 15 65 18 3 inadequate has remained the same as last year, at Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate 3%. However, around two thirds of the 577 providers found to be inadequate at their 2009/10 inspection Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. have since been reinspected and 93% of these are now satisfactory or better. The majority of those 20. As has been the case since the introduction of providers which have not been reinspected have left the Early Years Foundation Stage, childcare providers the sector, and a further 29 received a no children on on non-domestic premises, which offer over three roll inspection following their inadequate judgement. quarters of the childcare places available overall, 18. Where a provider is not meeting the requirements performed better than childminders this year. In fact, of the Early Years Foundation Stage, Ofsted sets the difference in the quality of provision has become actions that the provider must take to ensure more marked during the three years of the Early Years that they meet those requirements within a given Foundation Stage. In 2008/09, the first year of the timescale. Of those providers inspected this year, new framework, the gap between the proportion of Ofsted set one or more actions for 25% of providers childminders judged good or outstanding compared on the Early Years Register. A higher proportion of with the proportion of childcare providers on non- childminders (27%) than providers of childcare on domestic premises was two percentage points. This non-domestic premises (22%) were given at least year it is nine percentage points. In general childcare The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 one action to improve. The three most common areas providers on non-domestic premises are increasingly for action were the same as those identified in the responding more successfully to the requirements of last two Annual Reports: safeguarding and welfare; the Early Years Foundation Stage than childminders. maintaining effective records and documentation; and Nevertheless, a large majority of childminders are premises, environment and equipment. delivering good or outstanding services. 19. Ofsted inspects a sample of providers that are 21. Ofsted’s survey report on the impact of the only on the compulsory and/or voluntary parts of Early Years Foundation Stage provides a clear insight the Childcare Register to ensure that they continue into some of the key drivers that support better to meet requirements. Between 1 September 2010 quality provision, as well as some of the differences and 31 August 2011, Ofsted inspected 1,036 of the in how childcare providers on non-domestic premises 12,812 providers that are active on the Childcare and childminders have responded to the Early Years Register but not on the Early Years Register, the Foundation Stage.7 majority of which were home childcarers. This represents a sample of 8% of these providers. Ofsted is on track to meet the required sample of 10% by the end of the 2011–12 financial year. Of those inspected, 76% of providers met all the requirements. In the 7. The impact of the Early Years Foundation Stage (100231), Ofsted, 2011. 20

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    Drivers of improvement Good-quality external support was also critical to helping childcare providers improve and sustain The survey, based on visits to 20 childminders and good-quality provision. Inspectors found that all 23 childcare providers on non-domestic premises, the improving childcare providers had received identified two important drivers for improvement: some form of training or support from their local the commitment of practitioners to professional authority, a professional association or another development and improvement; and external external organisation, in implementing the Early support and challenge for providers. Years Foundation Stage, and were able to explain Good or outstanding practitioners visited for the how this had supported their improvement. This survey had a strong commitment to professional support included: initial training to introduce development and improvement and, in many cases, the Early Years Foundation Stage; ongoing had used the Early Years Foundation Stage as part training, including targeted national programmes; of this process. Qualification levels in the childcare involvement in specific projects; support through providers that had improved exceeded the minimum childminder networks and from children’s centres; requirements. Inspectors found that outcomes and direct support from local authority advisers for children were good or outstanding where and consultants or childminder mentors. However, practitioners were well-qualified or trained. They local authorities contacted as part of the survey used more than intuition; they knew why they were suggested that childminders were the least likely doing what they were doing, and what they needed to attend their training and inspectors’ discussions to do next to promote children’s learning. This was with childminders showed that some found it particularly important for childminders who were difficult to attend training, even when it was usually working alone. arranged in the evening or at weekends, due to the costs or distances involved in travel, or other family In general, providers visited for the survey were or work commitments. positive about the Early Years Foundation Stage, and the professional development opportunities associated with it. Inspectors found the greatest 22. In addition to childminders and childcare diversity of views about the Early Years Foundation providers on non-domestic premises, Ofsted inspected Stage among childminders. Highly positive 41 active providers of childcare on domestic premises views were expressed by good or outstanding between 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2011. childminders. Conversely, negative comments came Of these, eight were judged outstanding for overall mainly, but not exclusively, from childminders effectiveness, 16 were good, 11 were satisfactory and that had remained satisfactory for their last two six were inadequate. Childcare providers on domestic inspections and saw their role more as carers than premises currently make up less than 1% of all types educators. They often felt that the expectations of provider. This category of childcare provider was were too much for childminders and that the introduced primarily to acknowledge and support requirements were more appropriate for children in those providers that wished to offer a nursery-style nurseries and reception classes. environment in a home setting; but in practice, this type of childcare is very rare. www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 21

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Early years and childcare Figure 6 Change in overall effectiveness of active Figure 7 Overall effectiveness of active early years early years registered providers inspected under the Early registered providers at their most recent inspection under Years Foundation Stage framework compared with their the Early Years Foundation Stage framework, by registration inspection under the previous framework (percentage of date (percentage of providers) providers) 2010/11 (2,225) Outstanding at previous inspection (1,505) 6 64 28 2 75 25 2009/10 (5,892) Good at previous inspection (23,823) 5 62 32 1 15 69 16 2008/09 (5,688) Satisfactory at previous inspection (11,725) 6 59 35 1 56 42 3 Introduction of Early Years Foundation Stage Inadequate at previous inspection (480) 2007/08 (4,755) 98 3 7 57 35 1 Improved Same Declined 2006/07 (3,415) This includes all active early years registered providers inspected since 13 61 24 2 September 2008. 2005/06 (3,638) Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. 12 63 23 1 23. Figure 6 shows that the very large majority of Before Sep 2005 (30,619) providers judged outstanding or good in their last 14 61 24 1 inspection under the previous framework have either maintained or improved on their high performance Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate in their most recent inspection under the Early Years Inspection outcomes relate to the most recent inspection of early years Foundation Stage. It is also particularly encouraging registered providers carried out between 1 September 2008 and 31 August that of the providers judged inadequate under the 2011. previous inspection framework that have remained Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. active, 98% are now satisfactory or better. 24. This year shows better progress being made by 25. Figure 7 shows that childcare providers that those providers previously judged to be satisfactory, registered in 2007/08 and 2008/09 are less likely to The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 with 56% improving since their previous inspection. have been judged good or outstanding than those There is a big difference in this respect between the which registered either before or after. This finding sectors. Sixty-two per cent of childcare providers may be associated with the fact that providers on non-domestic premises previously judged registering in those two years had to manage the satisfactory have now improved compared with transition to the new Early Years Foundation Stage 51% of childminders; this demonstrates a stronger framework when they were themselves new to improvement trajectory among childcare providers on the sector and relatively inexperienced. Figure 7 non-domestic premises. also demonstrates that childcare providers that are relatively new to the sector are less likely to be judged outstanding compared with more established providers. A provider that has been registered for four or more years is more than twice as likely to be judged outstanding under the Early Years Foundation Stage as a provider that has been registered for a year or less. This strongly suggests that time and experience are factors which enable childcare providers to develop outstanding quality. 22

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    26. This pattern is particularly marked for Figure 8 Childminders and childcare providers on childminders and rather less pronounced for childcare non-domestic premises judged good or outstanding in providers on non-domestic premises. For both types their overall effectiveness, by deprivation (percentage of of provider, 14% of those registered before September providers) 2005 were judged outstanding at their most recent 100 inspection. However, only 4% of childminders registered in 2010/11 were judged outstanding 90 compared with 12% of childcare providers on non- 80 82 82 domestic premises. Despite the relatively high 79 80 76 proportion of childcare providers on non-domestic 70 74 74 70 premises which registered in 2010/11 and were 68 judged outstanding, there was also a relatively high 60 60 proportion, 4%, which were judged inadequate. 50 In contrast only 1% of childminders registered in 2010/11 and subsequently inspected were judged 40 inadequate. 30 27. Among those providers judged to be satisfactory at their first inspection, rather than good or 20 outstanding, some common areas for development 10 emerge. Many of those found to be satisfactory are providing warm, safe and caring environments where 0 children’s welfare needs are generally well met and Most deprived Deprived Average Less deprived Least deprived children make satisfactory progress towards the early Childminder Childcare providers on non-domestic premises learning goals. However, most of these providers are not supporting all aspects of children’s learning Inspection outcomes relate to the most recent inspection of early years and development consistently well and many are registered providers carried out between 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2011. still developing or embedding systems designed to evaluate their practice effectively. This chart is based on the location of the provider with deprivation measured by the Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (IDACI) 28. Three particular areas for improvement are often 2010. The index shows the proportion of the population in each lower super output area (LSOA) who live in households that are income-deprived. identified for these providers judged satisfactory at ‘Most deprived’ indicates the providers in the most deprived 20% of areas. their first inspection. The first relates to more effective observation and assessment of children’s individual learning needs in order to plan for their next steps. 29. As in previous Annual Reports, it continues to The second highlights the need to involve parents in be the case that the quality of all types of childcare their children’s learning. The third is to provide better is poorer in the most deprived areas than in those opportunities for children to develop an awareness with lower levels of deprivation. This difference is and understanding of diversity and difference. particularly marked for childminders. In the most www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 deprived areas 74% of childcare on non-domestic premises has been judged good or outstanding It continues to be the case compared with 60% of childminders. This represents that the quality of all types a difference of 14 percentage points; an increase on last year when the difference was 11 percentage of childcare is poorer in the points. The gap in outstanding provision is also most deprived areas than in particularly marked: the proportion of childcare providers on non-domestic premises in the most those with lower levels of deprived areas judged as outstanding (12%) is double deprivation. that of childminders (6%). 23

