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Dutch Research School of Theoretical Physics ANNUAL REPORT 2008 Landelijke Onderzoekschool voor Theoretische Natuurkunde

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Dutch Research School of Theoretical Physics (DRSTP) Landelijke Onderzoekschool voor Theoretische Natuurkunde (LOTN) Visiting address: Minnaert Building Leuvenlaan 4 3584 CE Utrecht Postal address: P.O. Box 80.195 3508 TD Utrecht the Netherlands telephone: +31 30 253 5916 fax: +31 30 253 5937 email: science.secr.drstp@uu.nl website: http://www1.phys.uu.nl/drstp/

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Preface The Dutch Research School of Theoretical Physics (DRSTP) is a cooperation be tween the theoretical physics groups of six Dutch universities: University of Amster dam (UvA), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VUA), University of Groningen (RUG), Leiden University (UL), Radboud University Nijmegen (RU) and Utrecht University (UU, commissioner). In addition, there are several associated groups and individual researchers. Its main objectives are to implement a joint programme of graduate ed ucation and to maintain and strengthen research in theoretical physics. On 31 December 2008, 80 PhD students were affiliated to the DRSTP, as well as 49 tenured and 44 nontenured staff (postdocs). The research output led to 15 PhD dissertations and 333 academic publications. This annual report 2008 provides an overview of the educational and research activ ities during 2008. The report also presents two research highlights written by staff members of the Research School. In addition, it offers information, such as a list of the participating staff, of the PhD students, a comprehensive list of publications, as well as other relevant statistics. The annual report is not the only information that we make available throughout the year. We also publish a monthly newsletter and a yearly guide of our educational activities. Uptodate information on the DRSTP is also readily available on internet at: http://www1.phys.uu.nl/drstp/. Finally, we should like to thank all of those who contributed to the Research School during this past year. prof. dr. B. de Wit prof. dr. K. Schoutens Scientific director Chair governing board September 2009

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Contents 1 The DRSTP in 2008 7 2 Scientific highlights 11 3 PhD programme 19 3.1 Educational programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.1.1 DRSTP postgraduate courses (AIO/OIO schools) . . . . . . . . 19 3.2 DRSTP PhD Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.3 Shell stipends in theoretical physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.3.1 Guest lecturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.4 PhD degrees and subsequent employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.5 PhD degrees granted in the DRSTP in 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.6 Other PhDs advised by DRSTP staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.7 DRSTP PhD students (31122008) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3.8 Scientific and educational activities of PhD students (theme 1) . . . . 38 3.9 Scientific and educational activities of PhD students (theme 2) . . . . 46 4 Scientific staff (31122008) 53 4.1 Permanent staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 4.2 Temporary staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4.3 Associate members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 4.4 Emeriti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 5 Academic publications 57 5.1 Theme 1: Particle physics, cosmology, quantum gravity and string theory 57 5.2 Theme 2: Quantum matter, quantum information, soft condensed mat ter and biophysics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 6 Scientific activities 77 6.1 Theme 1: Particle physics, cosmology, quantum gravity and string theory 77 6.2 Theme 2: Quantum matter, quantum information, soft condensed mat ter and biophysics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

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7 Sciencerelated activities 103 7.1 Professional publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7.2 Other publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7.3 Public lectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 7.4 Other contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 8 Research funding 111 8.1 Personal grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 8.2 FOM funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 8.3 EUnetworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 8.4 ESF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 8.5 Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 9 Organisation DRSTP 2008 119 10 Addresses 121 Appendix A Mission Statement 125 Appendix B Selection and supervision procedure of PhD students 129 Appendix C Postgraduate AIO/OIO schools 131 Appendix D DRSTP PhD Day 135 Appendix E National seminars 139 Appendix F Shell Stipends 141 Appendix G Statistics 143

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1 The DRSTP in 2008 The Netherlands has a long tradition in theoretical physics which involves research performed at university institutes, industrial laboratories, and government institu tions. The strength of this research area is, for a large part, based on the unity of methods employed in a wide range of applications. This manifests itself both in sci entific research and in academic education. To structure and coordinate the graduate education in theoretical physics, the Dutch Research School of Theoretical Physics (DRSTP) was accredited in 1994 by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) and reaccredited in 1999 and 2004. The school is, at this moment, a cooperation between the theoretical physics groups of six Dutch universities: University of Amsterdam (UvA), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VUA), University of Groningen (RUG), Leiden University (UL), Rad boud University Nijmegen (RU) and Utrecht University (UU, commissioner). In ad dition, there are several associated groups and individual researchers. The main objectives of the Dutch Research School of Theoretical Physics are to imple ment a joint programme of graduate education in theoretical physics and to maintain and strengthen research in theoretical physics from a broad unifying perspective that exploits the interrelationships between different fields of theory. The DRSTP is based on the conviction that a joint venture of all the moderately sized local theory groups, each with its own profile, offers added value for the achievement of these objectives. The current version of the mission statement and a short description of the DRSTP organization can be found in appendix A. The DRSTP graduate programme in 2008 As part of the research training, under supervision of a memberscientist of a par ticipating university, the Research School guarantees a wide range of educational opportunities for its PhD students. These consist of postgraduate schools, advanced courses, seminars and topical courses in the Netherlands, and international experi ence in the form of workshops, summer schools or extended research visits abroad. As in previous years the educational board published the educational guide with an overview of lecture courses in theoretical physics in the Netherlands. In 2008 fifteen students obtained their PhD. The average time between the start of the research and the date of the PhD exam is 50,0 months. PhD students are admitted on the basis of a socalled “agreement of education and guidance” (plan for training and supervision). The selection and admission procedure is described in appendix B. The DRSTP research programme Theoretical physics is based on universal principles. New concepts often have a much wider validity than for the field where they were initially discovered, and methods

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8 Annual report 2008 of description developed in one field are often fruitful in another. Hence, theoretical physics is characterized by unity in diversity. The research programme of the DRSTP is organized according to two themes: • Theme 1: Particle physics, cosmology, quantum gravity and string theory. • Theme 2: Quantum matter, quantum information, soft condensed matter and biophysics. To give an impression of the variety of research topics, two highlights are presented in chapter 2. The specific content of the research programme depends on the respon sible project leaders, on their creativity as well as their success in acquiring research funding from their home university, from the Dutch research councils of NWO, or from international sources such as European Union programmes. The 2008 research output of DRSTP members presented in this annual report is pre sented according to the above research themes. DRSTP PhD Day 2008 On 25 April 2008 the DRSTP student council organized a socalled PhD Day. This day was aimed at exchanging ideas, inviting former PhD students to discuss career options, to present scientific talks and to discuss recent trends in theoretical physics. Also master students and postdocs were invited. More information can be found in appendix D. Based on its success it has been decided that in the future the PhD Day will be an annual event of the DRSTP, which is part of the educational program for the PhD students. Shell Stipends Theoretical Physics 2008 In 2008 Shell awarded, for the first time, stipends to the best master students in theoretical physics in the Netherlands. With these stipends, Shell intends to draw at tention to future career possibilities for graduates in international companies such as Shell. Nine master students in Theoretical Physics were awarded a Shell stipend. In the award ceremony held at Shell Epi Centre Rijswijk on October 16th, dr. Dirk Smit, Shell R&D Manager for Exploration & Novel Technology, handed over the cheques to the students who had obtained their MSc degree at one of the universities involved in the DRSTP. The following students received a stipend: Ted van der Aalst (UU); Wouter Beugeling (UU); Pawel Caputa (UvA); Kiril Hristov (UU); Martijn Mink (UU); Jorn Mossel (UvA); Louk Rademaker (UL); Siebren Reker (RUG) and Jesper Romers (UvA). More information can be found in appendix F.

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1. The DRSTP in 2008 9 Enrico Conti (19742009) Enrico Conti, a PhD student at the VUA with Fred MacKintosh and a DRSTP mem ber since 2004, died suddenly on January 22 (2009). Enrico was near completion of a thesis on the nonlinear elastic properties of stiff polymer networks. He had recently predicted novel “negative normal stresses” in a thermal fiber network [1]. Some of his predictions seem to have been observed subsequently in experiments [2]. Sadly, Enrico did not live to see the fruits of his labor in print. [1] E. Conti and F.C. MacKintosh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 (2009) 088102. [2] H. Kang, Q. Wen, P.A. Janmey, J.X. Tang, E. Conti, F.C. MacKintosh, J. Phys. Chem. B 113 (2009) 3799. Enrico Conti  2009 Staff mutations in 2008 Dr. K. Allaart (VUA) retired per 1 May 2008. Prof. dr. H. Blöte (UL) retired per 11 April 2008. Prof. dr. J. Smit (UvA/UU) retired per 1 October 2008. Prof. dr. H. van Beijeren (UU) retired per 1 December 2008. Prof. dr. L.J. van den Horn (UvA) retired per 31 December 2008. Prof. dr. W.A. van Leeuwen (UvA) retired per 12 January 2008. Prof. dr. P.R. ten Wolde (VUA/AMOLF) was appointed parttime professor at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam on 1 August 2008. The associate membership of prof. dr. ir. H. Dekker (TNO/UvA/TU/e) ended in 2008 because of retirement. Dr. M.V. Mostovoy (RUG) became an associate member in 2008. Prof. dr. J.E.J.M. van Himbergen, the first scientific director of the DRSTP (1993 1997), resigned from the DRSTP in 2008 because of his fulltime activities as Dean of International Affairs of Utrecht University. Inaugural lecture Prof. dr. A. Fasolino (RU) delivered her inaugural lecture Een computer voor jezelf at Radboud University Nijmegen on 29 October 2008. Guest chairs In 2008 staff members and PhD students profited from the presence of world renowned physicists appointed on the guests chairs. Prof. dr. F.D.M. Haldane (Princeton University) occupied the Lorentz Chair at Lei den University. Prof. dr. A.H. MacDonald (UT Austin) occupied the Kramers Chair at Utrecht Uni versity. More information about their activities can be found in section 3.1.3. Awards and distinctions E. Ardonne (UvA) was awarded an Andreas Bonn medal by the “Genootschap ter bevordering van de Natuur, Genees en Heelkunde” for the research presented in

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10 Annual report 2008 his PhD thesis A conformal field theory description of fractional quantum Hall states (2002). Ardonne did his PhD work at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (UvA). G. Stavenga (UU) was awarded the best student award at the Erice International School on Subnuclear Physics, Sicily, Italy, 29 August  7 September 2008. M. Taylor (UvA) was awarded the 2008 Minerva Prize from FOM (Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter) for her work on the fuzzball proposal for black holes. She was also elected to The Young Academy of KNAW (the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences). H. van Beijeren (UU) was awarded a Humboldt Research Award. D.J. van der Hoek (RUG) received the Kamerlingh Onnes Prize 2007 on 29 May 2008 for his master thesis. His supervisor is Prof. dr. M. de Roo. S.J.G. Vandoren (UU) was awarded the DescartesHuygens prize 2008. J. Zaanen (UL) was elected Fellow of the American Physical Society. Visiting scientists (long term) P. Calabrese (University of Pisa) was a guest at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (UvA) from 16 January  6 February and from 16 April  1 June. E. Grosfeld (Weizmann Institute) was a guest at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (UvA) from 24 March  27 April. S. Panda (HarishChandra Research Institute, Allahabad, India) was a guest at the Centre for Theoretical Physics (RUG) from 1 September to 1 October. R. Percacci (SISSA, Trieste) was a guest at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (UU) from 1 April  1 July. This annual report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 contains two scientific highlights. Chapter 3 gives a description of the educational programme, short summaries of the PhD theses published in 2008, an overview of the scientific and educational activities of the PhD students affiliated to the DRSTP. An overview of the DRSTP scientific staff and associate members is given in chapter 4. The chapters 5, 6, 7 contain, respectively, the 2008 publications, talks and other presentations and sciencerelated activities (public lectures, professional publications). Data on research funding are listed in chapter 8.

