avatar Juniper Networks, Inc. Manufacturing

Pages

  • Page 1

    UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20549 Form 10-K (Mark One) ¥ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2008 OR n TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 For the transition period from to Commission file number 0-26339 JUNIPER NETWORKS, INC. (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) Delaware 77-0422528 (State or other jurisdiction of (IRS Employer incorporation or organization) Identification No.) 1194 North Mathilda Avenue (408) 745-2000 Sunnyvale, California 94089 (Registrant’s telephone (Address of principal executive number, including area code) offices, including zip code) Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: Title of Each Class Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share The NASDAQ Global Select Market Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes n No ¥ Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes n No ¥ Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filings requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ¥ No n Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of the Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¥ Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one): Large accelerated filer ¥ Accelerated filer n Non-accelerated filer n Smaller reporting company n (Do not check if a smaller reporting company) Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Exchange Act Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes n No ¥ The aggregate market value of the Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant was approximately $8,883,000,000 as of the end of the Registrant’s second fiscal quarter (based on the closing sale price for the Common Stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on June 30, 2008). For purposes of this disclosure, shares of common stock held or controlled by executive officers and directors of the registrant and by persons who hold more than 5% of the outstanding shares of common stock have been treated as shares held by affiliates. However, such treatment should not be construed as an admission that any such person is an “affiliate” of the registrant. The registrant has no non-voting common equity. As of February 23, 2009, there were approximately 522,135,000 shares of the Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding. DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE As noted herein, the information called for by Part III is incorporated by reference to specified portions of the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be filed in conjunction with the Registrant’s 2009 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which is expected to be filed not later than 120 days after the Registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2008.


  • Page 2

    Table of Contents Page PART I ITEM 1. Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ITEM 1A. Risk Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 ITEM 2. Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 ITEM 4. Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 PART II ITEM 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 ITEM 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ITEM 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations . . 30 ITEM 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure about Market Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 ITEM 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 ITEM 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 ITEM 9A. Controls and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 ITEM 9B. Other Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 PART III ITEM 10. Directors and Executive Officers of the Registrant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 ITEM 11. Executive Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 ITEM 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 ITEM 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 ITEM 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 PART IV ITEM 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 1


  • Page 3

    PART I ITEM 1. Business Overview We design, develop, and sell products and services that together provide our customers with high-performance network infrastructure that creates responsive and trusted environments for accelerating the deployment of services and applications over a single Internet Protocol (“IP”)-based network. We serve the high-performance networking requirements of global service providers, enterprises, governments, and research and education institutions that view the network as critical to their success. High-performance networking is designed to provide fast, reliable, and secure access to applications and services. We offer a high-performance network infrastructure that includes best-in-class IP routing, Ethernet switching, security and application acceleration solutions, as well as partnerships designed to extend the value of the network and worldwide services and support designed to optimize customer investments. We believe our open network infrastructure provides customers with greater choice and control in quickly meeting high-performance business requirements, while enabling them to reduce the total cost of ownership of their network infrastructure. Our operations are organized into two reportable segments: Infrastructure and Service Layer Technologies (“SLT”). Our Infrastructure segment primarily offers scalable routing and switching products that are used to control and direct network traffic from the core, through the edge, aggregation, and the customer premise equipment level. Infrastructure products include our IP routing and carrier Ethernet routing portfolio, as well as our Ethernet switching portfolio. Our SLT segment offers solutions that meet a broad array of our customer’s priorities, from protecting the network itself, and protecting data on the network, to maximizing existing bandwidth and accel- eration of applications across a distributed network. Both segments offer worldwide services, including technical support and professional services, as well as educational and training programs to our customers. Together, our high-performance product and service offerings help enable our customers to convert legacy networks that provide commoditized, best efforts services into more valuable assets that provide differentiation and value and increased performance, reliability, and security to end-users. See Note 11 — Segment Information in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for information regarding financial information regarding each of our Infrastructure and SLT segments, which is incorporated herein by reference. During our fiscal year ended December 31, 2008, we generated net revenues of $3.57 billion and conducted business in more than 100 countries around the world. See Item 8 of Part II for more information on our consolidated financial position as of December 31, 2008 and 2007 and our consolidated results of operations, consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity, and consolidated statements of cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2008. We were incorporated in California in 1996 and reincorporated in Delaware in 1998. Our corporate head- quarters are located in Sunnyvale, California. Our website address is www.juniper.net. Our Strategy Our objective and strategy is to be the leading provider of high-performance networking. We offer a high- performance network infrastructure that creates a responsive and trusted environment for accelerating the deployment of services and applications over a single IP-based network. Our strategy is designed to advance the fundamentals and economics of high-performance networking. Key elements of our strategy are described below. Maintain and Extend Technology Leadership Our JUNOS» operating system, application-specific integrated circuit (“ASIC”) technology, and network- optimized product architecture have been key elements to establishing and maintaining our technology leadership. We believe that these elements can be leveraged into future products that we are currently developing. We intend to maintain and extend our technological leadership in the service provider and enterprise markets primarily through innovation and continued investment in our research and development departments, supplemented by external 2