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Early years and childcare 30. Although the gap in performance between the 33. However, the 6% of childminders in the most most and least deprived areas is still too wide, for both deprived areas that have been judged outstanding this childminders and childcare providers on non-domestic year show what can be achieved. The most effective premises, the gap has narrowed since 2009/10 and childminders in deprived areas recognise that social the quality of provision in areas of high deprivation and economic factors can have a significant effect on is showing signs of improvement. This reverses the educational and other outcomes for young children. trend seen in the 2009/10 Annual Report, where, for These childminders understand that the provision both types of provision, the gap between the most they make can help to narrow the gap between the and least deprived areas had grown since the previous outcomes achieved by the children in their care and year. For childminders, the difference has decreased those found nationally, and seize the opportunity from 19 to 16 percentage points while for childcare on to contribute in this way. They demonstrate a non-domestic premises it has fallen from 12 to eight commitment to equality and inclusion that is beyond percentage points. For both types of provider the doubt, skilfully adapt activities to ensure that all increase in the proportion judged good or outstanding children are equally involved and make full use of has been greatest for those inspected in the most spontaneous opportunities to support children’s deprived areas and deprived areas. learning. They understand the importance of child- centred learning and place children at the heart of all 31. Inspection evidence identifies a number of that happens. factors that are contributing to the poorer quality of childminding in the most deprived areas. In particular, 34. Ensuring that parents and carers are active childminders judged as inadequate in these areas partners in all aspects of the child’s care and learning have often not undertaken appropriate training, is critical to the success of these outstanding and are frequently poor at reflecting on their own childminders. They understand that a child’s learning practice and identifying areas for improvement. In and development cannot be separated from other the cases where childminders have recognised the aspects of their lives and what happens to them in need for improvement, they often lack the capacity or their families and communities. They are extremely confidence to put appropriate systems or measures in knowledgeable about the children in their care and, place to bring about that improvement. through a culture of reflective practice, ensure that children’s needs and the views of parents are at the 32. Inadequate childminders in the most deprived heart of any improvements made to practice. The most areas tend to show limited understanding of the effective providers in deprived areas have a clear focus learning and development requirements of the Early on supporting children’s language development and Years Foundation Stage. They struggle to assess work with parents to build their skills in supporting children’s starting points or observe sensitively what children’s speech, language and communication in the The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 they do, so that their progress can be monitored and home. activities planned to move them on. They also fail to work effectively with parents and carers in this Figure 9 Overall effectiveness of active childminders respect. In these settings, childminders fail to achieve and childcare providers on non-domestic premises that an appropriate balance between adult- and child- take part in quality assurance schemes, inspected between led activities. In some cases, there is too much adult 1 September 2010 to 31 August 2011 (percentage of direction in the activities so that children do not get a providers) chance to develop independence or extend their own learning. In other cases, children are left to their own Quality assurance scheme participant (1,197) devices for long periods of time, often resulting in 31 59 9 1 repetitive and unengaging play for children, who are not sufficiently challenged and quickly become bored. Non-quality assurance scheme participant (18,085) 11 62 24 3 Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. 24

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    35. This year, 6% of the providers inspected were Inspection evidence shows that those childcare identified as being part of a quality assurance scheme; providers which received government funding to this compares with 5% that were part of a scheme last give the free entitlement were more likely to be year. Although this remains a very small proportion judged good or outstanding than those which did of the sector, these providers are more likely to be not. Of those inspected, 83% of funded providers judged outstanding than those that do not participate were judged as good or outstanding for overall in such a scheme. The proportion of those providers effectiveness compared with 70% of providers on a scheme judged good or outstanding for overall which did not receive funding. Seventeen per cent effectiveness has increased by three percentage of providers in receipt of funding were judged points on last year’s figures, moving from 87% to outstanding. 90%. As was observed in last year’s Annual Report, childminders that are part of a quality assurance When allocating funding to providers, local scheme perform particularly strongly, although authorities are required to follow a statutory there are only 365 childminders on such a scheme code of practice. This states that local authorities among those inspected this year. Of these, 94% were should allocate the free entitlement funding to judged good or outstanding for overall effectiveness the highest quality providers identified by using compared with 71% of childminders not on a scheme. their own assessments of quality. Local authorities are encouraged to use the Early Years Quality 36. All three- and four-year-old children are entitled Improvement Support Programme (EYQISP) to 15 hours of free nursery education a week for a guidance to make this assessment. Ofsted’s minimum of 38 weeks of the year, with flexible access evidence suggests that local authorities are indeed to meet parents’ needs. This applies until they reach focusing resources on more successful providers, compulsory school age (the term following their fifth and that this process may in itself be contributing birthday). In addition, as part of the 2010 Spending to the increasing quality in the early years sector. Review, the government announced that the free entitlement to 15 hours of nursery education will However, 2% of childcare providers in receipt of be gradually extended to every disadvantaged two- government funding for free nursery education year-old. Inspections carried out this year provide a were judged inadequate by Ofsted in 2010/11. helpful insight into the quality of childcare offered This represents over 100 providers. Although this by those early years registered providers in receipt of is slightly lower than the proportion of providers government funding for three- and four-year-olds. judged inadequate nationally, it is nonetheless a concern. There may be a number of reasons why a Government-funded provision for three- and small number of inadequate providers are receiving four-year-olds government funding for three- and four-year-old Early Years Census data collected by the provision. These providers may have deteriorated Department for Education to inform the 2009/2010 since the individual funding decisions were made or Early Years Foundation Stage profile identified over they may be in areas where there is a shortage of 18,000 registered childcare providers in receipt of higher quality provision available. Local authority government funding to finance free provision for decisions may also reflect particular local parental www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 three- and four-year-olds. Of these, 5,776 were preferences. These are issues which local authorities inspected in 2010/11, the vast majority of which may wish to consider as part of their future were childcare providers on non-domestic premises. decisions about funding. 25

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Early years and childcare 37. The proportion of providers inspected this year Strengths and areas for judged to be good or outstanding has increased development for every judgement. In all but one judgement, the increase on last year is by at least five percentage points. Looking across the full range of judgements, Figure 10 Inspection judgements for active early years and in common with last year, providers were registered providers inspected between 1 September 2010 particularly strong in terms of their arrangements and 31 August 2011 (percentage of providers) for working in partnership with others, such as other Overall effectiveness (19,323) agencies or local schools, and their effectiveness in deploying their resources. Eighty-one per cent and 12 62 23 3 78%, respectively, were judged good or outstanding Capacity to maintain improvement (19,323) for these judgements in comparison with 74% for 13 60 24 2 overall effectiveness. As was the case in 2009/10, Quality of provision in the EYFS (19,323) engagement with parents or carers, for example 13 62 23 2 involving them in their child’s learning or welfare, and the effectiveness of self-evaluation are the two Outcomes for children in the EYFS (19,323) weakest areas of the childcare provision inspected 13 63 22 2 in 2010/11 in terms of the proportion judged good Leadership and management of the EYFS (19,323) or outstanding. However, both of these areas have 13 62 23 3 shown improvement since last year, and in fact the greatest increase, of nine percentage points, was Embedding ambition and driving improvement (19,323) seen in the proportion of providers judged good or 14 60 24 2 outstanding for their self-evaluation. Effectiveness at deploying resources (19,323) 38. The percentage of childcare providers in which 17 61 21 1 engagement with parents and carers was judged good Promoting equality and diversity (19,323) or outstanding has increased from 63% in 2009/10 to 15 61 23 1 68% in 2010/11. As was the case last year, this aspect of provision is very rarely inadequate, but too often Effectiveness of safeguarding (19,323) found to be only satisfactory. Ofsted’s report The 15 60 22 3 impact of the Early Years Foundation Stage provides Effectiveness of self-evaluation (19,323) further evidence in relation to this.8 All 43 childcare 13 57 27 2 providers visited for the survey were committed to establishing good relationships with parents. However, The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 Partnership with others (19,323) in the provision where partnership with parents was 21 60 18 1 judged as no better than satisfactory, the focus was Engagement with parents and carers (19,323) often on support for welfare and care, and did not 15 53 31 1 sufficiently include their child’s learning. Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. 8. The impact of the Early Years Foundation Stage (100231), Ofsted, 2011. 26