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2 Scientific highlights This chapter presents two highlights of theoretical research carried out by members of the Research School. One concerns work on top quark physics at the LHC. This work belongs to theme 1 of the school and the contribution has been written by Eric Laenen. A second highlight belongs to theme 2 and deals with ultracold atomic gases and new phases in condensed matter systems. This contribution has been written by Cristiane Morais Smith. Top quarks at the LHC (Eric Laenen, University of Amsterdam/Utrecht Uni versity/NIKHEF) The ephemeral top quark is among the strangest pieces of elementary matter ever made. It is bizarrely heavy, about 20,000 times more massive than its ubiquitous cousin, the up quark which is part of every proton and neutron. The top’s heaviness alone has fascinating and potentially farreaching implications for our understanding of elementary matter and force. Its large mass is thought be a direct consequence of electroweak symmetry breaking, so its behavior must be especially sensitive to this mechanism’s details. It might even be its cause, as in some models beyond the Stan dard Model top quark couplings drive the symmetry breaking when evolving from high to low energies. Moreover, it is possible that thus far unknown symmetries exist with exotic, heavy particles as harbingers. Being about as heavy, the behavior of a top quark in highenergy collisions might well be measurably influenced by such particles, and thereby reveal their existence. The CDF and D0 experiments at Fer milab’s Tevatron have discovered the top quark in 1995, have measured mass with great accuracy, as well as some other of its properties. Cern’s Large Hadron Collider is a true top quark factory, and will produce millions of top quarks per year starting in 2009. Precise scrutiny of the top quark’s interactions is therefore a key component of the research of the LHC experiments. Such an endeavour rests crucially on being able to distinguish the new from the known, which in turn requires the best possible description of the top quarks Standard Model behavior. A particularly interesting top production mechanism proceeds through the weak in teraction and is called singletop production. In the simplest form, in lowest order perturbation theory, the Feynman diagrams in Figure 2.1 describe the process. Al though only a lowest order definition, the three channels have sufficiently unique characteristics that this nomenclature is maintained when radiative corrections are included. For each channel, the rate is proportional to the CabibboKobayashiMaskawa ele ment Vtb . If only the known three fermion families exist, the latter must be 0.9998. If a heavy fourth family exists, it can be much smaller. A direct measurement of this

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12 Annual report 2008 parameter, which is in fact only possible in single top production, is therefore very interesting. Moreover, the Standard Model weak interaction produces the top quark in a pure spinstate, and the top decays before mixing the other spinstate occurs. It actually imparts its spin information with 100% efficiency to the angular distribution of the final electron or muons in its decay chain. Many newphysics models produce top in a mixture of spinstates, so that also these angular corrections are an interest ing discriminant. Figure 2.1: Leading order diagrams for singlet production in the (1) schannel, (2) tchannel and (3) W tchannel. The tquark line is doubled. To describe single top production most accurately, and flexibly, exact higher order radiative corrections must be included, and the result cast in a parton shower Monte Carlo framework. Until a few years ago, these two requirements were never merged in one description. The most severe among the obstacles were the problems of double counting of emissions between the parton shower and the nexttoleading order cor rections, and the presence of negative probabilities due to virtual corrections. Such a combined framework was actually developed not long ago [1]. For the case of top quark pair production, Figure 2.2 shows that this approach indeed combines the best of both descriptions. In references [1] and [2] we included the singletop process in this framework. For the s and t channel production models this involved extending the framework to allow for final state jets. These two channels are relevant for the Fermilab Tevatron. For the W t channel, important for the LHC, we faced another fundamental obstruction: the quan tum interference with the pair production process. Specifically, among the radiative corrections to the W t channel is the production of a top pair with subsequent decay of the antitop to a W − and a b quark. Because the LHC pair production rate is about 20 times larger than the W t rate, this is a serious problem indeed. In the literature a number of adhoc, theoretically idealistic solutions were proposed, but we had to solve this under the stringent requirements of a parton shower event generator. We solved this in two ways, the difference being in fact precisely the interference terms. In the first (diagram removal (DR)), we simply removed the diagrams from the amplitude. This drastic procedure required us to take a very critical look at gauge invariance. In the second (diagram subtraction (DS)) we constructed a counterterm that subtracts the resonant contributions point by point in the multidimensional phase space, and does not upset the delicate balance of cancelling infrared divergences. A very useful additional requirement we imposed to help separate W t from pair production is to

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2. Scientific highlights 13 demand that the second most energetic bquark does not have too high a transverse momentum, since bquarks from antitop decay do tend to have such high momentum. Figure 2.2: Transverse momentum distribution of top quark pair in combined MC@NLO approach, agreeing with parton shower (HERWIG) approach at small, and with fixed order (NLO) at large pT . Figure 2.3: Cross section for W t production, differential in pll T.

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14 Annual report 2008 In Figure 2.3 I show the result for one particular observable: the combined transverse momentum pll T of the two leptons that result from top quark decay and W boson decay in Figure 2.3. Clearly both methods agree quite well, with only a noticeable discrepancy at large pll T , implying that we have been successfully able to suppress the dangerously large interference terms. Even though we have thus demonstrated that, like the s and t singletop production channels, the W t channel can be consistently described using the best tools for ra diative corrections, a selection strategy to separate it from the large background is still required. Having developed such an accurate and flexible description, we are in a prime position to define such a strategy. This is the subject of current, promising research. [1] S. Frixione and B.R. Webber, Matching NLO QCD computations and parton shower simulations, JHEP 0206 (2002) 029 [arXiv: hepph/0204244]. [2] S. Frixione, E. Laenen, P. Motylinski and B.R. Webber, Singletop production in MC@NLO, JHEP 0603 (2006) 092 [arXiv: hepph/0512250]. [3] S. Frixione, E. Laenen, P. Motylinski, B.R. Webber and C.D. White, Singletop hadroproduction in association with a W boson, JHEP 0807 (2008) 029 [arXiv: 0805.3067 [hepph].

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2. Scientific highlights 15 Cold atoms as condmat emulators (Cristiane Morais Smith, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University) In the last decade, ultracold atomic gases in optical potentials have emerged as a synthetic laboratory to emulate condensed matter systems. The experimental obser vation of a cold atom analogue of a superfluid to Mott insulator transition in the Hub bard model, the BECBCScrossovertype physics that would have been impossible to demonstrate in a conventional solid state system, and the Anderson localization phenomenon as triggered by a wellcontrolled disordered optical potential open up new perspectives into thinking about manybody physics. The high tunability and versatility of the system offers an advantage that is not present in ordinary condensed matter systems. Besides the exciting possibility to realize quantum computation, it is also hoped that the emulation of various lattice models with cold atoms may shed light on the complex behavior of highTc cuprate superconductors. Recently, Andreas Hemmerich (Hamburg University) and Cristiane Morais Smith (Utrecht University) proposed a set up to excite a superfluid state which carries the characteristic of a ddensity wave [1]. The latter is one of the possible ground states suggested to arise in the pseudogap regime of the cuprates. While the experimental observation of the ddensity wave phase has been hampered by the effects of disorder, the realization of such a state in a cold atom context offers a new opportunity to probe its properties in a clean environment. Further studies by LihKing Lim in the group of Morais Smith, together with An dreas Hemmerich, have shown that in the tightbinding regime, the proposed setup can in fact be described by a twodimensional square lattice model in the presence of a “staggered magnetic field” [2]. By applying a uniform rotation to a BEC, the effect of uniform magnetic fields could be simulated, and Abrikosov lattices with up to hundred vortices were observed, thus confirming the superfluid properties of the cold atomic gas. Due to the technical difficulty in engineering magnetic fields alter nating on the spatial scale of condensed matter lattices, much less is known about particles moving in a 2D lattice subjected to a staggered magnetic field. By the use of a bichromatic lightshift potential in the ultracold atomic system, the tunneling dynamics with vortical currents alternating across neighbouring plaquettes can be captured quite naturally by a description in terms of an effective staggered magnetic field, as shown in Figure 2.4. Because the interaction strength and the staggered mag netic flux are experimentally tunable parameters, several interesting novel quantum phases may be realized in such a system. When the lattice is loaded with bosons, a very rich phase diagram emerges in the framework of the generalized BoseHubbard model. For strong interactions, the ground state is a Mott insulator. For weak interactions, the bosons condense to form a BEC. Depending on the magnetic flux, different superfluid states are shown to emerge due to the inequivalent minima in the band structure. Besides the usual uniform superfluid for small flux, a staggeredvortex superfluid is stabilized when the externally applied flux is larger than half a magnetic flux quantum (φ > φ0 /2). The angular phases of the order parameter differ by π/2 between neighboring lat tice points, and there is a quantized flux on each plaquette, with alternating sign for

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16 Annual report 2008 B A B A B A B A B Figure 2.4: Effective staggered gauge field. adjacent plaquettes. This phase is thus characterized by a vortexantivortex lattice, commensurate with the optical lattice. By imaging momentum space using standard ballistic expansion techniques, one is able to distinguish the two superfluids, since they display distinct structures of Bragg maxima, directly observable in experiments. On the other hand, by filling the system with fermionic atoms, different physics emerges due to the Pauli principle. By trapping single component fermions in the op tical lattice, an ideal Fermi gas with an energy band structure comprising upper and lower bands touching at two inequivalent conical points is realized (see Figure 2.5). For the density of one particle per site, the lower band is filled and the lowenergy description of the system is given by the dynamics around the two conical points. The resulting energymomentum relation is linear, with the Fermi velocity depend ing on the direction of propagation. The lowenergy quasiparticles are thus nothing but massless Dirac particles in two dimensions, albeit anisotropic ones. While the occurrence of Dirac particles in a condensed matter system is rare, there has been much interest recently when graphene has been fabricated in the laboratory. Due to its hexagonal lattice structure, graphene also carries excitations which are Diraclike. This feature is responsible for many interesting phenomena, among which are the ob servation of the anomalous integer Hall effect at room temperature, or the realization of the Klein paradox, to name just a few. In the ultracold system that we consider here in a square optical lattice, the Dirac fermions emerge as a result of timereversal symmetry breaking. Although the effective description of the two systems is formally the same, the two problems are actually very different in the details. By adding a gauge field to the hexagonal lattice of graphene, the Dirac points approach each other,

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2. Scientific highlights 17 but they remain isotropic. In order to generate anisotropic cones, it is necessary to grow a graphene layer on top of a periodically patterned potential. Such a configu ration has been recently claimed to be appropriate for developing high performance electronic devices. Here, we obtain the anistropic Dirac cones naturally, and their slope can be directly controled by the anisotropic gauge field. Figure 2.5: Singleparticle spectrum. (a) flux per plaquette φ < φ0 /2; (b) flux per plaquette φ > φ0 /2. We thus see that the addition of a staggered magnetic field to a 2D square optical lattice opens up a new avenue to investigate novel quantum phases and emulate different condensed matter systems, such as graphene and highTc superconductors. The gauge field transforms the hopping coefficients into complex and anisotropic parameters and brings new features into the well known and largely studied Hubbard model. Future investigations will involve mixtures of bosons and fermions, a case which could allow for the realization of strongly interacting Dirac fermions and hence, to promote the first step towards the aftergraphene era [3]. [1] A. Hemmerich and C. Morais Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113002 (2007). [2] L.K. Lim, C. Morais Smith, and A. Hemmerich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 130402 (2008). [3] L.K. Lim, A. Lazarides, A. Hemmerich, and C. Morais Smith, arXiv 0905.1281.