  • Page 4

    partnerships, including strategic alliances, as well as acquisitions that would allow us to deliver a broader range of products and services to customers in target markets. Leverage Position as Supplier of High-Performance Network Infrastructure From inception, we have focused on designing, developing, and building high-performance network infra- structure for demanding service provider and enterprise networking environments and have integrated purpose-built technology into a network-optimized architecture that specifically meets our customers’ needs. We believe that many of these customers will deploy networking equipment from only a few vendors. We believe that the performance, reliability, and security of our products provide us with a competitive advantage, which is critical in gaining selection as one of these vendors. Be Strategic to Our Customers In developing our Infrastructure and SLT solutions, we work very closely with customers to design and build best-in-class products and solutions specifically designed to meet their complex needs. Over time, we have expanded our understanding of the escalating demands and risks facing our customers. That increased under- standing has enabled us subsequently to design additional capabilities into our products. We believe our close relationships with, and constant feedback from, our customers have been key elements in our design wins and rapid deployments to date. We plan to continue to work hand-in-hand with our customers to implement product enhancements as well as to design future products that meet the evolving needs of the marketplace, while enabling customers to reduce costs. Enable New IP-Based Services Our platforms enable network operators to quickly build and secure networks cost-effectively and deploy new differentiated services to drive new sources of revenue more efficiently than legacy network products. We believe that the secure delivery of IP-based services and applications, including IP Television (“IPTV”), web hosting, outsourced Internet and intranet services, outsourced enterprise applications, and voice-over IP, will continue to grow, and are cost-effectively enabled by our high-performance network infrastructure offerings. Establish and Develop Industry Partnerships Our customers have diverse requirements. While our products meet certain requirements of our customers, our products are not intended to satisfy certain other requirements. Therefore, we believe that it is important that we attract and build relationships with other industry leaders in a diverse set of technologies and services that extend the value of the network for our customers. These partnerships ensure that we have access to those technologies and services, whether through technology integration, joint development, resale, or other collaboration, in order to better support a broader set of our customers’ requirements. In addition, we believe in an open network infrastructure that invites partner innovation and provides customers with greater choice and control in meeting their evolving business requirements, while enabling them to reduce costs. Markets and Customers We sell our high-performance network products and service offerings through direct sales and through distributors and value-added resellers to end-users in the following markets: Service Providers Service providers include wireline, wireless, and cable operators, as well as major Internet content and application providers. Supporting most major service provider networks in the world, our high-performance network infrastructure offerings are designed and built for the performance, reliability, and security that service providers demand. Our networking infrastructure offerings benefit these customers by: • Reducing capital and operational costs by running multiple services over the same network using our high density, highly reliable platforms; 3