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    39. In contrast, the providers in which partnerships 41. A slightly higher proportion of early years with parents were judged to be good or better registered providers inspected in 2010/11 had communicated effectively with parents to support submitted a self-evaluation form compared with last their child’s learning. These providers usually involved year, and Figure 11 shows that those providers that parents in initial assessments of their children, did so were much more likely to be judged good or regularly gave them information as to how well their outstanding for overall effectiveness than those that child was doing, and offered advice about helping did not (88% and 67%, respectively). Since the Early their child at home. Providers judged as satisfactory Years Foundation Stage was introduced, 21,566 active should focus more carefully on how they ensure that providers have submitted a self-evaluation form to parents are fully involved in exchanges of information Ofsted.9 It is striking that 30% of childcare providers about their child’s educational progress as well as in the least deprived areas submitted a self-evaluation those aspects of provision that relate to their care. form compared with 19% in the most deprived areas. 40. Self-evaluation has typically been a weaker 42. In 91% of the providers inspected where self- aspect of childcare provision, and that remains the evaluation was judged outstanding, outcomes for case this year. However, there are encouraging signs children were also outstanding. In the best providers of progress. The effectiveness of self-evaluation is the self-evaluation was based on effective assessment of aspect of childcare provision that has seen the most children’s needs and helped to target improvements marked improvement, with an increase from 61% of that directly related to children’s learning and providers judged good or outstanding last year to progress. It was also used effectively to focus training 70% this year. Good quality self-evaluation is clearly and development activities for staff, which were becoming more embedded in providers’ practice. often designed to improve children’s learning and development. Figure 11 Overall effectiveness of active early years 43. A strong link between self-evaluation and registered providers that submitted a self-evaluation form outcomes has also been identified in Ofsted’s recent and were inspected between 1 September 2010 and 31 survey on the impact of the Early Years Foundation August 2011 (percentage of providers) Stage. In each setting visited where self-evaluation Submitted (6,600) was judged as inadequate, the outcomes for children 23 65 11 1 were judged as no better than satisfactory. These inadequate providers saw self-evaluation as a task Not submitted (12,723) that had to be done, rather than a means of reflecting 7 60 29 4 on practice and improving outcomes for children. Self-evaluation was particularly weak for those Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate childminders observed that had been operating for This figure includes all providers that submitted a self-evaluation form many years and were continuing to do the job as they from 1 June 2008 and completed the section relating to the 12 statutory always had, or simply cared for children in the same requirements and evaluated their provision for overall effectiveness. way as they had with their own children when they Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. were young. Where self-evaluation was inadequate www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 for the childcare providers on non-domestic premises sampled, the process was either at an early stage of The effectiveness of self- development or was not seen as a high priority. evaluation is the aspect of childcare provision that has seen the most marked improvement. 9. This includes all self-evaluation forms where the sections on the 12 statutory requirements and an evaluation of the provider’s overall effectiveness were completed. 27

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Early years and childcare 44. Even where self-evaluation was judged as 46. Of the 43 childcare providers visited for the satisfactory, the survey found that providers had survey, inspectors judged a greater proportion to be still not fully embraced the practice of review and good or outstanding for outcomes in personal, social reflection in terms of the impact on outcomes for and emotional development than for outcomes in children. They often relied on the local authority or communication, language and literacy. The keys to inspection itself to help them identify improvements good outcomes in personal, social and emotional needed, rather than through their own monitoring development in the childcare providers surveyed and assessment of children’s needs. It is clear that were the routines that practitioners established and many providers still have some way to go before the high expectations that they had of children’s they have embedded self-evaluation as a means to behaviour. Those providers that achieved good reflect on practice; to identify strengths and areas for outcomes in communication, language and literacy development; and plan and deliver their provision in specifically planned opportunities to develop the light of this analysis in order to improve outcomes children’s speaking and listening, and early reading for children. and writing skills. 47. Inspectors found that where children made Supporting progress particularly good progress in the two early learning goals, the provider was clear about the stages of towards the early learning learning and development and had often had specific training, for example in the development of children’s goals language skills, or support. In the better providers visited, practitioners referred to the good practice 45. All providers that deliver the Early Years guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage to Foundation Stage are required to complete an assess children’s developmental level and track their assessment for each child at the end of the academic progress. These practitioners planned specific activities year in which they reach the age of five, based on the to cover all aspects of children’s development, making early learning goals and divided between the six areas good use of resources including guidance produced by of learning and development. Early Years Foundation other organisations with expertise in this area. Stage profile results have improved nationally since 48. In relation to communication, language and 2008. The proportion of children working securely in literacy, inspectors found that systematic phonics communication, language and literacy rose by nine teaching, adapted to meet the needs and interests percentage points to 62% in 2011. In personal, social of the children, had a particularly positive impact in and emotional development the figure was 79%, a rise some of the best childcare providers visited as part of of seven percentage points.10 The impact of the Early The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 the survey. Where speaking and listening skills were Years Foundation Stage focused on the impact of weak it was generally because providers were relying these two early learning goals. Taken together, these on learning happening incidentally. Furthermore, form an important foundation from which children children’s language for thinking, for example their learn, develop and make progress in their lives. They ability to use talk to organise, sequence and clarify were particularly identified in the Tickell review of their thinking, ideas, feelings and events, was often the Early Years Foundation Stage as being two of the weaker than their language for communication; this areas that are ‘essential foundations for children’s was usually because practitioners missed opportunities learning and success’.11 to encourage children to explain and extend their thinking, or simply did not allow children time to think. Too often, where this was the case, adults would immediately follow up one question with another, or would answer their own question, limiting 10. Early Years Foundation Stage Profile Results in England, opportunities for children to express themselves and Statistical First Release (SFR28/2011), Department for Education, develop their own thoughts and ideas. Extending 2011. children’s speaking skills helps them to develop as 11. The Early Years: Foundations for life health and learning – an thinkers. independent report on the Early Years Foundation Stage to Her Majesty’s Government, Dame Clare Tickell, March 2011. 28

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    Category 2: high priority – these cases raise Compliance, investigation significant concerns about the quality of the and enforcement provision but do not involve child protection concerns. Ofsted investigates these concerns by conducting a visit to the setting within three 49. Ofsted takes steps to bring about improvement working days. where childcare providers are failing to meet the requirements for registration laid down by Category 3: routine matters – these are government. In most cases, Ofsted can ensure that lower level concerns which, while they still need providers improve by setting actions that they must investigating to determine whether or not the take. However, where providers do not take these provider meets requirements, do not raise serious actions, or where concerns are more serious, Ofsted concerns about the quality of the provision. In has a range of legal powers it can use to enforce most of these cases, Ofsted will ask the provider compliance with the requirements for registration. to look into the matter and report back about These range from issuing a Welfare Requirements what they have found and what action they have Notice, where a provider is failing to comply with the taken as a result. welfare requirements of the Early Years Foundation Stage, to more serious action such as cancelling a Figure 12 The number of compliance cases received by provider’s registration so they can no longer operate. Ofsted between 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2011, categorised by priority 50. Concerns about registered providers come from a range of sources, including parents and carers, 3,500 members of the public, staff working in childcare settings and other professionals. When Ofsted 3,000 3,084 3,091 receives such a concern, it determines whether or 2,500 not the provider is meeting the requirements for registration. This process may take the form of a visit 2,000 by an inspector to the setting without giving notice or, in less serious cases, by asking the provider to look 1,500 into the matter and report back to Ofsted. In some 1,504 cases, a concern may lead Ofsted to bring forward 1,000 a full inspection of the setting to look at all the requirements of the Early Years Foundation Stage. For 500 providers only on the Childcare Register, Ofsted always carries out a full inspection of the provider when 0 Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 receiving a concern, as part of the sample selected for inspection. 51. On receipt of a concern about a provider on the 52. During the period 1 September 2010 to 31 Early Years Register, Ofsted allocates the concern to August 2011, Ofsted received 7,679 concerns about www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 one of three categories: providers. The highest proportion of these (38%) came from parents, followed by local authorities (12%). Category 1: immediate priority – these are Of these concerns, 2,801 related to childminders cases which require urgent attention because and 4,878 to childcare providers on non-domestic they raise concerns that a child is or may be at premises. Concerns were received this year relating to risk of harm. In these cases, Ofsted will refer the around 6% of registered providers. As shown in Figure child protection issue to the local authority which 12, just under one fifth of these were categorised as has statutory responsibility for child protection immediate priority and requiring urgent attention. enquiries, as well as investigate the concern to Over 40% were categorised as high priority and were determine whether or not the provider continues investigated by Ofsted. to meet the requirements for registration. 29