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3 PhD programme This chapter provides an overview of the educational programme and of the PhD de grees granted in 2008. Research projects of current PhD students and data on their scientific and educational activities in 2008 are given. The DRSTP offers a joint programme of graduate education leading to a PhD. The educational programme is based in part on the regular advanced courses, seminars and topical courses offered at the participating universities. The DRSTP organizes at least two postgraduate schools every year. Furthermore, students can gain inter national experience by attending (international) workshops or summer schools and, in certain cases, by making extended research visits abroad. The governing board is advised on educational matters by the educational board. Regular advanced courses at the universities are published in a nationwide survey at the beginning of each aca demic year. The governing board of the DRSTP decides on admission of individual PhD students and monitors their progress. The affiliation of students is based on the ‘agreement of education and guidance’ (plan for training and supervision), drawn between each in dividual student and his/her advisor(s). This document is submitted to the governing board before a decision is taken about the formal affiliation. An extended description of the selection and supervision procedure is presented in appendix B of this annual report. On 31 December 2008 eighty PhD students were affiliated with the DRSTP. Fifteen PhD students obtained their PhD in 2008. 3.1 Educational programme 3.1.1 DRSTP postgraduate courses (AIO/OIO schools) The following courses were held in 2008: Theoretical High Energy Physics (THEP) The DRSTP Postgraduate Course (AIO/OIO school) Theoretical High Energy Physics was held from 4 to 8 February 2008 in Hotel & Conference Center De Bergse Bossen, Driebergen. The programme was organized by D. Boer (VUA) and R. Loll (UU) and included the following lectures (8 hours each): R. Harlander (Wuppertal): Higgs physics at higher orders D. Litim (Sussex): Functional renormalisation group and applications M. Taylor (UvA): Black objects in string theory

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20 Annual report 2008 R. Timmermans (RUG): Precision tests of the standard model In addition to these lecture courses, daily discussion/problem sessions were held in the afternoon (8 hours each week). Evening seminars were given by H. Stoof (UU) entitled: About ultracold Fermi gases and neutron stars, and by A. Achúcarro (UL) entitled: Cosmology with strings at tached. Other evening presentations of 15 minutes each were given by the PhD stu dents. Twentyfour students participated. Twentyone of them were from the Netherlands and three from Belgium (KU Leuven). Further information is given in appendix C. Statistical Physics and Theory of Condensed Matter (SPTCM) The DRSTP Postgraduate Course (AIO/OIO school) Statistical Physics and Theory of Condensed Matter was held from 711 April 2008 in Hotel & Conference Center De Bergse Bossen, Driebergen. The programme was organized by J.S. Caux (UvA), J. van den Brink (UL) and R. van Roij (UU) and included the following lectures (7 hours each, including the problem sessions): W. Briels (Twente): Dynamics in complex fluids M. Mostovoy (RUG): Frustrated magnetism and magnetoelectric effects B. Mulder (AMOLF): Classical density functional theory and symmetry breaking tran sitions D. Santiago (UL): Quantum criticality An evening seminar was given by J.P. van der Schaar (UvA) entitled: Our prepos torous universe: facts and challenges. Other evening presentations (15 minutes each) were given by the PhD students. Twentytwo students participated. Twentyone of them were from the Netherlands and one from Belgium (KU Leuven). Further information is given in appendix C. 3.2 DRSTP PhD Day On April 25 the first PhD Day was held in Utrecht University, the Netherlands. This day was organized by the members of the PhD students council, aimed at exchanging ideas, inviting former PhD students to discuss career options, presenting scientific talks and discussing recent trends in theoretical physics. Also master students and postdocs were invited. Fiftyseven people attended of which fortyfive were PhD students of the DRSTP, seven were PhD students of other research schools, one was a master student from the Radboud University Nijmegen, three were staff members of the DRSTP and one participant was a former PhD student. The program included the following lectures (35 minutes each): C. Broedersz (VUA): Nonlinear squishiness of biological gels with flexible linkers L. Hollands (UvA): Fermions on surfaces T. Janssen (UU): Quantum field theory in the early universe Y. Malamos (RU): OPP method: reduction to scalar integrals

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3. PhD programme 21 F. Pijlman (Philips) (exVUA): From Wilson lines to validated consumer insights M. van der Vegte (RUG): Incommensurate order induced by frustration in (spin)Peierls systems Further information is given in appendix D. 3.3 Shell stipends in theoretical physics In 2008 Shell awarded, for the first time, stipends to the best master students in theoretical physics in the Netherlands. Shell launched this new stipend scheme in close cooperation with the DRSTP to support young talented theoretical physicists in the Netherlands. With these stipends, Shell intends to draw attention to future career possibilities for graduates in international companies such as Shell. Nine master students in Theoretical Physics were awarded a Shell stipend. The following students received a stipend: Ted van der Aalst (UU); Wouter Beugeling (UU); Pawel Caputa (UvA); Kiril Hristov (UU); Martijn Mink (UU); Jorn Mossel (UvA); Louk Rademaker (UL); Siebren Reker (RUG) and Jesper Romers (UvA). More information about the Shell Stipendia is given in appendix F. 3.3.1 Guest lecturers Prof. dr. F.D.M. Haldane (Princeton University) occupied the Lorentz Chair at Lei den University from 1 May 2008 to 30 June 2008. He taught a lecture course entitled Topical properties of quantum states of condensed matter: some recent surprises. Prof. dr. A.H. MacDonald (UT Austin) occupied the Kramers Chair at Utrecht Uni versity from 1 April 2008 to 1 May 2008. He taught a lecture course entitled Quantum Hall bilayers and exciton condensation. 3.4 PhD degrees and subsequent employment In 2008 fifteen PhD students received their PhD degree. Eight of them accepted postdoctoral positions (in Canada, Italy, South Africa (2), Switzerland, USA (3)), six a position at a commercial company and one a position at a public research institution. More information on career moves of former PhD students during the last six years can be found in appendix G. 3.5 PhD degrees granted in the DRSTP in 2008 In this section a short summary of the PhD theses published in 2008 is given. The summaries are written by the students themselves.

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22 Annual report 2008 Bardarson, J.H. (UL) thesis title: Effects of spinorbit coupling on quantum transport advisor: prof. dr. C.W.J. Beenakker date: 4 June 2008 present position: postdoctoral fellow, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA The effect of spinorbit coupling on various quantum transport phenomena is con sidered. The main topics discussed are: how spinorbit coupling can induce shot noise through trajectory splitting, how spinorbit coupling can degrade electronhole entanglement (created by a tunnel barrier) by mode mixing, Mesoscopic Spin Hall effect: longitudinal charge current leads to transverse spin currents in a chaotic elec tron cavity which has universal fluctuations around a zero mean, how smooth disorder increases the conductivity of a graphene sheet. In addition a detailed introduction is given to both the origin of spinorbit coupling and the consequences of time reversal symmetry in quantum systems. Becherer, P. (UL) thesis title: Nonlinear dynamics aspects of subcritical transitions and singular flows in viscoelastic fluids advisor: prof. dr. ir. W. van Saarloos date: 29 October 2008 present position: research scientist, Mesodyn, Leiden, the Netherlands Recently, there has been a renewed interest in theoretical aspects of flows of viscoelas tic fluids (such as dilute polymer solutions). This thesis addresses two distinct issues related to such flows. Motivated by the possible occurrence of subcritical (finite amplitude) instabilities in parallel flows  instabilities that cannot be captured by the usual linear stability analyses  I present and evaluate a method to describe these subcritical transitions by means of a direct expansion in the amplitude of the linearly least stable mode. A second issue is the behaviour of viscoelastic fluids in steady elongational flow. Here, singular solutions have recently been found for flows involv ing a stagnation point. These solutions appear to be the mathematical structures underlying the birefringent strands that have been observed experimentally in these flows. In this thesis, explicit approximate solutions are found for idealized extensional flow geometries and simple constitutive equations. Asymptotic results are derived for the width of the strand and other typical parameters. It appears that nonanalytical solutions are a general feature of elongational viscoelastic flows, which should also occur for more realistic flows and models. Chemissany, W. (RUG) thesis title: String effective actions, dualities and generating solutions advisor: prof. dr. M. de Roo date: 5 September 2008 present position: postdoctoral fellow, University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada This thesis covers in general two separate topics: the string effective actions and the

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3. PhD programme 23 geodesic motion of brane solutions. The main theme of the first topic, i.e., the string effective actions, is the construction of the Dbrane effective action. For the Dbrane effective action, in the abelian case and in the limit of constant field strengths this action has been already known for a long time to all orders in ′α;: it is the BornInfeld action. In this thesis we propose a new method for constraining the four dimensional Dbrane effective action and apply it to the abelian case with derivative corrections. The method is based on the electromagnetic duality invariance. We show that selfd uality requirement only constrains the derivative corrections terms to the BornInfeld theory but not determines them. The second topic of the thesis is concerned with showing that Dpbranes and Sp branes can be linked to lower dimensional theories whose solutions are respectively given by instantons or S(1)branes if we reduce over the worldvolume of the brane. In the lower dimensional action the gravity part decouples and can be solved indepen dently, while the σmodel sector, obtained after a worldvolume reduction, leads to a geodesic motion. Then we turn to construct the generating solution associated with the geodesic motion traced out by the scalar fields carrying the brane solutions. This applies both to instantons and S(1)branes. We introduce the generating geodesic solution as a solution with the minimal number of arbitrary integration constants so that the action of the isometry group G actually generates all other geodesics from the generating one. This way we find the most general fluxless Spbrane of Einstein grav ity with (deformed) worldvolume via the reduction over an Euclidean torus. In case we reduce over a Lorentzian torus, the target space becomes a pseudoRiemannian G/H* with H* is a noncompact real form of H. Correspondingly, the geodesic so lutions on G/H* are labeled by the sign of the affine velocity v2. We derive the generating solution for cosets GL(r+s)/SO(r,s), and give the Einstein vacuum solu tions that can be obtained from uplifting an SL(n, r)/SO(n1,1) stationary (1)brane solution. The generating solutions that we consider in this thesis are all restricted to theo ries which are based on symmetric spaces G/H or G/H*, where G is the maximally noncompact real form (split form). The derivation of the generating solution can be extended to Euclidean theories in which G is a nonsplit isometry group (G is not a maximally noncompact real form), which typically occurs in nonmaximally extended supergravities. In this thesis we give the results for the half and quartermaximal supergravity theories, e.g., N = 4, D = 3 symmetric Euclidean models. Cheng, C.N. (UvA) thesis title: The spectra of supersymmetric states in string theory advisor: prof. dr. E.P. Verlinde date: 3 July 2008 present position: postdoctoral fellow, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA In this thesis we study the spectra of supersymmetric states in string theory com pactifications with eight and sixteen supercharges, with special focus placed on the quantum states of black holes and the phenomenon of wallcrossing in these theories. A selfcontained introduction to the relevant background material is included.