  • Page 5

    • Promoting generation of additional revenues by enabling new services to be offered to new market segments based on our product capabilities; • Increasing customer satisfaction, while lowering costs, by enabling consumers to self-select automatically provisioned service packages that provide the quality, speed, and pricing they desire; and • Providing increased asset longevity and higher return on investment as their networks can scale to multi- terabit rates based on the capabilities of our platforms. While many of these service providers have historically been categorized separately as wireline, wireless, or cable operators, in recent years, we have seen a move towards convergence of these different types of service providers through acquisitions, mergers, and partnerships. We believe these strategic developments are made technically possible as operators invest in the build out of next generation networks (“NGN”) capable of supporting voice, video, and data traffic on to the same IP-based network. This convergence relies on IP-based traffic processing and creates the opportunity for multi-service networks including new service offerings such as IPTV. These new services offer service providers significant new revenue opportunities. We believe that there are several other trends affecting service providers for which we are well positioned to deliver products and solutions. These trends include significant growth in IP traffic on service provider networks because of peer-to-peer interaction, broadband usage, video, and an increasing reliance on the network as a mission critical business tool in the strategies of our IP customers and of their enterprise customers. The IP infrastructure market for service providers includes: products and technology at the network core; the network edge to enable access; the aggregation layer; security to protect from the inside out and the outside in; the application awareness and intelligence to optimize the network to meet business and user needs; and the management, service awareness, and control of the entire infrastructure. We have sold our products to all of the 100 largest service providers in the world. Enterprise Our high-performance network infrastructure offerings are designed to meet the performance, reliability, and security requirements of the world’s most demanding businesses. For this reason, enterprises, governments, and research and education institutions that view their networks as critical to their success are able to deploy our solutions as a powerful component in delivering the advanced network capabilities needed for their leading-edge applications while: • Assisting in the consolidation and delivery of existing services and applications; • Accelerating the deployment of new services and applications; • Offering integrated security to assist in the protection and recovery of services and applications; and • Offering operational improvements that enable cost reductions, including lower administrative, training, customer care, and labor costs. Since we first entered the market, we have sold our products to more than 50,000 enterprise customers. As with the service provider market, innovation continues to be a critical component in our strategy for the enterprise market. We believe that innovative enterprises view the network as critical to their success and therefore must build advanced network infrastructures that provide fast, reliable, and secure access to services and applications over a single IP-based network. These high-performance enterprises require networks that are global, distributed, and always available. Network equipment vendors need to demonstrate performance, reliability, and security to these customers in specific segments with best-in-class open solutions for maximum flexibility. We offer enterprise solutions and services for data centers, branch and campus applications, distributed and extended enterprises, and Wide Area Network (“WAN”) gateways. As customers increasingly view the network as critical to their success, we believe that customers will increasingly demand fast, reliable, and secure access to services and applications over a single IP-based network. This is partly illustrated by the success of our Integrated Security Gateway (“ISG”) products that combine firewall/ 4


  • Page 6

    virtual private network (“VPN”) and intrusion detection and prevention (“IDP”) solutions in a single platform and Secure Services Gateway (“SSG”) platforms that provide a mix of high-performance security with Local Area Network (“LAN”)/WAN connectivity for regional and branch office deployments. We will continue to invest to develop these and other converged technologies and solutions. Our Products and Technology Early in our history, we developed, marketed, and sold the first commercially available purpose-built IP backbone router optimized for the specific high-performance requirements of service providers. As the need for core bandwidth continued to increase, the need for service rich platforms at the edge of the network was created. Our Infrastructure products are designed to address the needs at the core and the edge of the network as well as for wireless access by combining high-performance packet forwarding technology and robust operating systems into a network-optimized solution. In addition, as enterprises continue to develop and rely upon more sophisticated and pervasive internal networks, we believe the need for products with high-performance routing and switching technology is expanding to a broader set of customers, and we believe our expertise in this technology uniquely positions us to address this growing market opportunity. Additionally, our SLT segment offers a broad family of network security solutions that deliver high-perfor- mance, cost-effective security for enterprises, service providers, and government entities, including integrated firewall and VPN solutions, secure sockets layer (“SSL”) VPN appliances, and IDP appliances. We also offer complementary products and technologies to enable our customers to provide additional IP-based services and enhance the performance and security of their existing networks and applications. The following is an overview of our major Infrastructure and SLT product families: Infrastructure Products • M-Series and T-Series: Our M-series routers are extremely versatile as they can be deployed at the edge of operator networks, in small and medium core networks, enterprise networks, and in other applications. Our T-series core routers are primarily designed for core IP infrastructures and are also being sold into the multi- service environment. The M-series and T-series products leverage our ASIC technology and the same JUNOS operating system to enable consistent, continuous, reliable, and predictable service delivery. • E-Series: Our E-series products are a full featured platform designed for the network edge with support for carrier-class routing, broadband subscriber management services and a comprehensive set of IP services. Leveraging our JUNOS operating system, the E-Series service delivery architecture enables service providers to easily deploy innovative revenue-generating services to their customers. All E-Series platforms offer a full suite of routing protocols and provide scalable capacity for tens of thousands of users. • MX-Series: The MX-Series is a product family developed to address emerging Ethernet network archi- tectures and services in service provider and enterprise networks. Using our JUNOS operating system, the MX platforms provide the carrier-class performance, scale, and reliability to enable service providers and enterprises to support large-scale Ethernet deployments. • EX-Series: Our EX-series family expands our product portfolio running our JUNOS operating system to address the Ethernet switch market. Ethernet is a widely used technology used to transport information in enterprise networks. Our EX-series switches are designed to enable customers to cost effectively accelerate and simplify the way they install and manage business applications across their networks and enhance network operations without comprising performance. SLT Products • Services Gateway, Integrated Firewall, and VPN Solutions: Our firewall and VPN systems and appliances are designed to provide integrated firewall, VPN, and denial of service protection capabilities for both enterprise environments and service provider network infrastructures. These products range from our SSG products, which combine LAN/WAN routing capabilities with unified threat management features such as anti-virus, anti-spam, and web filtering technologies, to our ISG and NetScreen series firewall and VPN 5