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Early years and childcare 53. Of the 7,152 investigations concluded between 55. Ofsted will be consulting on proposals for a new 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2011, the provider framework early in 2012. It is therefore too early to was meeting requirements in the majority of cases, be specific about the framework content. But it is and Ofsted needed to take no further action. Around likely that the new inspection arrangements will give 60% of category 1 and category 2 concerns resulted even greater priority to children’s early learning and in no further action. A third of cases overall resulted development and will continue to evaluate providers’ in actions being agreed with providers and in a few effectiveness in developing the family’s involvement cases enforcement action was taken. During the with their child’s learning so that there is good same period, Ofsted carried out 575 instances of support for learning at home. It will continue to be a enforcement action, 72% of which were as a result priority for Ofsted to provide important information of concerns relating to 380 cases, with the other for parents through accessible reports. enforcement action arising for other reasons, such as 56. A considerable challenge for the sector is to close provision which is judged inadequate on inspection. the gaps in achievement that open up in the early Enforcement action taken by Ofsted during 2010/11 years and persist as children start school and progress is shown in Figure 13. through their education. Inspection will give particular priority to judging how well provision is enabling Figure 13 Number of enforcement actions carried out early intervention to support children’s identified by Ofsted since 1 September 2010 needs. Our inspection arrangements will continue to focus activity where improvement is needed most Enforcement type: Number and set actions and recommendations to secure Final warning letter 273 improvement. It is crucial to their future success that Formal caution 5 children’s earliest experiences help to build a secure foundation for learning and give them the best start Notice of intent to cancel registration 33 in life. A high-quality early years experience provides Notice of intention to refuse registration 23 a firm foundation on which to build future academic, Notice of intention to vary/remove/impose conditions 38 social and emotional success. Through inspection Prosecution 1 and regulation Ofsted will continue to contribute to improving outcomes for children by promoting high- Welfare requirements notice 201 quality care, learning and development. Emergency vary/remove/impose conditions 1 Total 575 A considerable challenge Figures show total number of enforcement actions, which may include for the sector is to close the The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 multiple instances of enforcement carried out during investigations or for providers. gaps in achievement that open up in the early years and Looking forward persist as children start school 54. The current inspection cycle comes to an and progress through their end in 2012 and in the coming year Ofsted will be developing a new inspection framework to reflect education. the changes resulting from the government’s revised Early Years Foundation Stage and the key findings from inspection over the last three years. Ofsted will be evaluating carefully the impact of the current framework and using these findings to inform the development of a new inspection framework for 2012. 30

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    www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 31

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Children’s centres

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    Key findings Introduction In May 2010 Ofsted began to inspect children’s 57. Children’s centres provide access to a range centres, focusing mainly in the first year on the of services for children and their families. Support longest established centres in phase one of this is available for families during mothers’ pregnancy relatively new national development. Many of and continues through to when a child goes into these first phase centres had previously been early Reception Year at primary school. Since 2004, excellence centres with a track record of working children’s centres have been set up across the country effectively with their local communities. Phase one in stages, starting with the establishment of centres in centres were developed in the most deprived local the most disadvantaged communities. areas to support children aged from birth to under 58. Children’s centres provide families with or make five and their families. As the longest established arrangements for them to have access to: centres, there was high expectation that they could demonstrate good impact on outcomes for the early learning and childcare children and families who used their services. family support In this first full year of children’s centre health services inspections, nearly all the 710 centres inspected have been judged as at least satisfactory, and just support into employment less than three quarters were judged as good or other specialist services. outstanding. 59. Ofsted has been inspecting children’s centres Just under two thirds of the children’s centres since May 2010, and is required to inspect all inspected this year were the longest established children’s centres in England by 2015. Children’s (phase one) centres. A much higher proportion of centre inspections evaluate each centre’s effectiveness phase one centres (79%) were judged as good or and what it should do to improve. Inspection reports outstanding than those established in phase two give a written summary of outcomes for young (63%), a difference of 16 percentage points. children and their families, the quality of a centre’s Children’s centres are judged most positively for provision, the effectiveness of leadership and keeping children safe and protected and providing management and the centre’s capacity to improve. good-quality care, guidance and support. Three Some children’s centres also offer childcare and early quarters were judged to have good or outstanding education and deliver the Early Years Foundation leadership and management. Stage. These children’s centres are either registered with Ofsted on the Early Years Register or offer While most children’s centres were judged as good maintained education because they are also a school. or outstanding, two important areas which they The quality of their early years provision is reported find challenging are in demonstrating how they in either the early years and childcare section of this match services to the needs of the children and report or the section relating to maintained schools. families who use the centre and using evaluation to improve the services they offer. These are key 60. Inspections focus on how well the centre’s weaknesses which need attention. leadership and management: In the weaker centres in particular there is identify the needs of young children, parents difficulty in collecting and using data to and prospective parents in the centre’s reach demonstrate progress against key performance area, especially those in most need of targeted indicators. This is sometimes not helped by the intervention and support www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 lack of comprehensive data provided by the local deliver early childhood services to meet those authority about the needs of the local population needs and clear targets for improving outcomes in the identify and encourage young children, parents local area. and prospective parents to take advantage of the Children’s centres that are less strong in obtaining early childhood services in the area and using data, evaluating their services and improve outcomes for young children and their monitoring take-up are less effective in targeting families, including providing support for parents to their services at those in the community who are access employment. most in need. 33

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Children’s centres 62. Children’s centres have been established in Overall effectiveness three phases. Phase one children’s centres were set up between 2004 and 2006 to provide full coverage Figure 14 Overall effectiveness of all children’s centres of the 20% most deprived areas in England. Phase inspected between 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2011 two children’s centres, established between 2006 and (percentage of centres) 2008, extended coverage to the 30% most deprived areas. Phase three children’s centres, set up between Overall effectiveness (710) 2008 and 2010, then covered the remaining 70% 14 59 25 2 of the country. Ofsted inspections to date have Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate focused on children’s centres established during either phase one or phase two. Figure 15 shows the overall Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. effectiveness of children’s centres by the phases in which they were established. The large majority of 61. Of the 710 children’s centres inspected this centres inspected were phase one children’s centres. year, nearly all were judged as at least satisfactory for Of the centres inspected a much higher proportion overall effectiveness, and 73% were judged as good of phase one providers (79%) were judged good or outstanding. Only 2% were inadequate. However, or outstanding than phase two providers (63%), a just under two thirds of the 710 centres inspected difference of 16 percentage points. The difference were those which have been established the longest in the percentage judged to be outstanding is and are therefore not representative of the sector particularly striking. This may in part reflect these overall. Where a children’s centre has been judged as centres gaining experience over time. inadequate at inspection, Ofsted carries out another 63. Children’s centres have been set up to provide full inspection of the centre within one year. universal services but also to target and support disadvantaged children and their families, therefore Figure 15 Overall effectiveness of children’s centres by the impact they are having on ‘closing the gap’ the phase in which they were established (percentages of in terms of deprivation is central to their success. centres) Inspections suggest that in general leaders and staff Phase one (463) in children’s centres are committed to closing the gap 17 62 20 1 and see a focus on the most disadvantaged as being central to their contribution. Phase two (247) 64. Some children’s centres are having success 9 54 35 3 targeting specific groups and using outreach activity The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate to draw in families from these groups. For example, some good or outstanding children’s centres are Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. having particular success targeting fathers. But many children’s centres are also aware of groups with whom they are having less success, such as families suffering from domestic violence, or lone parents and teenage Children’s centres that parents. Centres can often give anecdotal evidence of are less strong at obtaining lives that have been transformed, but data showing and using data, evaluating improved outcomes for the target groups, including the difference the centre has made, are less common. their services and monitoring This is a weakness even in some children’s centres take-up are less effective in otherwise judged to be good. Children’s centres that are less strong at obtaining and using data, evaluating targeting their services at those their services and monitoring take-up are less effective in the community who are most in targeting their services at those in the community who are most in need. in need. 34