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24 Annual report 2008 de Kok, M.O. (UL) thesis title: Broken symmetries in field theory advisors: prof. dr. P.J. van Baal and prof. dr. J.W. van Holten date: 26 June 2008 present position: junior associate consultant, McKinsey & Company, Amsterdam, the Netherlands In this thesis we discuss the role of symmetries in quantum field theory. Quantum field theory is the mathematical framework to describe the physics of elementary particles. A symmetry here means a transformation under which the model at hand is invariant. Three types of symmetry are distinguished: 1. Internal symmetries, 2. Spacetime symmetries and 3. Supersymmetries. Supersymmetry is discussed in detail in the first chapter, where emphasis is put on attempts to formulate this symmetrie on a spacetime lattice, with the ultimate goal to contribute to the study of computer simulations of this symmetry. Main conclusion here is that two types of mathemat ical framework to approach this issue are shown to be mathematically inconsistent. The quantum mechanical breaking due regularization and renormalization effects of conformal symmetries (which are a type of spacetime symmetries) is discussed in chapters 2 and 3. In chapter 2 in the context of the NonLinear Schroedinger model, in chapter 3 in the context of the JackiwPi model. Main conclusion here is that the conformal symmetries of both models break quantum mechanically. However, in case of the JackiwPi model these symmetries survive under a special condition which also allows vortex solutions. Giovanetti, G. (UL) thesis title: Electronic structure of various carbon based, correlated and multiferroic materials from abinitio investigations advisor: prof. dr. J. van den Brink and prof. dr. P. Kelly (UT) date: 27 November 2008 present position: postdoctoral fellow, Università dell’ Aquila, Italy A large part of the thesis is devoted to the study of electronic properties of graphene in contact with two different sets of substrates: an insulating, hexagonal Boron Ni tride, and metallic M(111) surfaces of Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Pd, Ag, Pt and Au. Graphene has a very peculiar band structure: its conduction and valence bands have a single contact point, the canonical point, making graphene a zero band gap semi conductor. However, for graphene to be used in practical application it would be advantageous to induce a finite band gap in its electronic structure. The solution that we consider is to put graphene on a substrate of hexagonal boron nitride. Our density functional show that the two carbon lattices become inequivalent and the breaking of the sublattice symmetry results in the opening of a band gap. For contacts the interface between metals and graphene is of great importance. Cover ing a wide range of metals with a systematic study based on first principle calculations we investigated adsorption of graphene on (111) surfaces of Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Pd, Ag, Pt and Au. Other parts of the thesis are devoted to the study of electronic correlation effects with

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3. PhD programme 25 the help of ab initio electrotronic structure calculations. The ramifications of elecron electron interactions are investigated for multiferroic materials, such as HoMn2 O5 and La0.5 Ca0.5 MnO3 , orbital ordered oxides such as KCrF3 and alkali intercalated organic semiconductors such as copperphthalocynanines (K2 CuPt) and pentacene (Kx PEN). Hartong, J. (RUG) thesis title: Sevenbranes and instantons in type IIB supergravity advisor: prof. dr. E.A. Bergshoeff date: 22 September 2008 present position: postdoctoral fellow, University of Bern, Switzerland Ftheory provides a means to study the type IIB string theory in the nonperturbative regime where the complex coupling is of order unity. This should be contrasted with the perturbative regime where the string coupling is small. Ftheory will be used in this thesis to argue for the existence of novel types of branes, called Q7branes. The notion of a Q7brane leads to the notion of Qinstantons that are related to Q7branes by electromagnetic duality. Understanding the worldvolume theory of the Q7branes and the role of the Qinstantons provides a means to study the IIB theory in, so far, poorly investigated corners of its moduli space where the string coupling is of order unity. By moduli space is meant the set of inequivalent values of the complex type IIB coupling constant. From the set of onehalf BPS objects that are present in type IIB supergravity almost all the branes have been given a microscopic interpretation in type IIB string theory. These are the branes that are referred as the (p’,q’) pbranes with p’ and q’ relatively prime integers. These are pdimensional branes on which a (p’,q’) string is ending. The abovementioned Q7branes and Qinstantons are not of this type. The properties of the Q7branes such as their gauge group, monodromy and mass have a natural interpretation in terms of coincident Ftheory 7branes, i.e. coinciding (p’,q’) 7branes with different values for p’ and q’. If the relative positions of the Ftheory 7branes that make up a Q7brane are kept fixed so that they remain coinci dent and only the fluctuations associated to the center of mass motion are considered then the Q7brane behaves effectively as a single brane that couples to an 8form. By electromagnetic duality it can be argued that there should exist a Qinstanton, i.e. a Q(1)brane that couples magnetically to the same 8form to which a Q7brane couples electrically. The path integral approach to the Qinstantons shows the existence of new vacua and a new superselection parameter. Further, it will be argued that the Qinstantons contribute to the R4 terms of the string effective action near points in the moduli space where the string coupling is of order unity. Manschot, J. (UvA) thesis title: Partition functions for supersymmetric black holes advisor: prof. dr. E.P. Verlinde date: 18 December 2008 present position: postdoctoral fellow, High Energy Theory Group, Rutgers Univer sity, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA

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26 Annual report 2008 This thesis presents a number of results on partition functions for fourdimensional supersymmetric black holes. These partition functions are important tools to explain the entropy of black holes from a microscopic point of view. The black holes studied in this thesis are supersymmetric solutions of fourdimensional N = 2 supergravity carrying both electric and magnetic charges. If higher derivative contributions are included the entropy receives corrections that suggest that ZBH is well approximated by the square of the topological string partition function Ztop 2 . Here the electric charges are in a macrocanonical ensemble and the magnetic charges in a microcanon ical ensemble. Another motivation is the correspondence between a theory including gravity in Anti de Sitter (AdS) space and a conformal field theory (CFT) on the boundary of the AdSspace. Part of the nearhorizon geometry of the black holes in eleven dimensions is AdS3 , whose boundary is a twodimensional torus. The correspondence suggests that the CFT2 partition function equals the one of the theory in the bulk of AdS3 , and therefore admits an expansion natural for an AdS3 (super)gravity partition func tion. Dijkgraaf et al. proposed that an SCFT partition function can be rewritten as a Poincaré series, where each term corresponds to a semiclassical saddle point geometry. Chapter 2 explains these notions rather heuristically. Chapter 3 explains how the black holes arise as solutions of 11dimensional Mtheory 1 reduced on a sixdimensional CalabiYau X times a circle SM . The heavy objects, which source the black holes, are M5branes. Their low energy degrees of freedom can be reduced to the T 2 formed by SM 1 and the Euclidean time circle St1 and combine to an N = (4, 0) superconformal field theory. The relevant partition function for this SCFT transforms covariantly under modular transformations. Hence it is possible to use the Cardy formula, which leads the correct black hole entropy. An important property of the partition function is the decomposition into theta func tions and a vectorvalued modular form. Chapter 4 is devoted to an analysis of these forms. The principal part of the Laurent expansion of the vectorvalued modular form defines the “polar spectrum” of the SCFT. In terms of these the nonpolar degen eracies can be determined with arbitrary accuracy, improving on the leading order estimate by the Cardy formula. With the results of chapter 4, chapter 5 revisits the motivations of chapter 2. The regularized Poincaré series confirms the AdS3 /CFT2 correspondence, since it is sug gestive of a semiclassical sum over AdS3 geometries. The Poincaré series heuristically describes a sum over all particle states in the black hole background which themselves do not collapse into a black hole. This is also how the connection between black holes and topological strings can be un derstood. The degeneracies of charged BPSparticles (M2branes) in the nearhorizon geometry are enumerated by Ztop 2 , which appears for every saddle point geometry in ZBH . This elucidates the conjecture for strong coupling. Ploegh, A.R. (RUG) thesis title: Particle dynamics of branes advisor: prof. dr. E.A. Bergshoeff date: 26 May 2008

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3. PhD programme 27 position: financial analist, SNS Bank, Utrecht, the Netherlands The aim of this thesis is to develop a technique with which we can formulate brane solutions easier. Brane solutions play an important role in string theory since they represent the degrees of freedom of the nonperturbative string theory of which little is known. We choose to let the dynamics of the branes depend on one coordinate r perpen dicular to the worldvolume of the brane. As a first step to find brane solutions we reduce over the worldvolume of the brane or over all the directions perpendicular to the worldvolume, with the exception of r. When we reduce over the worldvolume, the lowerdimensional solutions are S(1) branes or instantons. This depends on whether time is part of the worldvolume or is the transversal direction r. As it turns out, both solutions describe geodesic motion on the scalar manifold G/H of the lowerdimensional theory. We present the gener ating geodesic. With this we mean that if we act with the symmetry group G on this solution, we automatically find the most general solution possible. If we then proceed by undoing the steps of the reduction, we end up with a brane solution with the most general worldvolume. On the other hand, we can also reduce the brane over the directions perpendicu lar to the worldvolume. These solutions are domainwalls or cosmologies (again this depends on whether time is part of the worldvolume or is the transversal direction r). We have analyzed under which circumstances both solutions satisfy first order equations. In case the solutions also satisfy scaling behaviour, they turn out to be geodesics on the scalar manifold again. We finish by considering how the domain wall/cosmology correspondence can sometimes be embedded in a supergravity setting. Salmi, P.E. (UL) thesis title: Oscillons advisor: prof. dr. A. Achúcarro date: 23 September 2008 present position: postdoctoral fellow, Cosmology and Gravity Group, University of Cape Town, South Africa Solitons are nondissipative, nontrivial solutions of partial differential equations. In many cases their stability is well understood, e.g. there can be topological reasons that prevent a localised lump of energy to dissolve and become dissipative. However, there are very persistent, solitonlike objects even when there is no obvious conserva tion law that would guarantee stability and explain longevity. This thesis considers such solutions, called oscillons, that appear in variety of nonlinear scalar theories. In essence, they are persistent oscillations of the field around the (local) minimum of the potential. A numerical study of oscillons in two spatial dimensions is presented. Use of absorbing boundary conditions in the numerical grid enables the study of radiation losses over a long period of time and permits quantitative approach to the lifetime of oscillons. Furthermore, it is shown that oscillons are emitted by collapsing domains, which way they could come into being in nature, e.g. in the conditions met in the very early Universe.

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28 Annual report 2008 Snyman, I. (UL) thesis title: Scattering problems involving electrons, photons, and Dirac fermions advisor: prof. dr. C.W.J. Beenakker and prof. dr. Y.V. Nazarov date: 23 September 2008 present position: postdoctoral fellow, National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stel lenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa The theoretical foundation for the work reported here is provided by Landauer’s scat tering theory of electron transport. The three main ingredients of a scattering problem are (1) a set of reservoirs that emit and absorb particles, (2) the particles themselves, that propagate as waves between the reservoirs and (3) a scatterer that obstructs free propagation. In this thesis two classes of problems are considered. The first class results when the physical quantities characterizing the reservoirs or the scatterer are not constant in time. The second class results when wave propagation is described by the Dirac equation rather than the Schroedinger equation, as is the case in a 2D form of carbon, called graphene. Torres Valderrama, A. (UU) thesis title: Statistical thermodynamics of chargestabilized colloids advisor: prof. dr. H. van Beijeren coadvisor: dr. R.H.H.G. van Roij date: 9 June 2008 present position: postdoctoral fellow, University Medical Center (UMC), Utrecht, the Netherlands This thesis is a theoretical study of equilibrium statistical thermodynamic properties of colloidal systems in which electrostatic interactions play a dominant role, namely, chargestabilized colloidal suspensions. Such systems are fluids consisting of a mix ture of a large number of mesoscopic particles and microscopic ions which interact via the Coulomb force, suspended in a molecular fluid. Quantum statistical mechanics is essential to fully understand the properties and stability of such systems. A less fundamental but for many purposes, sufficient description, is provided by classical statistical mechanics. In such approximation the system is considered as composed of a great number of charged classical particles with additional hardcore repulsions. The kinetic energy or momentum integrals become independent Gaussians, and hence their contribution to the free energy can be trivially evaluated. The contribution of the potential energy to the free energy on the other hand, depends upon the configura tion of all the particles and becomes highly nontrivial due to the longrange character of the Coulomb force and the extremely different length scales involved in the prob lem. Using the microscopic model described above, we focus on the calculation of equilibrium thermodynamic properties (response functions), correlations (structure factors), and mechanical properties (forces and stresses), which can be measured in experiments and computed by Monte Carlo simulations. This thesis is divided into three parts. In part I, comprising chapters 2 and 3, we focus on finitethickness effects in colloidal platelets and rigid planar membranes. In chapter 2 we study electrolyte