  • Page 7

    systems, which are designed to deliver high-performance security in medium/large enterprise and carrier networks and data centers. In addition, we recently introduced the SRX-series of dynamic services gateways. Running our JUNOS software, the SRX-series systems provide unrivaled firewall/VPN performance and scalability and are designed to meet the network and security requirements for data center consolidation, rapid managed services deployments, and aggregation of security services. • SSL VPN Appliances: Our SSL VPN appliances are used to secure remote access for mobile employees, secure extranets for customers and partners, and secure intranets and are designed to be used in enterprise environments of all sizes. • IDP Appliances: Our IDP appliances utilize advanced intrusion detection methods to increase the detect and prevent network attacks and also provide fast and efficient traffic processing and alarm collection, presentation, and forwarding. Once an attack is detected, our IDP appliances prevent the intrusion by dropping the packets or connection associated with the attack, reducing or eliminating the effects of the attack. • Application Acceleration Platforms: Our WX and WXC products improve the performance of client- server and web-enabled business applications for branch-office, remote, and mobile users. These application acceleration platforms enable our customers to deliver LAN-like performance to users around the globe who access centralized applications. • Identity and Policy Control Solutions: Our portfolio of identity and policy control solutions integrate subscriber privileges, application requirements, and business policies with the IP network infrastructure in order to improve the end-user experience, enhance security, and help reduce operational costs. See Item 7 — Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for an analysis of net product revenues by segment. JUNOS Software In addition to our major product families, JUNOS software, our flagship network operating system, is a key technology element in our strategy to be the leader in high-performance networking. We believe JUNOS is fundamentally superior to other network operating systems in not only its design, but also in its development. The advantages of JUNOS include: • One modular operating system with single source base of code and a single, consistent implementation for each control plane feature; • One software release train extended through a highly disciplined and firmly scheduled development process; and • One common modular software architecture that scales across all JUNOS-based platforms. JUNOS software is designed to maintain continuous systems and improve the availability, performance, and security of business applications running across the network. JUNOS software helps to automate network operations by providing a single consistent implementation of features across the network in a single release train that seeks to minimize the complexity, cost, and risk associated with implementing network features and upgrades. This operational efficiency allows network administrators more time to innovate and deliver new revenue-generating applications, helping to advance the economics of high-performance networking. The security and stability of JUNOS software, combined with its modular architecture and single source code base, provides a foundation for delivering exceptional performance, reliability, security, and scale at a total cost of ownership. With an increasing number of our platforms able to leverage JUNOS, including routing, switching, and security products, we believe JUNOS software provides us a competitive advantage over other major network equipment vendors. 6


  • Page 8

    Customer Service and Support In addition to our Infrastructure and SLT products, we offer the following services: 24x7x365 technical assistance, hardware repair and replacement parts, unspecified software updates on a when-and-if-available basis, professional services, and educational services. We deliver these services directly to end-users and utilize a multi- tiered support model, leveraging the capabilities of our partners and third-party organizations, as appropriate. We also train our channel partners in the delivery of education and support services to ensure locally delivered training. As of December 31, 2008, we employed 783 people in our worldwide customer service and support organization. We believe that a broad range of support services is essential to the successful customer deployment and ongoing support of our products, and we have hired support engineers with proven network experience to provide those services. Manufacturing and Operations As of December 31, 2008, we employed 230 people in manufacturing and operations who primarily manage relationships with our contract manufacturers, manage our supply chain, and monitor and manage product testing and quality. We have manufacturing relationships primarily with Celestica, Flextronics, and Plexus, under which we have subcontracted the majority of our manufacturing activity. Our manufacturing activity is primarily conducted in Canada, China, Malaysia, Mexico, and the United States. This subcontracting activity in all locations extends from prototypes to full production and includes activities such as material procurement, final assembly, test, control, shipment to our customers, and repairs. Together with our contract manufacturers, we design, specify, and monitor the tests that are required to meet internal and external quality standards. These arrangements provide us with the following benefits: • We can quickly deliver products to customers with turnkey manufacturing and drop-shipment capabilities; • We gain economies of scale because, by purchasing large quantities of common components, our contract manufacturers obtain more favorable pricing than if we were buying components alone; • We operate without dedicating significant space to manufacturing operations; and • We can reduce our costs by reducing fixed overhead expenses. Our contract manufacturers manufacture our products based on our rolling product demand forecasts. Each of the contract manufacturers procures components necessary to assemble the products in our forecast and tests the products according to our specifications. Products are then shipped to our distributors, value-added resellers, or end- users. Generally, we do not own the components and title to the products transfers from the contract manufacturers to us and immediately to our customers upon delivery at a designated shipment location. If the components go unused or the products go unsold for specified periods of time, we may incur carrying charges or obsolete material charges for components that our contract manufacturers purchased to build products to meet our forecast or customer orders. Although we have contracts with our contract manufacturers, those contracts merely set forth a framework within which the contract manufacturer may accept purchase orders from us. The contracts do not require them to manufacture our products on a long-term basis. Our ASICs are manufactured primarily by sole or limited sources, such as IBM Corporation and Toshiba Corporation, each of whom is responsible for all aspects of the production of the ASICs using our proprietary designs. We have five core values: trust, respect, humility, integrity, and excellence. These values are integral to how we manage our company and interact with our employees, customers, partners, and suppliers. By working collab- oratively with our suppliers, we also have the opportunity to promote socially responsible business practices beyond our company and into our worldwide supply chain. To this end, we have adopted, and promote the adoption by 7