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    Figure 17 Outcomes for users: sub-judgements of children’s centres inspected between 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2011 (percentage of centres) Outcomes for users (710) 14 63 23 1 Be healthy (710) 16 60 23 Safe and protected (710) 24 63 14 Enjoy and achieve (710) 16 64 20 1 Effective practice and Engage in positive behaviour (710) 18 56 25 1 areas for development Skills for future (710) 11 54 34 1 Figure 16 Key inspection judgements for children’s centres inspected between 1 September 2010 and Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate 31 August 2011 (percentage of centres) Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. Overall effectiveness (710) 14 59 25 2 66. By far the strongest area is how centres ensure Capacity for sustained improvement (710) that children who benefit from their services feel safe 16 59 23 2 and are protected, where 87% of children’s centres were judged as good or outstanding. Most children’s Outcomes for users (710) centres are knowledgeable about safeguarding matters 14 63 23 1 and are able to ensure that they embed practice which Quality of provision (710) supports this. Children’s outcomes in relation to being healthy and enjoying and achieving were also relative 17 60 23 1 strengths in the children’s centres inspected this year. Leadership and management (710) Activities focusing on health, such as baby massage, 16 59 24 2 baby health clinics and healthy eating are often areas of particular strength that attract and retain families. Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate Links with health services are in place at most centres but there is room for improvement in weaker centres in Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. using and sharing data effectively to assess the impact www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 of activities on children’s and families’ health. 65. There are no substantial differences in quality 67. Findings from inspection show that some between the key inspection judgements for children’s effective children’s centres are focusing on preparing centres as illustrated in Figure 16. However, this children to be successful learners by concentrating masks a level of variation between performance in the on their personal, social and emotional development different outcomes for the children and adults who use and their communication and language skills. Some of the service, as illustrated in Figure 17. the most effective centres are achieving some success in bringing otherwise disadvantaged children up to a level to match their peers. 35

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Children’s centres The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 68. In contrast, centres find it more difficult to 69. Children’s centres that are stronger in these provide or direct users towards services that will respects have more effective partnerships in place to enable them to develop skills beyond their immediate provide a range of information and support for parents needs. The weakest area inspected in children’s that meets their needs and improves their chances of centres was developing skills for the future. This entering training or employment, such as partnerships relates not only to the support that children’s centres with Jobcentre Plus, Citizen’s Advice Bureaux and provide to develop the skills of children, but also their adult learning providers. Often the starting point is important role in helping parents to achieve economic in encouraging parents to volunteer, helping them to stability and independence. In this area only 65% of gain additional skills which will be useful in improving children’s centres were judged as good or outstanding. their confidence. Good centres help parents to access These are important aspects of the work of children’s a range of basic courses designed to help them centres and are central to their ability to improve develop and support their family life, such as literacy outcomes for the whole family. or information and communication technology. They also provide help for those for whom English is an additional language to develop their reading and speaking skills. High participation rates in further education courses, and other opportunities such as volunteering, are features of centres that offer good 36

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    support. Adults comment positively about the impact Figure 18 Quality of provision sub-judgements for that such services have on their confidence and self- children’s centres inspected between 1 September 2010 and esteem. 31 August 2011 (percentage of centres) 70. Effective children’s centres provide, or signpost Quality of provision (710) parents to, good-quality childcare provision, so 17 60 23 1 that they can access opportunities for training and Assessment of needs (710) employment in the knowledge that their children 23 54 22 1 are safe and well cared for. These centres also aim to help children to progress in their own learning, Learning, development and enjoyment (710) often by employing highly qualified professionals 15 65 19 1 such as teachers. Good or outstanding centres make Services meet the needs of users (710) effective use of resources to help children develop 17 56 26 1 communication and social skills, for example through links with other children’s groups. Children’s centres Care, guidance and support (710) which are effective in building families’ skills also 36 52 12 provide courses and information to new parents to develop good parenting skills; these help them Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate to understand and deal with issues such as how to Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. manage children’s sleeping patterns and behaviour. 71. Children’s centres that do less well in this 72. The inspections carried out this year shed light area have limited systems in place to identify the on what children’s centres need to do in order to services that children and families need, to secure improve the quality of provision further and deliver early intervention for children who need the most better outcomes for children and their families. Figure support or to assess the impact that these services 18 shows that children’s centres are more effective have on improving outcomes for the family. These in providing care, guidance and support, but less centres may offer only a limited range of training and effective in delivering services that meet the needs learning opportunities, and do not match these to the of users, or ensuring that these services are available skills that parents need in order to secure economic and can be accessed. Inspection suggests that a key improvement for their families. There is a lack of weakness is the lack of rigour with which the impact information in these settings to help parents secure of actions and services is monitored and evaluated. financial stability, with weak signposting to other The use of evaluation to improve services was the services that can help them. weakest of all the inspection sub-judgements in children’s centres inspected this year, being no better than satisfactory in 39% of providers. In order to Inspection suggests that improve quality, better meet the needs of their users a key weakness is the lack of and become more effective, children’s centres need to become far more rigorous in the way they use data rigour with which the impact www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 to identify and assess the needs of the children and of actions and services is families in the local area who are most in need of support; target that support well enough to improve monitored and evaluated. their outcomes; and more systematically evaluate the quality and impact of the services they deliver. 37

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Maintained schools

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    Key findings In 2009 Ofsted introduced a revised inspection The proportion of previously satisfactory schools framework for the inspection of maintained schools which improved increased from 42% last year and academies and a more risk-based approach to to 46% this year. However, the slow progress of inspection in which good and outstanding schools are satisfactory or ‘stuck’ schools continues to be a inspected less frequently. In 2010/11 outstanding cause for concern. Fourteen per cent of all schools schools, with the exception of nursery schools, were inspected this year, which is nearly 800 schools, not inspected if the annual risk assessment showed have been judged satisfactory for at least their no evidence of a decline in performance and the last two inspections and have no better than fundamental nature of the school was unchanged. As satisfactory capacity to improve. a result, the schools inspected in any one year are now There are now fewer schools in categories of not representative of the whole population of schools. concern than last year and the pace of their Fifty-seven per cent of the 5,727 schools improvement has increased: schools took on inspected in the past year were found to provide average 18 months to be removed from special their pupils with a good or outstanding education. measures this year in comparison with 20 months This is a similar proportion to that found last year. last year. It is encouraging that over a fifth of schools judged inadequate at their previous A more representative picture of the ‘state of the inspection had achieved substantial improvement nation’ is given by looking at the most recent and were found to be good or better when inspection judgement for all schools in England. inspected again this year. This shows that 70% of schools were found to have been delivering a good or better standard of There remains a strong relationship between education. deprivation and weaker provision and the gap in the quality of schools between socially deprived Six per cent of schools inspected this year were areas and more advantaged areas is a continuing judged inadequate. This is a decrease from the 8% concern. Seventy-one per cent of schools serving of schools inspected last year. However, this masks the least deprived pupils were judged to be good differences between types of school. Secondary or outstanding compared with 48% of schools schools were most likely to be judged inadequate, serving the most deprived pupils. However, of at 8%. the schools serving the most deprived pupils, 7% Schools are more likely to improve than decline were judged to be outstanding, showing that it is between inspections. However, the proportion possible to buck this trend. that decline is a concern. Around a third of all The quality of teaching is still too variable and schools inspected during 2010/11 improved too much is satisfactory. Teaching was found to their performance compared with their previous be good or outstanding in only 60% of schools inspection and nearly half maintained their overall. However, this is a slight increase from performance. Nearly a fifth received a lower 2009/10. The quality of teaching in secondary overall effectiveness grade. This is a slightly more schools has also improved slightly from 51% good positive picture than in 2009/10. or outstanding last year to 54% this year. Forty per cent of schools previously judged to A key requirement of schools is that they teach be outstanding that were inspected this year pupils to read. Ofsted’s survey evidence shows declined. These schools, with the exception of www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 that primary schools that were most successful nursery schools, were selected for inspection in teaching children to read by six had a very following a risk assessment or because the nature rigorous, systematic approach to teaching phonic of the school had changed. The majority had knowledge and skills. This laid the foundations experienced a decline in standards over time and for successful reading, writing and spelling. The a marked change in terms of senior leadership, approach was applied with a high degree of staff turnover or the profile of their pupils. consistency and was sustained. Three previously outstanding schools declined to inadequate. 39