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3. PhD programme 29 mediated interactions between two of such colloidal objects. Several aspects of these interactions are considered including the nature (attractive or repulsive) of the force between the objects, the osmotic properties for different types of surfaces and image charge effects. In part II, which includes chapters 4 and 5, we consider colloidal mix tures. In chapter 4 we propose a generalization of the cell model which allows the calculation of osmotic properties of polydisperse systems. In chapter 5 we consider volume terms for colloidal mixtures. We calculate explicitly the effective interaction potential for a colloidal mixture that results after tracing out the ionic degrees of freedom. In part III, namely chapters 6 and 7, we study colloidal dispersions in ex ternal fields. In chapter 6 we focus on sedimentation of chargestabilized colloids. We calculate sedimentation profiles by using a onecomponent model, which effectively treats the degrees of freedom associated with the ions, and compare the results with Monte Carlo simulations of the primitive model, which treats the ions explicitly. In chapter 7 we consider sedimentation of polydisperse systems. In particular we exploit the effective interaction potential calculated in chapter 5 to study the colloidal Brazil nut effect. van der Meulen, M.P. (UvA) thesis title: Cold electroweak baryogenesis and quantum cosmological correlations advisor: prof. dr. J. Smit date: 7 May 2008 present position: senior associate consultant, Bain and Company, Amsterdam, the Netherlands This thesis describes two subjects from theoretical cosmology. The first concerns the creation of the matter–antimatter asymmetry, which is generally assumed to be cre ated in the early universe by a process called baryogenesis. The details of this process are yet unknown and there exist many models of baryogenesis in the literature. I study a specific model: “Cold Electroweak Baryogenesis”. In particular I study the mechanism of the creation of particles in this model, and I estimate the size of the created asymmetry in this model. The result is that this specific model is unlikely to be able to produce a large enough asymmetry. The second subject deals with cosmological density fluctuations, which are observed in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. According to the widely accepted inflationary paradigm, these density fluctuations are caused by quantum fluctuations during an early period in which the universe has expanded in an accel erated way. This period is called inflation and its underlying physics is still largely unclear. There is a plethora of models for inflation that predict characteristics of the fluctuations (“Quantum Cosmological Correlations”) that are in agreement with the current observations. However it is possible that more precise future observations will enable us to differentiate between different models of inflation. It is therefore impor tant to calculate the characteristics of the fluctuations to high precision. In general these calculations are very complicated, and one often uses the simplifying assumption that the evolution of the fluctuations in a certain regime can be described by classical physics. In this thesis I check this assumption by applying a classical approximation to the calculation in quantum field theory. The result is that this assumption is valid,

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30 Annual report 2008 although it is a little bit less good than was expected. Vocks, H. (UU) thesis title: Simulation of polymer translocation advisor: prof. dr. G.T. Barkema date: 9 July 2008 present position: researcher, Shell KSEPL, Rijswijk, the Netherlands Transport of molecules across membranes is an essential mechanism for life processes. These molecules are often long, and the pores in the membranes are too narrow for the molecules to pass through as a single unit. In such circumstances, the molecules have to squeeze — i.e., translocate — themselves through the pores. DNA, RNA and proteins are such naturally occuring long molecules in a variety of biological processes. Understandably, the process of translocation has been an active topic of current re search: not only because it is a cornerstone of many biological processes, but also due to its relevance for practical applications. Translocation is a complicated process in living organisms — the presence of chaperone molecules, pH, chemical potential gra dients, and assisting molecular motors strongly influence its dynamics. Consequently, the translocation process has been empirically studied in great variety in biological literature. Study of translocation as a biophysical process is more recent. Herein, the polymer is simplified to a sequentially connected string of N monomers as it passes through a narrow pore on a membrane. The quantities of interest are the typical time scale for the polymer to leave a confining cell (the “escape of a polymer from a vesicle” time scale), and the typical time scale the polymer spends in the pore (the “dwell” time scale) as a function of N and other parameters like membrane thickness, membrane adsorption, electrochemical potential gradient, etc. Our research is focused on computer simulations of translocation. Since our main interest is in the scaling properties, we use a highly simplified description of the translocation process. The polymer is described as a selfavoiding walk on a lattice, and its dynamics consists of singlemonomer jumps from one lattice site to another neighboring one. Since we have a very efficient program to simulate such polymer dynamics, which we describe in chapter 2, we can perform long simulations in which long polymers creep through tiny pores. In chapter 3 we study pore blockage times for a translocating polymer of length N, driven by a field E across the pore. In three dimensions we find that the typ ical time the pore remains blocked during a translocation event scales as ∼ N 1.37 /E. We show that the scaling behavior stems from the polymer dynamics at the imme diate vicinity of the pore — in particular, the memory effects in the polymer chain tension imbalance across the pore. Chapter 4 studies the unbiased translocation of a polymer with length N, surrounded by equally long polymers, through a narrow pore in a membrane. We show that in dense polymeric systems a relaxation time exists that scales as N 2.65 , much longer than the Rouse time ∼ N 2 . If the polymers are well entangled, we find that the mean dwell times scales as N 3.3 , while for shorter, less entangled polymers, we measure dwell times scaling as N 2.7 . In chapter 5 we study the translocation of an RNA molecule, pulled through a nanopore by an opti cal tweezer, as a method to determine its secondary structure. The resolution with which the elements of the secondary structure can be determined is limited by ther

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3. PhD programme 31 mal fluctuations, ruling out singlenucleotide resolution under normal experimental conditions. Zaccheddu, M. (UL) thesis title: Ab initio study of the optical properties of green fluorescent protein advisor: prof. dr. C. Filippi date: 24 April 2008 present position: research engineer, Computational Tribology, Utrecht, the Nether lands In the present we focus on the optical properties of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which are modelled using the stateoftheart computational tools available uptodate: the Density Functional Theory (DFT) in the Hybrid QM/MM approach is employed to access the ground state configuration of the chromphore in the protein environment, while TimeDependent DFT and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) relate the geometry to the observed absorption spectra. 3.6 Other PhDs advised by DRSTP staff Hermsen, R. (VUA) thesis title: Transcription regulation and genome organization advisor: prof. dr. P.R. ten Wolde date: 28 October 2008 present position: postdoctoral fellow, University of California (UCSD), San Diego, California, USA Noom, M.C. (VUA) thesis title: Mechanisms of DNA organization unraveled with novel singlemolecule methods advisor: prof. dr. F.C. MacKintosh date: 16 June 2008 present position: Accenture, Amsterdam, the Netherlands van Albada, S.B. (VUA) thesis title: A Computational study of E. coli chemotaxis advisor: prof. dr. P.R. ten Wolde date: 8 September 2008 present position: Music school, Norway van Mameren  Schotvanger, J. (VUA) thesis title: Integrating singlemolecule visualization and DNA micromanipulation advisor: prof. dr. F.C. MacKintosh date: 26 June 2008 present position: application scientist, JPK Instruments AG, Berlin, Germany

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32 Annual report 2008 3.7 DRSTP PhD students (31122008) This section gives an overview of the PhD students affiliated to the DRSTP on 31 De cember 2008. The projects are chronologically ordered according to starting date. The research themes mentioned refer to particle physics, cosmology, quantum gravity and string theory (theme 1) and quantum matter, quantum information, soft condensed matter and biophysics (theme 2). University of Amsterdam (UvA) • Kampmeijer, L. as of 1 November 2003 with F.A. Bais. project: monopoles with nonAbelian charges, hidden symmetry and confine ment (theme 1). PhD exam: 27 February 2009. • Galistu, G.M. as of 1 December 2003 with A.M.M. Pruisken. project: experimental determination of electronic structure of lowdimensio nal electron systems, with emphasis on quantum critical phenomena of a two dimensional electron gas in the quantum Hall regime (theme 2). • Arsiwalla, X.D. as of 1 November 2004 with E.P. Verlinde. project: development of nonperturbative methods in stringtheory, in particular topological strings and black holes (theme 1). • Hollands, L. as of 1 November 2004 with R.H. Dijkgraaf. project: the study of mathematical aspects of string theory, in particular topo logical strings (theme 1). • Messamah, I. as of 6 December 2004 with J. de Boer. project: issues in quantum gravity using nonperturbative string theory, in par ticular the quantum physics of black holes, their formation and Hawking ra diation, cosmological models and the nature of quantum spacetime geometry (theme 1). • Hoogeveen, J. as of 1 September 2005 with R.H. Dijkgraaf and K. Skenderis. project: string theory, in particular the Berkovits formulation of superstrings (theme 1). • Kanitscheider, I.R.G. as of 1 September 2005 with J. de Boer and M. Taylor. project: quantum gravity, in particular holography (theme 1). • ElShowk, S.N. as of 10 September 2005 with J. de Boer. project: quantum gravity wing perturbative and nonperturbative string theory (theme 1). • Zozulya, O.S. as of 1 October 2005 with K. Schoutens. project: collective behavior vs. entanglement in atomic matter (theme 2). • Mehmani, B. as of 1 December 2005 with B. Nienhuis and Th.M. Nieuwenhuizen. project: fundamental aspects of quantum physics (theme 2).

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3. PhD programme 33 • Huijse, L. as of 1 June 2006 with K. Schoutens. project: study of superssymetric lattice models (theme 2). • van Rees, B.C. as of 1 September 2006 with K. Skenderis. project: understanding black holes and wormholes in 2+1 dimensions as well as global issues in AdS/CFT (theme 1). • Atmaja, A.N. as of 1 November 2006 with K.E. Schalm (J. de Boer, formal advisor). project: studies of string theory/gauge theory duality aiming to make contact with QCD (theme 1). • Oberreuter, J.M. as of 15 September 2007 with E.P. Verlinde. project: cosmological vacua in string theory (theme 1). • Smolic, J. as of 18 January 2008 with K. Skenderis (E.P. Verlinde, formal advi sor). project: nonequilibrium dynamics and black hole formation (theme 1). • Smolic, M. as of 18 January 2008 with M. Taylor (E.P. Verlinde, formal advisor). project: the fuzzball proposal for black hole physics (theme 1). • Mossel, J.J. as of 1 September 2008 with J.S. Caux (K. Schoutens, formal advisor). project: cracking the quantum quench (theme 2). • Romers, J.C. as of 1 September 2008 with K. Schoutens and F. Bais. project: topological quantum registers (theme 2). Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VUA) • Conti, E. as of 1 October 2004 with F.C. MacKintosh. Deceased January 2009. • Wessels, E. as of 1 December 2004 with P.J.G. Mulders and D. Boer. project: investigating observable consequences of the colour glass condensate (theme 1). • Boomsma, J.K. as of 1 September 2006 with P.J.G. Mulders and D. Boer. project: phase transitions in QCD (theme 1). • van Dijk, T. as of 1 April 2007 with T. Visser. project: singular optics and plasmonics (theme 2) • Broedersz, C.P. as of 1 May 2007 with F.C. MacKintosh. project: theoretical development of models for cytoskeletal networks (theme 2). • Mantz, C.L.M. as of 1 September 2008 with P.J.G. Mulders. project: to investigate the ways in which the color flow affects the hard process by using recently developed theoretical tools, applicable in a large variety of scattering processes (theme 1).