  • Page 9

    others, of the Electronic Industry Code of Conduct. The Electronic Industry Code of Conduct outlines standards to ensure that working conditions in the electronics industry supply chain are safe, that workers are treated with respect and dignity, and that manufacturing processes are environmentally responsible. Research and Development As of December 31, 2008, we employed 3,194 people in our worldwide research and development organi- zations. Our research and development expenses totaled $731.2 million, $623.0 million and $480.3 million in the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006, respectively. We have assembled a team of skilled engineers with extensive experience in the fields of high-end computing, network system design, ASIC design, security, routing protocols, and embedded operating systems. These individuals have worked in leading computer data networking and telecommunication companies. We believe that strong product development capabilities are essential to our strategy of enhancing our core technology, developing additional applications, incorporating that technology, and maintaining the competitiveness of our product and service offerings. In our Infrastructure and SLT products, we are leveraging our software and ASIC technology, developing additional network interfaces targeted to our customers’ applications, and continuing to develop NGN technology to support the anticipated growth in IP network requirements. We continue to expand the functionality of our products to improve performance reliability and scalability, and to provide an enhanced user interface. Our research and development process is driven by the availability of new technology, market demand, and customer feedback. We have invested significant time and resources in creating a structured process for all product development projects. Following an assessment of market demand, our research and development team develops a full set of comprehensive functional product specifications based on inputs from the product management and sales organizations. This process is designed to provide a framework for defining and addressing the steps, tasks, and activities required to bring product concepts and development projects to market. Sales and Marketing As of December 31, 2008, we employed 2,190 people in our worldwide sales and marketing organizations. These sales employees operate in different locations around the world in support of our customers. Our sales organization is organized into three geographic regions and within each region according to the particular needs in that market. Our three geographic regions are: (i) the Americas (including United States, Canada, Mexico, Central and South America), (ii) Europe, Middle East, and Africa (“EMEA”) and (iii) Asia Pacific (“APAC”). Within each region, there are regional and country teams to ensure we operate close to our customers. See Note 11 — Segment Information in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for information concerning our revenues by geographic regions and by significant customers, which is incorporated herein by reference. Our operations subject us to certain risks and uncertainties associated with international operations. See Item 1A of Part I, “Risk Factors,” for more information. Our sales teams operate in their respective regions and generally either engage customers directly or manage customer opportunities through our distribution and reseller relationships or channels as described below. In the United States and Canada, we sell to several service providers directly and sell to other service providers and enterprise customers primarily through resellers. Almost all of our sales outside the United States and Canada are made through our channel partners. Direct Sales Structure Where we have a direct relationship with our customers, the terms and conditions are governed either by customer purchase orders and our acknowledgement of those orders or by purchase contracts. In instances where we have direct contracts with our customers, those contracts set forth only general terms of sale and do not require customers to purchase specified quantities of our products. For this type of customer, our sales team engages directly with the customer. We directly receive and process customer purchase orders. 8