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Maintained schools The very large majority of schools are orderly places where pupils’ behaviour is judged to be Introduction at least good: where teaching is good pupils’ behaviour is usually at least good as well. Pupils’ 73. This has been a year of considerable change behaviour was good or outstanding in 87% of for the maintained schools sector, with further schools inspected this year compared with 86% government policy developments designed to tackle last year. However, it was less strong in secondary underperforming schools, lever up standards and schools, with 22% judged to have satisfactory improve the quality of teaching. The publication of behaviour and 2% inadequate behaviour. the White Paper in November 2010 highlighted more than ever the importance of good teaching if pupils Leadership and management are good or are to make good progress and schools are to close outstanding in 67% of schools inspected this the significant gaps in achievement between different year, which is similar to the previous year. Given groups of pupils.12 This theme reflects a key message the importance of leadership and management in in last year’s Annual Report, and is repeated again this securing school improvement, there is an urgent year: that the quality of teaching is too variable and need to build more capacity among school leaders too much is no better than satisfactory. in those schools that are not making enough progress, and particularly to tackle the variability 74. The context in which inspections of schools take in teaching within them. place is evolving. A major strand of the government’s education strategy has been to increase the number An important trend in education policy has been of academies and to open up the possibility of the increasing role that successful schools have becoming an academy to a wider spectrum of schools. played in supporting and working in partnership In May 2010, the government invited all outstanding with less successful schools. Ofsted visited 10 schools to consider the option of converting to federations of high-performing schools with academy status, and in November 2010 extended weaker schools for a survey carried out this year. that invitation to good schools to become academies In all 10 such federations teaching and learning, as part of a partnership of schools. This is leading achievement and behaviour had improved in the to a rapid expansion of the number of academies in weaker schools and good outcomes had been existence, and is beginning to change their nature. maintained in the high-performing school. They are no longer exclusively schools in deprived In 79% of all schools inspected this year areas with a history of underperformance. The number safeguarding procedures were judged to be good of academies inspected by Ofsted has increased to or outstanding. It is now rare for inadequate 75 this year from 43 in 2009/10 and this rise is set to procedures to be identified. This indicates that continue. Eleven of the academy inspections carried The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 schools have considerably improved this area of out this year were of the new ‘converter’ academies. their work and take their responsibilities in this 75. A further theme of the White Paper is the role of area very seriously. highly effective schools in leading improvement and, Most of the academies inspected this year were in particular, supporting other less successful schools. sponsored academies where previously the Included in this Annual Report is some of Ofsted’s school had experienced a history of failure or low emerging evidence on how school to school support performance. Of the 75 academies inspected this is driving improvement in a small number of ‘support year, 40 were judged to be providing a good or federations’ and the leadership implications for outstanding education for their pupils and five headteachers who are leading more than one school. were inadequate. The proportion of academies It is likely that, as the number of academies grows and judged good or outstanding is similar to that for the role of local authorities in directly providing school all secondary schools, although within this the improvement services diminishes, these school-to- proportion judged outstanding was higher at just over a fifth. 12. The importance of teaching: schools White Paper, Department for Education, 2010. 40

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    school support structures will become increasingly common and their effectiveness will be a critical Overall effectiveness determinant of school improvement. 79. This more proportionate approach to inspection 76. The education system faces considerable introduced in the 2009/10 framework means that for challenges: to tackle the wide variability in teaching the last two years less successful schools have been and in outcomes for all groups of pupils within and prioritised for inspection. Ofsted now carries out a between schools; to sustain good performance; and risk assessment of all schools, apart from nursery to build capacity where provision is no better than schools, previously judged to be outstanding or good satisfactory. Much of this variability is persistent and starting three years from the end of the academic slow to change. For many years Ofsted has reported year in which they had their previous inspection.13 that the quality of education offered by schools The risk assessment for primary and secondary schools serving the most deprived communities tends to takes into account pupils’ attainment, progress be poorer, on average, than those schools serving and attendance over three years; the findings from the least deprived communities. This has serious any survey visit carried out by Ofsted since the last implications for social equity and mobility and remains inspection; and any significant issues brought to a key issue identified by inspections carried out this Ofsted’s attention, including safeguarding concerns year. and qualifying complaints.14 77. From April 2011 schools have received the new 80. Since 1 September 2010 previously outstanding pupil premium, which is additional funding provided primary and secondary schools have only been selected to schools specifically to support pupils who are for inspection if concerns are identified through this eligible for free school meals. It is too early to tell, risk assessment process, and good schools are only from inspection, what the impact of this additional inspected once in a five-year cycle unless such concerns funding will be. However, inspection has identified are identified.15 This year Ofsted carried out 2,772 a wealth of evidence about those schools that offer risk assessments of primary and secondary schools consistently outstanding education in very challenging previously judged to be good or outstanding. In circumstances, that are absolutely committed to 2,659 of these there was no evidence to suggest that supporting every individual pupil to succeed, and that, performance had deteriorated and Ofsted published as a result, achieve outstanding progress for their an interim assessment confirming this. Following the pupils and weaken the link between deprivation and publication of an interim assessment, outstanding underachievement. The lessons from these outstanding schools were informed that Ofsted would not be schools may help to inform how schools choose to inspecting them but would continue to carry out annual direct the additional funding from the pupil premium. risk assessments and good schools were informed that 78. Inspection continues to evolve to meet these they would not be inspected for at least a year. Interim challenges and they are given even more priority assessments of 47 special schools and pupil referral and emphasis in the new inspection framework to units previously judged to be outstanding were also be introduced in January 2012. Within this changing published and the schools were informed that they landscape Ofsted’s inspections offer a critical insight would not be inspected in the next academic year. www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 on what matters most in schools – the quality of teaching and learning and pupils’ achievement. In the following section the key features and differences of school performance are highlighted. Ofsted’s 13. Schools that have experienced a fundamental change to their increasingly proportionate approach to inspection nature, such as an amalgamation, are selected for inspection prior over recent years has reduced the number of higher to the risk assessment process taking place. performing schools that are inspected each year and 14. Ofsted has specific powers (under section 11A-C of the Education Act 2005, as amended) to investigate certain that therefore contribute to the inspection evidence complaints, known as qualifying complaints. used for the Annual Report. As a result, the schools 15. Ofsted also inspects a random sample of previously good inspected in any one year are now not representative schools in order to check that the risk assessment process is of the whole population of schools, and comparisons working effectively. In 2010/11 Ofsted inspected 59 schools for with previous years are not straightforward. this purpose. Where there has been a fundamental change in the nature of the school inspection may also be brought forward. 41

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Maintained schools Figure 19 The overall effectiveness of schools 82. The impact of risk assessments on the sample of inspected between 1 September 2005 and 31 August 2011 schools inspected in any one year is that many fewer (percentage of schools)16 previously outstanding and good schools are inspected 2010/11 (5,727) than would be the case if a proportionate approach to 11 46 38 6 inspection were not employed. The sample is therefore not representative of the performance of all schools 2009/10 (6,171) in the country. A more representative picture is given 13 43 37 8 by looking at the most recent inspection results of Introduction of new section 5 framework all schools. Although in some cases these inspections 2008/09 (7,065) took place a number of years ago, this nonetheless 19 50 28 4 provides an indication of the overall performance of schools, as well as trends over time. Figure 20 shows 2007/08 (7,866) the most recent inspection result for all schools open 15 49 32 5 on 31 August 2011 compared with all schools open on 2006/07 (8,323) 31 August 2010. 14 47 34 6 2005/06 (6,128) Figure 20 The most recent overall effectiveness judgements for all schools open on 31 August 2011 11 48 34 8 compared with the most recent inspection judgement for all Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate schools open on 31 August 2010 (percentage of schools) 2010/11 (21,845) Figures in 2010/11 include pilot inspection outcomes. 20 50 28 2 Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. 2009/10 (22,008) 81. This was the second full year of inspections 18 50 30 3 using the school inspection framework introduced Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate in 2009/10. Figure 19 shows that the percentage of schools judged good or outstanding this year Figures in 2010/11 include pilot inspection outcomes. is similar to last year. There has been a fall of two Data include inspection outcomes for predecessor schools that have percentage points in the proportion of schools converted to academy status in 2010/11. judged to be outstanding, which has been offset by Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. a three percentage point increase in the proportion of schools judged to be good. The fall in outstanding The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 provision will have been influenced by the increasingly proportionate approach to inspection. This year Six per cent of the schools only 3% of the schools selected for inspection had previously been judged to be outstanding compared inspected this year were found with 8% last year. Six per cent of the schools to be inadequate. The two inspected this year were found to be inadequate. The two percentage point fall compared with last year is percentage point fall compared encouraging. with last year is encouraging. 16. This year Ofsted also conducted 145 pilot inspections to test the new inspection framework for January 2012. The overall effectiveness outcome is included in data for this academic year. All other judgements are excluded. 42