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34 Annual report 2008 • den Dunnen, W. as of 15 December 2008 with D. Boer(P.J.G. Mulders, formal advisor). project: CPviolation at LHC from new gauge bosons (theme 1). University of Groningen (RUG) • Deuzeman, A. as of 1 January 2006 with E. Pallante (E.A. Bergshoeff, formal advisor). project: understanding nonperturbative aspects of strong and weak interactions (theme 1). • Ruszel, W.M. as of 1 March 2006 with A.C.D. van Enter. project: nonGibbsian aspects in lattice statistical mechanics (theme 2). • Kadosh, A. as of 1 September 2006 with E. Pallante (M. de Roo, formal advisor). project: understanding and constraining extradimensional theories (brane worlds) derived as effective lowenergy realizations of Mtheory (theme 1). • Nutma, T.A. as of 1 October 2006 with E.A. Bergshoeff. project: string theory and quantum gravity, in particular the extended symme try algebras of supergravity theories and their relation with gauged supergravity will be investigated (theme 1). • Reker, S.F. as of 1 February 2008 with E. Pallante (E.A. Bergshoeff, formal advisor). project: clarify properties of strong and weak interactions of baryonic matter from first principles, through a lattice formulation of the field theory for strong and weak forces (theme 1). • Andringa, R. as of 1 September 2008 with E.A. Bergshoeff. project: properties of gravitational theories in threedimensional spacetime, in particular with regard to contributions of higher order in the curvature, and to black holes (theme 1). • Dibitetto, G. as of 1 November 2008 with E.A. Bergshoeff. project: realistic compactifications of string Mtheory that give rise to four dimensional effective theories with moduli stabilisation (no massless scalar fields) and interesting cosmological aspects (inflation, latetime acceleration) (theme 1). Leiden University (UL) • Sousa, K.S. as of 1 September 2004 with A. Achúcarro. project: extended objects in cosmological models with supersymmetry (theme 1). • Idema, T. as of 1 September 2005 with H. Schiessel and C. Storm. project: theoretical biophysics of membranes and proteins (theme 2). • Emanuel, M.O. as of 1 December 2005 with H. Schiessel. project: theoretical biophysics of DNA and its complexation with proteins (theme 2).

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3. PhD programme 35 • Beekman, A.J. as of 1 January 2006 with J. Zaanen. project: topological phases in quantum liquid crystals (theme 2). • Habraken, S.J.M. as of 1 February 2006 with G. Nienhuis. project: quantum optics with complex light (theme 2). • Ament, L.J.P. as of 1 September 2006 with J. van den Brink. project: theory of decoherence and defect formation in manybody quantum systems (theme 2). • Mesaroš, A. as of 1 September 2006 with J. Zaanen. project: quantum liquid crystals and emerging Einsteinian gravity (theme 2). • Sepkhanov, R.A. as of 1 September 2006 with C.W.J. Beenakker. project: investigation of transport properties in graphene, with a particular emphasis on the role of superconductivity (theme 2). • Žeravčić, Z. as of 1 September 2006 with W. van Saarloos. project: the behavior of the granular media in the vicinity of the socalled ‘jamming point’ (theme 2). • Huisman, E.M. as of 1 April 2007 with G.T. Barkema. project: networks of semiflexible polymers (theme 2). • She, J.H. as of 1 May 2007 with J. Zaanen. project: fermionic quantum criticality and the constrained path integral (theme 2). • Akhmerov, A.R. as of 1 July 2007 with C.W.J. Beenakker. project: investigation of the potential of spin and valley qubits in graphene for quantum computation (theme 2). • Hardeman, S.R. as of 1 November 2007 with A. Achúcarro and K.E. Schalm. project: observational cosmology from strings, branes and quantum gravity (theme 1). • Woldhuis, E.L. as of 4 June 2008 with M. van Hecke and W. van Saarloos. project: statistical properties and rheology of foams near the jamming point (theme 2). • Lanzani, G. as of 1 July 2008 with H. Schiessel. project: theoretical study of the organization and dynamics of chromatin (theme 2). • van der Aalst, T.A.F. as of 6 October 2008 with K.E. Schalm (A. Achúcarro, formal advisor). project: experimental signatures of string theory in cosmology or collider ex periments (theme 1).

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36 Annual report 2008 Radboud University Nijmegen (RU) • van Kessel, M.T.M. as of 1 April 2004 with R.H.P. Kleiss. project: path integral aspects of spontaneous symmetry breaking (theme 1). PhD exam: 3 February 2009. • Wagenaar, J.W. as of 1 December 2004 with R.H.P. Kleiss. project: Kaonnucleon interactions (theme 1). • van den Oord, G.J.W.M. as of 1 February 2007 with R.H.P. Kleiss and S.C.M. Bentvelsen. project: to probe the nature of the Higgs sector, comparing observed data with modelindependent, Monte Carlo generated events (theme 1). • Malamos, I.E. as of 1 January 2008 with R.H.P. Kleiss. project: tools and precision calculations for physics discoveries at colliders (theme 1). • Niessen, A.I.M. as of 1 September 2008 with R.H.P. Kleiss. project: precise Higgs and supersymmetry predictions for the LHC (theme 1). Utrecht University (UU) • Stavenga, G.C. as of 1 May 2005 with E.L.M.P. Laenen and B. de Wit. project: perturbative and nonperturbative QCD in highenergy scattering (theme 1). • Koetsier, A.O. as of 1 August 2005 with H.T.C. Stoof. project: thermodynamical and dynamical properties of degenerate gases (theme 2). • Janssen, T.M. as of 1 September 2005 with T. Prokopec (G. ’t Hooft, formal advisor). project: novel observational consequences from cosmic inflation and observa tional consequences of interacting quantum fields during inflation (theme 1). • Kuipers, J. as of 1 September 2005 with H. van Beijeren and G.T. Barkema. project: comparison between classical nucleation theory (CNT) and computer simulation results of nucleation in lattice gases (theme 2). • Zwanikken, J.W. as of 1 September 2005 with R.H.H.G. van Roij (H. van Bei jeren, formal advisor). project: theoretical study of suspensions of colloidal molecules, such as dumb bells and (semi) flexible chains, both in bulk and in external fields (electric, shear, gravity) (theme 2). • Lim, L.K. as of 15 January 2006 with C. Morais Smith. project: the application of theoretical methods to describe rotating BoseEinstein Condensates in the quantum Hall limit (theme 2).

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3. PhD programme 37 • Gubbels, K.B. as of 1 February 2006 with H.T.C. Stoof. project: ultra cold atomic gases (theme 2). • Eggen, E.J. as of 1 March 2006 with R.H.H.G. van Roij (H. van Beijeren, formal advisor). project: theoretical study of suspensions of colloidal molecules such as dumb bells and (semi) flexible chains, both in bulk and in external fields (electric, shear, substrates) (theme 2). • Reska, P.M. as of 1 Augustus 2006 with R. Loll. project: the focus is on various aspects of nonperturbative quantum gravity and quantum cosmology, and in particular the question of the role of the conformal factor and bigbang scenarios (theme 1). • Makogon, D. as of 15 August 2006 with C. Morais Smith. project: transport properties in one dimensional systems (theme 2). • de Leeuw, M. as of 1 October 2006 with G. Arutyunov (B. de Wit, formal advisor). project: the development and application of new methods aimed to further understand the relationship between gauge and string theories (the AdS/CFT correspondence) (theme 1). • Looyestijn, H.T. as of 1 October 2006 with S. Vandoren (B. de Wit, formal advisor). project: to study the perturbative and nonperturbative structure of type II superstrings compactified to four spacetime dimensions, and its relation to heerotic string theory (theme 1). • Machado, P.F. as of 1 July 2007 with R. Loll. project: various aspects of nonperturbative quantum gravity and quantum cosmology (theme 1). • Katmadas, S. as of 1 September 2007 with B. de Wit. project: study of black holes in the context of string theory (theme 1). • Koksma, J.F. as of 15 September 2007 with T. Prokopec (G. ’t Hooft, formal advisor). project: study the nature of dark energy (theme 1). • Diederix, J.M. as of 1 October 2007 with H.T.C. Stoof. project: research in the field of ultracold atomic gasses (theme 2). • van Zalk, M. as of 1 October 2007 with B. de Wit. project: study of N=2 and 4 supergravities and their consequences for fluxcom pactifications and black holes (theme 1). • van de Meent, M. as of 1 November 2007 with G. ’t Hooft. project: algebraical description of quantum effects of the Schwarzschild horizon and related aspects of quantum gravity (theme 1).

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38 Annual report 2008 • Boon, N.J.H. as of 1 February 2008 with R.H.H.G. van Roij (H. van Beijeren, formal advisor). project: theoretically predicting and/or explaining properties of soft matter systems in bulk and in external fields (theme 2). • Swaving, A.C. as of 1 February 2008 with R.A. Duine (H.T.C. Stoof, formal advisor). project: understanding of the interplay between ferro and antiferromagnetism, and electric current (theme 2). • Budd, T.G. as of 1 March 2008 with R. Loll. project: the development and application of new methods aimed to further understand the relationship between gauge and string theories (the AdS/CFT correspondence) (theme 1). • Höhn, P.A. as of 1 May 2008 with R. Loll. project: quantum gravity and quantum cosmology, and their nonperturbative aspects (theme 1). • Lucassen, M.E. as of 1 June 2008 with R.A. Duine (H.T.C. Stoof, formal advi sor). project: currentdriven magnetization dynamics in ferro and antiferromagnets (theme 2). • Beugeling, W. as of 1 September 2008 with C. Morais Smith. project: the study of multilayer quantum Hall systems (theme 2). • Hristov, K.P. as of 1 September 2008 with S. Vandoren (B. de Wit, formal advisor). project: string theory compactifications and implications for cosmology (theme 1). • Mink, M.P. as of 1 September 2008 with R.A. Duine (H.T.C. Stoof, formal advisor). project: cold atoms, especially on the boundary between cold atoms and (un)conventional condensedmatter systems (theme 2). • van Driel, H.J. as of 1 December 2008 with R.A. Duine (H.T.C. Stoof, formal advisor). project: theoretical investigation of pseudospin transport in electronhole and graphene bilayers (theme 2). 3.8 Scientific and educational activities of PhD stu dents (theme 1) Andringa, R. (RUG) – Solvay AIO School BrusselParijsAmsterdam, SeptemberDecember 2008 (attended).

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3. PhD programme 39 Arsiwalla, X.D. (UvA) – Spectral flow invariance of 5D entropy functions, Seminar University of Amster dam, the Netherlands, 21 February 2008 (talk). – Eurostrings 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 30 June4 July 2008 (attended). – Amsterdam Summer Workshop on String Theory, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 711 July 2008 (attended). Atmaja, A.N. (UvA) – Photon production in AdS/QCD, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theoretical High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 February 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). Boomsma, J.K. (VUA) – Spontaneous CPviolation in the strong interaction at θ = π, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theoretical High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January 8 February 2008 (talk). – The 10th Astroparticle Physics Symposium, NIKHEF, Amsterdam, the Nether lands, 5 March 2008 (attended). – National Seminar Theoretical HighEnergy Physics, the Netherlands, 11 April 2008 (attended). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – FOM Course The Art of Presenting Science, NIKHEF, Amsterdam, the Nether lands, 21 May25 June 2008 (attended). – CP violation in the strong interaction at θ = π, Strong and ElectroWeak Matter, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2629 August 2008 (poster). – CP violation in the strong interaction at θ = π, Confinement 2008, Mainz, Ger many, 18 September 2008 (talk). Budd, T.G. (UU) – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – International School of Subnuclear Physics 2008, Erice, Italy, 29 August7 Septem ber 2008 (attended). – Workshop Microscopic Models of Quantum Spacetime, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 1519 November 2008 (attended). Chemissany, W. (RUG) – RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, 2125 January 2008 (attended). – Politecnico di Torino, Italy, 31 March3 April 2008 (work visit). – Strings 2008 CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, 1823 August 2008 (attended). – ICTP Trieste, Italy, 1229 September 2008 (work visit). – Generating brane solutions via sigmamodels, ICTP Trieste, Italy, September 2008 (talk). – Generating brane solutions via sigmamodels, Center for Advanced Mathematical Sciences (CAMS), AUB Beirut, Lebanon, September 2008 (talk). de Kok, M.O. (UL) – Regularization and renormalization in nonrelativistic field theories, NIKHEF The ory Meeting, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 23 May 2008 (talk). de Leeuw, M. (UU) – RTN Winter School 08, CERN, Switserland, 2125 January 2008 (attended).