  • Page 10

    Channel Sales Structure A critical part of our sales and marketing efforts are our channel partners through which we do the majority of our business. We employ various channel partners, including but not limited to: • A global network of strategic distribution relationships, as well as region or country-specific distributors who in turn sell to local value added resellers who sell to the end-user customer. The distribution channel partners mainly sell our SLT products plus certain Infrastructure products that are often purchased by our enterprise customers. These distributors tend to be focused on particular regions or particular countries within regions. For example, we have substantial distribution relationships with Ingram Micro in the Americas and with NEC in Japan. Our agreements with these distributors are generally non-exclusive, limited by region, and provide product discounts and other ordinary terms of sale. These agreements do not require our distributors to purchase specified quantities of our products. • Direct value-added resellers including our strategic resellers referenced below, which resell our products to end-users around the world. These direct value-added resellers buy the products and services directly from us and have expertise in deploying complex networking solutions in their respective markets. Our agree- ments with these direct value-added resellers are generally non-exclusive, limited by region, and provide product discounts and other ordinary terms of sale. These agreements do not require our direct value-added resellers to purchase specified quantities of our products. • Strategic worldwide reseller relationships with Nokia-Siemens Networks B.V. (“NSN”), Ericsson Telekom A.B. (“Ericsson”), and IBM. These companies each offer services and products that complement, but in some cases compete with, our own product offerings and act as a fulfillment partner for our products. Our arrangements with these partners allow them to resell our products on a worldwide, non-exclusive basis, provide for product discounts, and specify other general terms of sale. These agreements do not require these partners to purchase specified quantities of our products. No single customer accounted for more than 10% of our total net revenues in 2008. NSN accounted for greater than 10% of our total net revenues in 2007 and 2006. Within each region, we employ sales professionals to assist with the management of our various sales channels. In addition, we have a “direct touch” sales team that works directly with the channel partners on key accounts in order to maintain a direct relationship with our more strategic end-user customers while at the same time supporting the ultimate fulfillment of product through our channel partners. Our sales organization is generally split between service provider and enterprise customers, with each separate team ensuring focus on the key customers in these respective markets. There is a structure of sales professionals, system engineers, and marketing and channel teams each focused on the respective service provider and enterprise markets. Backlog Our sales are made primarily pursuant to purchase orders under framework agreements with our customers. At any given time, we have orders for products that have not been shipped and for services that have not yet been performed for various reasons. Because we believe industry practice would allow customers to cancel or change orders with limited advance notice prior to shipment or performance, as well as our history of allowing such changes and cancellations, we do not consider this backlog firm and do not believe our backlog information is necessarily indicative of future revenues. Seasonality Many companies in our industry experience adverse seasonal fluctuations in customer spending patterns, particularly in the first and third quarters. In addition, our SLT segment has experienced seasonally strong customer demand in the fourth quarter. This historical pattern should not be considered a reliable indicator of our future net revenues or financial performance. 9


  • Page 11

    Competition Infrastructure Business In the network infrastructure business, Cisco Systems has historically been the dominant player in the market. However, other companies such as Alcatel-Lucent, Brocade Communications Systems, Inc., Ericsson, Extreme Networks, Inc., Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., and Nortel Networks Corporation, are providing competitive products in the marketplace. Many of our current and potential competitors, such as Cisco, Alcatel-Lucent, and Huawei have significantly broader product lines than we do and may bundle their products with other networking products in a manner that may discourage customers from purchasing our products. In addition, consolidation among competitors, or the acquisition of our partners and resellers by competitors, can increase the competitive pressure faced by us. For example, in 2006 Alcatel combined with Lucent Technologies, Inc. and Ericsson acquired Redback Networks. In addition, many of our current and potential competitors have greater name recognition and more extensive customer bases that could be leveraged. Increased competition could result in price reductions, fewer customer orders, reduced gross margins, and loss of market share, any of which could seriously harm our operating results. SLT Business In the market for SLT products, Cisco generally is our primary competitor with its broad range of products. In addition, there are a number of other competitors for each of the product lines within SLT, including Checkpoint Software Technologies, Fortinet, Inc., F5 Networks, Inc., Nortel, and Riverbed Technology, Inc. These additional competitors tend to be focused on single product line solutions and therefore are generally specialized and focused as competitors to our products. In addition, a number of public and private companies have announced plans for new products to address the same needs that our products address. We believe that our ability to compete with Cisco and others depends upon our ability to demonstrate that our products are superior in meeting the needs of our current and potential customers. For both product groups, we expect that, over time, large companies with significant resources, technical expertise, market experience, customer relationships, and broad product lines, such as Cisco, Alcatel-Lucent, Huawei, will introduce new products, which are designed to compete more effectively in the market. There are also several other companies that claim to have products with greater capabilities than our products. Consolidation in this industry has begun, with one or more of these companies being acquired by large, established suppliers of network infrastructure products, and we believe it is likely to continue. As a result, we expect to face increased competition in the future from larger companies with significantly more resources than we have. Although we believe that our technology and the purpose-built features of our products make them unique and will enable us to compete effectively with these companies, we cannot guarantee that we will be successful. Environment We are subject to regulations that have been adopted with respect to environmental matters, such as the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“WEEE”) and Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“RoHS”) regulations adopted by the European Union. In addition, in September 2007, we announced our sponsorship and continued participation in the Carbon Disclosure Project (“CDP”). CDP is a global standardized mechanism by which companies report their greenhouse gas emissions to institutional investors. It hosts one of the largest registries of corporate greenhouse gas data in the world at www.cdproject.net. We continue to invest in the infrastructure and systems required to be able to inventory and measure our carbon footprint on a global basis. We believe we have made significant strides in improving our energy efficiency around the world. Compliance with federal, state, local, and foreign laws enacted for the protection of the environment has to date had no material effect on our capital expenditures, earnings, or competitive position. 10