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    83. Figure 20 illustrates two important features. 84. Figure 21 sets out the overall effectiveness of First, it shows that 70% of schools were judged good the sample of schools inspected during 2010/11, or outstanding at their most recent inspection. This in which weaker schools were deliberately targeted is a considerably higher proportion than the 57% of for inspection. The inspection framework introduced schools judged good or outstanding this year (see in 2009 also sets a higher bar for performance than Figure 19) and provides an indication of the impact the previous inspection framework. The inspections of the risk-assessment process on the sample of undertaken this year continue to show considerable schools inspected. Second, it shows that the profile differences in overall effectiveness between different of performance for schools in their most recent types of school. In particular Figure 21 shows the inspection changed little between 31 August 2010 following. and 31 August 2011, although there was a slight The very high proportion of nursery schools increase in the proportion judged outstanding and a being judged outstanding or good continues to slight decrease in the proportion judged satisfactory or be a strong feature. Unlike other types of school, inadequate. It is also a similar profile of performance nursery schools are not subject to risk assessment. to inspection judgements for those schools inspected in 2008/09, the final year of the previous inspection The lowest proportion of outstanding provision framework. In other words, the quality of schools was once again in the primary phase. This year overall has remained relatively stable over the last there was a one percentage point fall in the three years. However, it must be recognised that proportion of primary schools judged outstanding this analysis includes the outcomes of inspection compared with 2009/10. The proportion of undertaken several years ago and against the criteria provision judged no better than satisfactory for set out in previous inspection frameworks and that the this phase remained similar to last year. majority of schools would not have been inspected The performance of secondary schools is more between 2009/10 and 2010/11. polarised than that of primary schools, with both a higher proportion of outstanding provision and a Figure 21 The overall effectiveness of schools higher proportion of inadequate provision. inspected between 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2011 (percentage of schools) Secondary schools are still more likely to be judged inadequate than any other type of school. Nursery (126) However, the proportion of inadequate secondary 46 46 8 schools fell from 11% last year to 8% this year. Primary (4,250) Only 2% of sixth forms are judged inadequate, but 8 47 40 5 a large proportion of provision is only satisfactory. Secondary (894) Special schools and pupil referral units performed 14 38 40 8 well overall, with 76% and 65%, respectively, Sixth form (618) being judged good and outstanding, although 15 42 41 2 in both sectors the proportion of outstanding provision dropped sharply in comparison with www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 Special (328) last year – by seven and six percentage points, 28 48 20 4 respectively. This is likely to be influenced by the Pupil referral unit (129) fact that 2010/11 was the first year in which risk 15 50 29 5 assessments were carried out for special schools All schools (5,727) and pupil referral units and previously outstanding providers were selected on the basis of risk. 11 46 38 6 Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate Figures include pilot inspection outcomes. Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. 43

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Maintained schools 85. As part of each inspection, parents are asked 87. Through the questionnaires parents are also to inform the inspection team of their views about asked how able they feel to support their child’s the school. They can inform inspectors through a learning. Although parents who respond are generally variety of methods, including the use of a confidential very positive about this, 8% of parents disagreed with parents’ and carers’ questionnaire. Inspectors take the statement ‘The school helps me to support my these comments and responses into account as they child’s learning’. However, parents’ dissatisfaction with carry out the inspection. In 2010/11 Ofsted received other aspects of the same schools, such as behaviour, responses from parents or carers of over one-quarter tended also to be high and many of the schools with of the pupils in the schools inspected. these issues were found to be inadequate overall at their inspection. Figure 22 Parents’ responses to the statement ‘Overall, I am happy with my child’s experience at this school’ Figure 23 Change in overall effectiveness of schools (percentage of parents responding) inspected between 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2011 compared with their previous inspection (percentage of Strongly agree schools) 52 Outstanding at previous inspection (163) Agree 60 40 42 Good at previous inspection (2,649) Disagree 16 53 31 4 Satisfactory at previous inspection (2,354) Strongly disagree 46 46 9 1 Inadequate at previous inspection (411) No response 93 7 2 All schools with a previous inspection (5,577) 34 47 19 Based on proportion of parental questionnaire returns (315,182). Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. Improved Same Declined This figure includes the 5,577 schools with a previous section 5 inspection 86. Overall, parents remain very positive about the judgement. quality of education that their child receives. An Schools that were previously outstanding and inspected this year include nursery schools, which are subject to routine inspection; primary schools, analysis of 315,182 parental questionnaires returned secondary schools, special schools and pupil referral units that have been The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 from 3,679 inspections shows that 94% of the parents selected on the basis of risk; and schools selected because of a change in who responded were positive overall about their their fundamental nature. child’s schooling. These results are consistent with Data exclude 10 academy converters. the previous year, when 93% expressed a positive Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. opinion overall. The lowest proportion of strongly positive comments came in response to the question, 88. Figure 23 compares schools’ overall effectiveness ‘The school takes account of my suggestions and this year with their previous inspection. Overall concerns’, but even here 85% of parents either agreed around a third of schools inspected this year had or strongly agreed with the statement. improved since their previous inspection, under half had maintained their performance and just under one fifth had declined. This represents slightly better performance than last year when 29% of schools improved and 23% declined. 44

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    89. Nearly a third of those previously good or 92. This year the quality of a small but notable outstanding schools inspected were unable to sustain number of successful special schools also declined, their performance. This figure reflects Ofsted’s policy including 10 which declined from outstanding and of selecting good and outstanding schools in which 35 from good. Most of these schools declined to performance is less secure for inspection on the basis good or satisfactory, but six were judged inadequate. of risk assessment. The schools which declined from outstanding were varied in nature, including some serving pupils with 90. Of the 40% of outstanding schools which had severe and multiple learning difficulties and others declined since their previous inspection, the large where pupils had behavioural, social and emotional majority are now judged to be good. However, 11 difficulties. In approximately a third of these schools schools declined to satisfactory and three were there had been a change of headteacher since the judged inadequate. In the three schools that declined previous inspection and in many cases a lack of to inadequate, pupils’ achievement had fallen precision about the roles and responsibilities of senior substantially, the quality of teaching was no better and middle leaders was also a factor contributing to than satisfactory and inspectors identified major the deterioration in quality. Several of these schools weaknesses in both governance and safeguarding were not well enough informed about the quality of procedures. In 59% of the schools which declined teaching and did not address emerging weaknesses this year from outstanding to good or satisfactory, with anything like enough urgency. Most commonly, standards of attainment had also declined. The the governing body knew too little about the school majority had experienced a significant change in terms because monitoring was not rigorous or because of senior leadership, the stability of their staffing, overgenerous self-review judgements were accepted or the profile of their pupils. As a result, priority had without sufficient challenge; at times of change and been given to stabilising management or teaching, so in an inherently challenging sector, they accepted too that the drive for continuous high quality had faltered. much on trust. In most cases inspectors made recommendations to refocus energies on key processes such as monitoring 93. The challenge for all schools is to either improve and evaluation, or ensuring the consistency of their performance or maintain it at a high level over a assessment in order to improve teaching. This sustained period of time. It is therefore encouraging underlines the fact that a previous track record of that the proportion of satisfactory and inadequate success is no guarantee that schools will continue to schools that have improved is slightly higher, in both flourish. For all outstanding schools the challenge is to cases, than last year. Not only have more inadequate sustain their high levels of performance. schools improved, but they have done so faster than last year; the average time taken for schools to 91. In a sector with a generally high level of be removed from special measures was 18 months performance and stability, 12 nursery schools declined this year compared with 20 months last year. This from outstanding to good at this year’s inspection. In corresponds to a substantial increase in the proportion many cases, this coincided with additional pressures of schools coming out of special measures after two on the senior leaders such as building works, sharing Ofsted monitoring inspections and a substantial in the leadership of another centre or uncertainties decrease in the proportion of schools coming out www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 over the school’s future. Governing bodies sometimes of special measures in four or more monitoring failed to recognise the impact of such pressures on inspections. the normal delivery of high-quality practice, and a lack of rigour in school monitoring and self-evaluation 94. Nonetheless, it remains a serious concern that then allowed decline to set in – for example when over half the schools previously judged satisfactory the extent of lesson observation fell so that a decline and inspected this year remain stuck at satisfactory or in the quality of teaching was not noticed. In these have declined. This represents over 1,250 schools. In schools, senior leaders tended to be having only a just over three quarters of these schools their capacity limited impact on teaching so that weaknesses in to improve is also judged no better than satisfactory. planning and assessment were beginning to emerge. In some cases these weaknesses were leading to less effective development of pupils’ language and communication skills. 45