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40 Annual report 2008 – The Bethe Ansatz in AdS/CFT, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theoretical High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 February 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Eurostrings 08, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 30 June4 July 2008 (attended). – IGST 08, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 1115 August 2008 (attended). – Bound state Smatrices, Yangian symmetry and the Bethe Ansatz, 4th EU RTN Workshop, Varna, Bulgaria, 13 September 2008 (talk). Deuzeman, A. (RUG) – DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theoretical High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 February 2008 (attended). – The physics of eight flavours, 26th International Symposium on Lattice Field The ory (Lattice 2008), Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, 1420 July 2008 (talk). ElShowk, S.N. (UvA) – Cargese Summer School: Theory and Particle Physics, Cargese, Corsica, France, June 2008 (attended). – Eurostrings 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 30 June4 July 2008 (attended). – Amsterdam Summer Workshop on String Theory, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 711 July 2008 (attended). – CEASaclay Paris, France, October 2008 (work visit). – Quantizing N=2 multicenter solutions, Seminar CEASaclay Paris, France, October 2008 (talk). – Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, USA, November 2008 (work visit). – University of Pennsylvania, USA, November 2008 (work visit). – Quantizing N=2 multicenter solutions, Seminar Pennsylvania, USA, November 2008 (talk). – Quantizing N=2 multicenter solutions, Seminar Stony Brook, New York, USA, November 2008 (talk). – Quantizing N=2 multicenter solutions, Seminar Caltech, USA, November 2008 (talk). – Quantizing N=2 multicenter solutions, Seminar University of Southern California, USA, November 2008 (talk). – University of Southern California, USA, November 2008 (work visit). Hardeman, S.R. (UL) – Stability of uplifted supergravity potentials, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theoreti cal High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 February 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). Höhn, P.A. (UU) – ENRAGE Spring School on Monte Carlo Simulations of Disordered Systems, Leipzig, Germany, 30 March4 April 2008 (attended). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – ENRAGE Topical School on Growth and Shapes, Paris, France, 26 June 2008 (attended). – International School of Subnuclear Physics, Erice, Italy, 29 August7 September 2008 (attended).

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3. PhD programme 41 Hollands, L. (UvA) – CERN, Switzerland, 1013 February 2008 (work visit). – Supersymmetric gauge theories, intersecting branes and free fermions, TH String Theory Seminar, Cern, Switzerland, 12 February 2008 (talk). – Fermions on surfaces, DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (talk). – Eurostrings 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 30 June4 July 2008 (attended). – Amsterdam Summer Workshop on String Theory, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 711 July 2008 (attended). – Workshop Gauge Theory and Langlands Duality, Santa Barbara, USA, 21 July8 August 2008 (attended). – Free fermions on a quantum curve, DAMTP string theory seminar Cambridge University, UK, 27 November 2008 (talk). – Cambridge and Oxford, UK, 26 November2 December 2008 (work visit). – Free fermions on a quantum curve, String Theory Seminar, Oxford, UK, 1 Decem ber 2008 (talk). Hoogeveen, J. (UvA) – RTN Winter School CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, 2026 January 2008 (talk). – BRST quantization of pure spinor superstring, Hamburg, Germany, 25 March 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Eurostrings 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 30 June4 July 2008 (attended). – Amsterdam Summer Workshop on String Theory, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 711 July 2008 (attended). Janssen, T.M. (UU) – Quantum field theory in the early universe, DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (talk). Kadosh, A. (RUG) – The quest for “Thick” FRW branes, a step towards a dynamical model of our uni verse, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theoretical High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 February 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Parma School for Theoretical Physics, September 2008 (attended). – 26th Winter School for Theoretical Physics: Particle Physics at the Age of LHC, Jerusalem, Israel, 29 December 20088 January 2009 (attended). Kanitscheider, I.R.G. (UvA) – School and Workshop String Theory and Experiment, Weizmann Institute and Institute for Advanced Studies, Rehovot and Jerusalem, Israel, 112 April 2008 (attended). – Eurostrings 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 30 June4 July 2008 (attended). – Amsterdam Summer Workshop on String Theory, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 711 July 2008 (attended). – PhD School IAS PITP School in Princeton, New York, USA, 1425 July 2008 (attended). Katmadas, S. (UU) – RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories, CERN, Geneva,

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42 Annual report 2008 Switserland, 2125 January 2008 (attended). – DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theoretical High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 February 2008 (attended). – Workshop Gravitational Thermodynamics and the Quantum Nature of Space Time, Edinburgh, UK, 16 June20 June 2008 (attended). – Eurostrings, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 30 June4 July 2008 (attended). – Integrability in Gauge and String Theory, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 1115 August (attended). – 4th EU RTN Workshop, Varna, Bulgaria, 1117 September 2008 (attended). Koksma, J.F. (UU) – The scalar field kernel in cosmological spaces, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theo retical High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 February 2008 (talk). – NWO Talentendag, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 18 March 2008 (attended). – FOM Trainingsdag, Promotie in Eigen Regie, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 324 April 2008 (attended). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Summer School in Cosmology, Triëste, Italy, 21 July1 August 2008 (attended). – Strong and ElectroWeak Matter, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2629 August 2008 (attended). Looyestijn, H.T. (UU) – On volume stabilization with NS5branes, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theoretical High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 February 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Integrability in Gauge and String Theory, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 1115 August (attended). Machado, P. (UU) – Functional RG equations and f(R) gravity, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theoreti cal High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 February 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Functional renormalization group equations and f(R) gravity, Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Canada, 22 May 2008 (talk). – Continuum and Lattice Approaches to Quantum Gravity, Workshop, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, 1719 September 2008 (attended). – Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Canada, 30 October7 Novem ber 2008 (work visit). Malamos, I.E. (RU) – The O.P.P. method, THEP Colloquium, Radboud University Nijmegen, the Nether lands, 24 January 2008 (talk). – OPP method: reduction to scalar integrals, DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (talk). Manschot, J. (UvA) – Workshop on 3d Gravity, Montreal, Canada, 1517 February 2008 (attended). – A modern farey tail, Montreal, Canada, 16 February 2008 (talk).

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3. PhD programme 43 – Construction of partition functions for AdS3/CFT2, Zurich, Switzerland, 9 April 2008 (talk). – Eurostrings 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 30 June4 July 2008 (attended). – Gauge Theory and Langlands Duality KITP, Santa Barbara, USA, 21 July8 Au gust 2008 (attended). Messamah, I. (UvA) – Black hole bound states and AdS spaces, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 29 February 2008 (talk). – Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics, Trieste, Italy, 27 March4 April 2008 (attended). – Eurostrings 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 30 June4 July 2008 (attended). – Amsterdam Summer Workshop on String Theory, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 711 July 2008 (attended). – LPTENS, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, France, 21 November24 December 2008 (work visit). Nutma, T.A. (RUG) – KacMoody algebras & gauged supergravities, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theo retical High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 February 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – KacMoody algebras & gauged supergravities, Selected Problems of Modern The oretical Physics, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Russia, 2327 June 2008 (talk). – Matching E10 and gauged supergravity, The 22nd Nordic Network Meeting on Strings, Fields and Branes, The AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm, Sweden, 2729 November 2008 (talk). Oberreuter, J.M. (UvA) – Entropy function for rotating black holes, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theoretical High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 February 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Eurostrings 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 30 June4 July 2008 (attended). – Amsterdam Summer Workshop on String Theory, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 711 July 2008 (attended). – Integrability in Gauge and String Theory 2008, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 1115 August 2008 (attended). Ploegh, A.R. (RUG) – Turin Polytechnic, April 2008 (work visit). Reker, S.F. (RUG) – Trento, Italy, 811 May 2008 (work visit). – Berlin, Germany, 2528 May 2008 (work visit). – Status of ETMC simulations with Nf = 2 + 1 + 1 twisted mass fermions, Lattice 2008, Williamsburg, USA, 1925 July 2008 (talk). – PRACE Petascale Summer School, Stockholm, Sweden, 2530 August 2008 (attended). – III Parma International School of Theoretical Physics, Parma, Italy, 713 Septem

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44 Annual report 2008 ber 2008 (attended). – Glasgow, UK, 2830 September 2008 (work visit). – De Sitter Lecture Series on Theoretical Physics, Groningen, the Netherlands, 28 October 2008 (attended). Reska, P. (UU) – Embedding a Schwarzschild mass into cosmology, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theoretical High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 Febru ary 2008 (talk). – Enrage School “Monte Carlo Simulations”, Leipzig, Germany, 31 March4 April 2008 (attended). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Enrage School “Random Geometry + Random Matrices”, Oxford, UK, 1519 September 2008 (attended). Smolic, J. (UvA) – Eurostrings 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 30 June4 July 2008 (attended). – Amsterdam Summer Workshop on String Theory, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 711 July 2008 (attended). – AmsterdamBrusselsParis Doctoral School on Quantum Field Theory, Strings and Gravity, Fall 2008 (attended). Smolic, M. (UvA) – Eurostrings 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 30 June4 July 2008 (attended). – Amsterdam Summer Workshop on String Theory, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 711 July 2008 (attended). – AmsterdamBrusselsParis Doctoral School on Quantum Field Theory, Strings and Gravity, Fall 2008 (attended). Sousa, K.S. (UL) – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). Stavenga, G.C. (UU) – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Integrability in Gauge and String Theory, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 1115 August (attended). – Erice International School on Subnuclear Physics, Sicily, Italy, 29 August7 Septem ber 2008 (attended and best student award). – Exponential scattering amplitudes, NIKHEF Jamboree, Amsterdam, the Nether lands 15 December 2008 (talk). van de Meent, M. (UU) – The Smatrix ansatz for black hole evolution, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theo retical High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 February 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Gravitational Scattering, Black Holes and the Information Paradox, Workshop, Paris, France, 2628 May 2008 (attended). – Eurostrings 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 30 June4 July 2008 (attended). van der Meulen, M.P. (UvA) – Classical approximation to quantum cosmological correlations, String Theory Group, Bielefeld, Germany, 15 April 2008 (talk).

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3. PhD programme 45 van den Oord, G.J.W.M. (RU) – Vector bosons at the LHC, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theoretical High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 February 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Camorra: the CAravagliosMORetti recursive algorithm tool, THEP Colloquium, Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands, 3 November 2008 (talk). van Kessel, M.T.M. (RU) – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – The path integral approach to spontaneous symmetry breaking, THEP Colloquium, Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands, 12 June 2008 (talk). – The path integral approach to spontaneous symmetry breaking, THEP Colloquium, Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands, 18 September 2008 (talk). van Rees, B.C. (UvA) – Realtime AdS/CFT, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Theoretical High Energy Phys ics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 February 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Summer School Institut d’Etudes Scientifiques de Cargese, Cargese, France, 1628 June 2008 (attended). – Eurostrings 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 30 June4 July 2008 (attended). – Amsterdam Summer Workshop on String Theory, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 711 July 2008 (attended). van Zalk, M. (UU) – RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories, Cern, Switser land, 2125 January 2008 (attended). – Lagrangians with electric and magnetic charges, DRSTP Postgraduate Course The oretical High Energy Physics, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 28 January8 February 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Eurostrings 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 30 June4 July 2008 (attended). – Integrability in Gauge en String Theory, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 1115 August 2008 (attended). – EU RTN Workshop Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Uni verse, FU4, Varna, Bulgaria, 1117 September 2008 (attended). Wagenaar, J.W. (RU) – Dirac’s constraint analysis and quantization procedure, THEP Colloquium, Rad boud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands, 19 March 2008 (talk). – Pionnucleon scattering in Kadyshevsky formalism, THEP Colloquium, Radboud University Nijmegen, 4 September 2008 (talk). – Pionnucleon scattering in Kadyshevsky Formalism, FGIP Program, Tokyo Insti tute of Technology, Japan, 9 November 2008 (talk). Wessels, E. (VUA) – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Geometric scaling at RHIC and LHC, Conference QCD08, Montpellier, France, 712 July 2008 (talk). – Geometric scaling at RHIC and LHC, NNV Fall Meeting, Lunteren, the Nether lands, 7 November 2008 (talk).