  • Page 12

    In addition, we are committed to the environment by our effort in improving the energy efficiency of key elements of our high-performance network product offerings. For example, our T1600 router consumes substan- tially less energy than competitive products. The environment will remain a focus area across multiple aspects of our business. Intellectual Property Our success and ability to compete are substantially dependent upon our internally developed technology and expertise. Our operating systems were developed internally and are protected by United States and other copyright laws. While we rely on patent, copyright, trade secret, and trademark law to protect our technology, we also believe that factors such as the technological and creative skills of our personnel, new product developments, frequent product enhancements, and reliable product maintenance are essential to establishing and maintaining a technology leadership position. There can be no assurance that others will not develop technologies that are similar or superior to our technology. In addition, we integrate licensed third-party technology into certain of our products. From time to time, we may be required to license additional technology from third parties to develop new products or product enhance- ments. There can be no assurance that third-party licenses will be available or continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms. Our inability to maintain or re-license any third-party licenses required in our products or our inability to obtain third-party licenses necessary to develop new products and product enhancements could require us to obtain substitute technology of lower quality or performance standards or at a greater cost, any of which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Our success will depend upon our ability to obtain necessary intellectual property rights and protect our intellectual property rights. We cannot be certain that patents will be issued on the patent applications that we have filed, or that we will be able to obtain the necessary intellectual property rights or that other parties will not contest our intellectual property rights. Employees As of December 31, 2008, we had 7,014 full-time employees. We have not experienced any work stoppages, and we consider our relations with our employees to be good. Competition for qualified personnel in our industry is intense. We believe that our future success depends in part on our continued ability to hire, motivate, and retain qualified personnel. We believe that we have been successful in recruiting qualified employees, but there is no assurance that we will continue to be successful in the future. Our future performance depends in significant part upon the continued service of our key technical, sales, and senior management personnel, none of whom is bound by an employment agreement requiring service for any defined period of time. The loss of the services of one or more of our key employees could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Our future success also depends on our continuing ability to attract, train, and retain highly qualified technical, sales, and managerial personnel. Com- petition for such personnel is intense, and there can be no assurance that we can retain our key personnel in the future. 11