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Maintained schools 95. Under the inspection arrangements introduced 99. In the schools where progress was only in 2009, Ofsted carries out monitoring of satisfactory satisfactory, while there may have been some schools which provides critical evidence of what these improvements in pupils’ achievement, these were not schools need to do to improve. Schools may receive a found consistently across the school. Some attention monitoring visit if the capacity to improve judgement had been given to improving the quality of teaching at their previous inspection was only satisfactory, if and some teachers had benefited greatly from these an element of their provision was judged inadequate, approaches. In other cases, the efforts to improve or if pupils’ standards or progress are significantly teaching had not brought about the desired results. below average. There were 770 schools previously This was often due to schools not being sufficiently judged to be satisfactory which received a monitoring clear about what needed to be improved and trying visit this year to evaluate their progress in making to make too many changes without the necessary improvements and demonstrating a better capacity to consideration and prioritisation. improve. 100. In the schools judged to be inadequate in making 96. Last year’s Annual Report found that the improvements, there remained significant difficulties progress being made by satisfactory schools that had in improving standards. In primary and secondary received a monitoring visit was too slow. This year schools the efforts of senior managers to improve the picture is slightly better, but not good enough the quality of teaching were taking too long to have overall: in 40% of these visits schools’ progress a positive impact. Frequently these schools had an was judged to be good compared with less than a insecure understanding of what constituted effective third of schools visited last year. However, only five teaching and this created difficulties when monitoring schools were making outstanding progress and in was undertaken by senior staff. In addition, 64 schools, just over 8%, progress was judged to be weaknesses which are common in many schools inadequate. Therefore, although the picture is better making satisfactory progress, such as in assessing this year, there still remains considerable scope for pupils’ progress and planning carefully for individual improvement, as teaching is not being improved needs, were more significant and more deeply rooted sufficiently to drive pupils’ progress. in schools in which progress was inadequate. These problems were sometimes exacerbated by local factors 97. In schools where progress was judged good, such as the absence of the headteacher or an inability there had been a substantial shift in the rate of pupils’ to appoint enough highly skilled and experienced progress. This was typically due to improved teaching. staff. Teachers were expecting more from the pupils; they were engaging more effectively with them and greater attention was being given to carefully assessing and Last year’s Annual Report The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 then meeting their learning needs. 98. The leadership of the headteacher and the found that the progress being senior management team was also crucial in securing made by satisfactory schools improved outcomes for pupils at schools that had been stuck at satisfactory. In previously stuck that had received a monitoring schools making good progress there had been a visit was too slow. This year the transformation in their approach to professional development and their drive for consistency, especially picture is slightly better, but in teaching. These schools had created an environment not good enough overall. where key leaders focused relentlessly on improving the consistency and quality of teaching and ensured that staff learnt continually from the influence of the best practice in and beyond the school. There was a clear understanding among staff that the senior leaders saw teaching, and its impact on learning, as the major business of the school. 46

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    The relationship between deprivation 102. However, the 7% of schools serving the most deprived pupils that were judged outstanding and the quality of schools demonstrate that it is clearly possible to buck the trend. Almost all of these outstanding schools serving Figure 24 Overall effectiveness of schools inspected deprived communities were from urban areas and over between 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2011 by a third were located in the London area. deprivation (percentage of schools) 103. A complex range of factors contributes to the Least deprived (780) difference in the quality of schools according to 17 54 27 2 deprivation. However, Ofsted inspection and survey evidence has consistently shown that sustained and Less deprived (1,027) committed ambition on the part of school leaders 13 49 36 2 and governors, with high levels of expectation Average (1,169) for pupils irrespective of low prior attainment and 8 45 41 6 a determination to deliver good teaching for all, are critical factors in breaking down barriers to Deprived (1,276) achievement. These schools achieve very high levels 8 42 42 8 of consistency in teaching and learning, and have Most deprived (1,213) excellent professional development in place for their 7 41 43 8 staff. Where senior leaders lack this commitment and ambition, or have limited capacity to drive up Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate standards, schools serving deprived pupils struggle to This chart is based on the deprivation of pupils on the school roll in make sustained progress. January 2011 as measured by the Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (IDACI) 2010. The chart groups schools by quintiles of deprivation. ‘Most deprived’ indicates the 20% of schools with the most deprived The quality of education in the Early pupils. Nurseries, pupil referral units and hospital schools are excluded from this Years Foundation Stage analysis because the IDACI measure is not available for these schools. Figures are rounded and may not add exactly to 100. 104. Schools which have children below the age of five currently receive a separate overall effectiveness judgement for their provision of the Early Years 101. Deprivation continues to be a significant Foundation Stage. This judgement contributes to the factor influencing the quality of schools. Figure 24 grade awarded for the overall effectiveness of the shows that the proportion of schools judged good school. Provision for the early years was judged to or outstanding declines steeply as the proportion be good or outstanding in 75% of primary schools of deprived pupils at the school increases. A school inspected and in 92% of nursery schools. serving the most deprived pupils in the country is four times more likely to be inadequate than a school serving the least deprived. At the other end www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/annualreport1011 of the spectrum 17% of the schools serving the least deprived pupils were outstanding compared with 7% of schools serving the most deprived communities. This variation in performance continues to have a significant impact on the life chances of many pupils, reinforcing inequality and reducing social mobility. Addressing this is one of the key challenges for the education system. 47

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    ANNUAL REPORT 2010/11 Maintained schools 105. Despite these particularly strong outcomes there 106. Inspectors make judgements about pupils’ was a substantial difference in the percentage of achievement by combining their evaluation of the different types of school being judged as outstanding progress made by pupils with an assessment of their for the Early Years Foundation Stage. In nursery standards of attainment. This is a key judgement schools, which form a relatively small and specialist and in most schools it correlates with the judgement sector and are not subject to risk assessment, 47% made about the overall effectiveness of the school. of foundation stage provision was judged to be While inspectors’ judgements on pupils’ attainment outstanding compared with 9% in primary schools. form an important part of the overall judgement on The quality of leadership and management of the achievement, the rates of progress that pupils make Early Years Foundation Stage in nursery schools from their starting points are often more significant was considerably better than that found in primary and reflect the impact of what the school does. schools. Where leaders have been most effective in Attainment judgements are based on how well pupils the Early Years Foundation Stage, they have focused perform in national tests and examinations over a on developing a common approach to promoting three-year period as well as the attainment levels children’s early learning and development that has observed by inspectors in lessons and in their scrutiny been articulated clearly and implemented consistently of the pupils’ work. The historical data are considered throughout the school. This tends to lead to more alongside what the school is currently achieving for effective teaching and results in better rates of its pupils. Progress is also looked at over time so that progress by the children. inspectors can consider the school’s track record as well as the progress achieved for the pupils currently being educated by the school. Pupils’ achievement 107. A judgement that pupils’ progress is good will often lead to a similar judgement about achievement, Figure 25 Pupils’ achievement and the extent to which even where standards of attainment are below they enjoy their learning in schools inspected between average or low. In these cases the schools are making 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2011 (percentage of a significant difference for their pupils and good schools) and improving rates of progress are reflected in an improving trend in attainment, with ambitious and Nursery (123) convincing improvement targets for the future. Of the 33 59 7 schools inspected this year, 57% were judged to be Primary (4,160) good or outstanding for pupils’ achievement, a similar 7 48 40 5 figure to last year. However, in too many schools the Secondary (859) attainment and the progress of pupils are not good The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector 2010/11 12 41 40 7 enough. Special (317) 108. The close correlation between the judgement 16 60 21 3 made for pupils’ achievement and that for the Pupil referral unit (123) overall effectiveness of the school identified in the 2 63 31 4 2009/10 Annual Report has continued this year. In over 94% of inspections the same judgements were All schools (5,582) made for both aspects of a school’s performance. 9 48 38 5 However, the correlation between the grades awarded for pupils’ attainment and schools’ overall Outstanding Good Satisfactory Inadequate effectiveness continues to be much less strong. Figures are rounded and do not always add exactly to 100. The same judgement was made for attainment and overall effectiveness in just 56% of schools. In comparison, in 38% of schools the judgement for overall effectiveness was higher than that for attainment. In the large majority of these schools both pupils’ progress and their achievement were good or outstanding. 48

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