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46 Annual report 2008 – Geometric scaling at RHIC and LHC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, NIKHEF The ory Meeting, 14 November 2008 (talk). 3.9 Scientific and educational activities of PhD stu dents (theme 2) Akhmerov, A.R. (UL) – Theory of the valleyvalve effect in graphene, European Network Meeting on Fun damentals of Nanoelectronics, Bremen, Germany, 711 April 2008 (talk). – Theory of the valleyvalve effect in graphene nanoribbons, ICTP Graphene Week 2008, Trieste, Italy, 2529 August 2008 (talk). Ament, L.J.P. (UL) – Observing twomagnon dispersion in La2CuO4 by resonant inelastic light scatter ing, Veldhoven, Physics@FOM, 2123 January 2008 (poster). – Ledge magnetic RIXS on LCO, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Statistical Physics and Theory of Condensed Matter, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 711 April 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Observing twomagnon dispersion in La2CuO4 by resonant inelastic light scatter ing, Casimir Spring School, Heeg, 1921 May 2008 (poster). – Observing twomagnon dispersion in La2CuO4 by resonant inelastic light scatter ing, Entanglement in Spin & Orbital Light Scattering, Krakau, Poland, 1822 June 2008 (poster). – Creating and verifying a quantum superposition in a microoptomechanical sys tem, Frontiers of Quantum and Mesoscopic Thermodynamics, Prague, Czech, 28 July2 August 2008 (poster). Bardarson, J. (UL) – Smooth disorder and graphene, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Statistical Physics and Theory of Condensed Matter, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 711 April 2008 (talk). Becherer, P. (UL) – Singularities in viscoelastic flows, Analysis Seminar, Leiden, the Netherlands, 6 October 2008 (talk). Beekman, A.J. (UL) – Topological order and defect condensation, Physics@FOM, Veldhoven, the Nether lands, 2123 January 2008 (poster). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). Beugeling, W. (UU) – National Seminar Condensed Matter, Enschede, the Netherlands, 14 November 2008 (attended). Boon, N.J.H. (UU) – 19th HanSurLesse Winterschool, HanSurLesse, Belgium, 28 January1 February 2008 (attended). – Spherical colloids, on the charge due to porosity, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Statistical Physics and Theory of Condensed Matter, Driebergen, the Netherlands,

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3. PhD programme 47 711 April 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Charge reversal of silica colloids, 7th Liquid Matter Conference, Lund, Sweden, 27 June1 July 2008, (poster with, P. van Oostrum, A. van Blaaderen and R. van Roij). – Charge reversal of silica colloids, Jülich Soft Matter Days 2008, Bonn, Germany, 1114 November 2008 (poster with P. van Oostrum, A. van Blaaderen and R. van Roij). Broedersz, C.P. (VUA) – Mechanics of cytoskeletal networks with highly flexible crosslinkers, Frontiers in Microrheology, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA, February 2008 (poster). – Mechanics of cytoskeletal networks with highly flexible crosslinkers, Annual Meet ing of the Biophysical Society, Long Beach, California, USA, February 2008 (poster). – Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (4 months) 2008 (work visit). – Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (1 week) 2008 (work visit). – Mechanics of cytoskeletal networks with highly flexible crosslinkers, 4th Dutch Soft Matter Meeting, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, April 2008 (talk). – Mechanics of cytoskeletal networks with highly flexible crosslinkers, KNAW (Royal Dutch Academy of Science) Biophysics Meeting, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, April 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Nonlinear squishiness of biological gels with flexible linkers, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (talk). – Mechanics of cytoskeletal networks with highly flexible crosslinkers, Workshop Models of Structural Biological Networks, From Discrete to Continuous, Coven try, UK, 15 May 2008 (talk). – Nonlinear elasticity of biopolymer networks with highly flexible crosslinks, Squishy Physics Seminar, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, 18 June 2008 (talk). – Nonlinear elasticity of composite networks of stiff biopolymers with flexible linkers, The XVth International Congress on Rheology, Monterey, California, USA, August 2008 (talk). Diederix, J.M. (UU) – Superconductivity inside neutron stars, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Statistical Physics and Theory of Condensed Matter, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 711 April 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). Eggen, E.J. (UU) – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). Emanuel, M.O. (UL) – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). Gubbels, K.B. (UU) – Pwave Feshbach molecules, Fritz Haber Institute, Berlin, Germany, 11 January 2008 (talk). – Theory for pwave Feshbach molecules, Physics at Veldhoven, Veldhoven, the Nether lands, 2223 January 2008 (poster).

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48 Annual report 2008 – Renormalization group theory for the imbalanced Fermi gas, Institute for Theoret ical Physics, Leuven, Belgium, 30 January 2008 (talk). – Theory for pwave Feshbach molecules, Department Day, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 12 June 2008 (poster). – Workshop Theory of Quantum Gases and Quantum Coherence, Grenoble, France, 36 June 2008 (attended). – Theory for pwave Feshbach molecules, Department Day, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 12 June 2008 (poster). – Ultracold quantum gases, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht, the Nether lands, 12 December 2008 (talk). – Stronglyinteracting Fermi mixtures with a population imbalance, Institute for The oretical Physics, Heidelberg, Germany, 16 December 2008 (talk). Habraken, S.J.M. (UL) – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). Huijse, L. (UvA) – Masterclass C. Marcus at Physics@FOM, Veldhoven, the Netherlands, 21 January 2008 (attended). – Superfrustration, tilings and quantum criticality, Physics@FOM, Veldhoven, the Netherlands, 2223 January 2008 (poster). – Cursus Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, January and February 2008 (attended). – MiniCourse J. Moore/D. Haldane, Leiden, the Netherlands, May and June 2008 (attended). – Supersymmetric lattice models, Summerschool Les Houches, France, July 2008 (talk). – Exact Results in LowDimensional Quantum System: 2nd INSTANS Summer Con ference, The Galileo Galilei Institute for Theoretical Physics, Florence, Italy, 812 September 2008 (attended). – 24th Solvay Conference on Physics  Quantum Theory of Condensed Matter, Solvay Insitute, Brussels, Belgium, 1113 October 2008 (attended). – What can cohomology tell us about a manyparticle quantum system?, DIAMANT Meets GQT Workshop, Leiden, the Netherlands, 2731 October 2008 (talk). Huisman, E.M. (UL) – Modeling threedimensional networks of semiflexible polymers, DRSTP Postgrad uate Course Statistical Physics and Theory of Condensed Matter, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 711 April 2008 (talk). Kuipers, J. (UU) – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). Lim, L.K. (UU) – Staggeredvortex superfluid of ultracold bosons in an optical lattice, Physics at Veld hoven, Veldhoven, the Netherlands, 2223 January 2008 (poster). – Staggeredvortex superfluid of ultracold bosons in an optical lattice, BEC Meeting, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, January 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Staggeredvortex superfluid of ultracold bosons in an optical lattice, Workshop The

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3. PhD programme 49 ory of Quantum Gases and Quantum Coherence, Grenoble, France, 37 June 2008 (poster). – Cold atoms in 2D optical lattices under staggered rotation, Workshop on Critical Fluctuations in Spin and Charge Systems, Cambridge, UK, 13 November 2008 (talk). – National Condensed Matter Seminar, Enschede, the Netherlands, 14 November 2008 (attended). Makogon, D. (UU) – Coupled quantum wires, Physics at Veldhoven, Veldhoven, the Netherlands, 2223 January 2008 (poster). – Coupled quantum wires, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Statistical Physics and The ory of Condensed Matter, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 711 April 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Summerschool Les Houches Ecole de Physique, Les Houches, France, July 2008 (attended). – National Condensed Matter Seminar, Enschede, the Netherlands, 14 November 2008 (attended). Mehmani, B. (UvA) – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Systems under the influence of a varying environment, Open Quantum Systems Workshop, Nancy, France, 911 July 2008 (talk). – Work as tracer of the force that generates the geometric phase, Prague, Czech, 28 July2 August 2008 (talk). – NonAdiabatic cyclic evolution of a quantum system, Leeds, UK, 12 November 2008 (talk). – Quantum Information Group, University of Leeds, UK, November 2008 (work visit). Mesaroš, A. (UL) – Dislocations in graphene, Veldhoven, Physics@FOM, 2123 January 2008 (poster). – DRSTP Postgraduate Course Statistical Physics and Theory of Condensed Matter, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 711 April 2008 (attended). Mink, M.P. (UU) – Vortexlattice pinning in single and twocomponent BECs, 2008 INFM School on Physics in Low Dimensions, October 1118 2008, Lucca, Italy (poster). Mossel, J.J. (UvA) – Representation theory and statistical mechanics, Summer School for PhD and Post docs, Wuppertal, Germany, 1519 September 2008 (attended). Ruszel, W.M. (RUG) – Metastability Workshop, Eurandom, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 911 January 2008 (attended). – FOM/f Symposium and FOM Meeting, Veldhoven, the Netherlands, 2123 January 2008 (attended). – What it takes to be Gibbsian for planar rotors, Dynamical Systems Seminar, Uni versity of Groningen, the Netherlands, 28 January 2008 (talk). – Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics, Marseille, France, 2529 February 2008 (attended).

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50 Annual report 2008 – YEP  Statistical Mechanics on Random Structures, Eurandom, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 1014 March 2008 (attended). – What it takes to be Gibbsian for planar rotors, Kansrekening en Statistiek Seminar, TU Delft, the Netherlands, 28 May 2008 (talk). – Loss of temperature for XY models, Forschungsseminar, Universität Potsdam, Ger many, 4 July 2008 (talk). – Random Media, Phase Transition and Information Theory, Fall School IHP Paris, France, 820 September 2008 (attended). – Statistical Mechanics, IHP Paris, France, 810 December 2008 (attended). Sepkhanov, R.A. (UL) – DRSTP Postgraduate Course Statistical Physics and Theory of Condensed Matter, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 711 April 2008 (attended). – Extremal transmission at the Dirac point of a photonic band structure, Graphene Week 2008, Trieste, Italy, 2529 August 2008 (poster). She, J.H. (UL) – Higgs effect in the worldline formalism, DRSTP Postgraduate Course Statistical Physics and Theory of Condensed Matter, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 711 April 2008 (talk). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). – Fermionic quantum criticality, Critical Fluctuations in Spin and Charge Systems, Cambridge, UK, November 2008 (talk). Swaving, A.C. (UU) – DRSTP Postgraduate Course Statistical Physics and Theory of Condensed Matter, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 711 April 2008 (attended). – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). Torres Valderrama, A. (UU) – DRSTP Postgraduate Course Statistical Physics and Theory of Condensed Matter, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 711 April 2008 (attended). van Dijk, T. (VUA) – DRSTP PhDDay, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, 25 April 2008 (attended). Woldhuis, E.L. (UL) – Investigating the viability of the spot model, Complex Fluids and Biophysics Semi nar, Leiden, the Netherlands, 7 April 2008 (talk). Žeravčić, Z. (UL) – Granular matter, JMBC Physics Course, Twente/Enschede, the Netherlands, 47 February 2008 (talk). – Crystalization and jamming in soft matter under driving, Lorentz Center Work shop, Leiden, the Netherlands, 1122 February 2008 (talk). – Localization behavior of vibrational nodes in granular packings, DRSTP Postgrad uate Course Statistical Physics and Theory of Condensed Matter, Driebergen, the Netherlands, 711 April 2008 (talk). – Granular and granularfluid flow, Gordon Research Center Conference, Colby Col lege, Waterville, Maine, USA, 2227 June 2008 (talk). – Dynamical heterogeneities in glasses, colloids and granular media, Lorentz Center Workshop, Leiden, the Netherlands 25 August5 September 2008 (talk).
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