  • Page 13

    Executive Officers of the Registrant The following sets forth certain information regarding our executive officers as of February 15, 2009. Name Age Position Kevin R. Johnson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Chief Executive Officer Pradeep Sindhu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Chief Technical Officer and Vice Chairman of the Board Mark Bauhaus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Executive Vice President and General Manager, Service Layer Technology Business Group Robyn M. Denholm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer Mitchell Gaynor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary John Morris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Executive Vice President, Worldwide Sales and Services Kim Perdikou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Executive Vice President and General Manager, Infrastructure Products Group Michael J. Rose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Executive Vice President of Service, Support and Operations Gene Zamiska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Vice President, Finance and Corporate Controller KEVIN R. JOHNSON joined Juniper Networks in September 2008 as Chief Executive Officer. Prior to Juniper Networks, Mr. Johnson was at Microsoft Corporation, a worldwide provider of software, services, and solutions, where he had served as President, Platforms and Services Division since January 2007. He had been Co-President of the Platforms and Services Division since September 2005. Prior to that role, he held the position of Microsoft’s Group Vice President, Worldwide Sales, Marketing and Services since March 2003. Before that position, Mr. Johnson had been Senior Vice President, Microsoft Americas since February 2002 and Senior Vice President, U.S. Sales, Marketing, and Services since August 2000. Before joining Microsoft in 1992, Mr. Johnson worked in IBM’s systems integration and consulting business and started his career as a software developer. He earned a Bachelor’s degree in business administration from New Mexico State University and served as a founding member of the Board of Directors of NPower, a nonprofit organization whose mission is to help other nonprofits use technology to expand the reach and impact of their work. Mr. Johnson also served as a member of the Western Region Board of Advisors of Catalyst, a non-profit organization dedicated to women’s career advancement. PRADEEP SINDHU co-founded Juniper Networks in February 1996 and served as Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors until September 1996. Since then, Dr. Sindhu has served as Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Technical Officer of Juniper Networks. From September 1984 to February 1991, Dr. Sindhu worked as a Member of the Research Staff, and from March 1987 to February 1996, as the Principal Scientist, and from February 1994 to February 1996, as Distinguished Engineer at the Computer Science Lab, Xerox Corporation, Palo Alto Research Center, a technology research center. Dr. Sindhu holds a B.S.E.E. from the Indian Institute of Technology in Kanpur, an M.S.E.E. from the University of Hawaii, and a Masters in Computer Science and Ph.D. in Computer Science from Carnegie-Mellon University. MARK BAUHAUS joined Juniper Networks in September 2007 as Executive Vice President and General Manager, Service Layer Technology Business Group. From January 2007 to September 2007, Mr. Bauhaus served as founder and principal of Bauhaus Productions Consulting. From December 1986 to December 2006, Mr. Bauhaus served at Sun Microsystems in a range of executive level assignments, most recently in the position of Senior Vice President, Service Oriented Architecture Software. Mr. Bauhaus holds a Bachelors degree in business management and environmental systems analysis from the University of California at Davis. ROBYN M. DENHOLM joined Juniper Networks in August 2007 as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. From January 1996 to August 2007, Ms. Denholm was at Sun Microsystems where she served in executive assignments that included Senior Vice President, Corporate Strategic Planning; Senior Vice President, Finance; Vice President and Corporate Controller (Chief Accounting Officer); Vice President, Finance; Service Division; Director, Shared Financial Services APAC; and Controller, Australia/New Zealand. From May 1989 to 12


  • Page 14

    January 1996, Ms. Denholm served at Toyota Motor Corporation Australia and from December 1984 to May 1989, Ms. Denholm served at Arthur Andersen and Company in various finance assignments. Ms. Denholm is a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Australia and holds a Bachelors Degree in Economics from the University of Sydney and a Masters of Commerce from the University of New South Wales. MITCHELL GAYNOR is Senior Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary and joined Juniper Networks in February 2004 as. Between April 1999 and February 2004, Mr. Gaynor was Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Portal Software, Inc. He also served as Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Sybase, Inc., from 1997 to 1999 and served in various other legal roles in Sybase between 1993 and 1997. Mr. Gaynor was Assistant General Counsel of ComputerLand Corporation, a computer equipment reseller, during 1989 and 1990. From 1984 to 1989 and from 1990 to 1993, Mr. Gaynor was an associate with the law firm of Brobeck, Phleger & Harrison. Mr. Gaynor holds a J.D. from U.C. Hastings College of the Law and a B.A. in History from the University of California, Berkeley. JOHN MORRIS joined Juniper Networks in July 2008 as Executive Vice President, Worldwide Field Operations. From 2005 to 2008, Mr. Morris served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Pay By Touch, a biometric payment technology company. Prior to Pay By Touch, Mr. Morris spent 23 years at IBM Corporation, where he served in a range of executive assignments, most recently as Vice President and General Manager of the Distribution Sector in the Americas region. Mr. Morris also served on IBM’s Global Marketing Council, as well as extensive experience in the Asian theater, including serving as Vice President and General Manager of the distribution sector for Asia Pacific, based in Tokyo, Japan. Mr. Morris holds a degree in Finance from Indiana University Bloomington. KIM PERDIKOU joined Juniper Networks in August 2000 as Chief Information Officer and served in that role until January 2006 when she assumed the role as the Executive Vice President and General Manager of the Infrastructure Products Group. Prior to Juniper Networks, Ms. Perdikou served as Chief Information Officer at Women.com from June 1999 to August 2000, and held the position of Vice President, Global Networks, at Reader’s Digest from March 1992 to April 1998, as well as leadership positions at Knight Ridder from June 1999 to August 2000, and Dun & Bradstreet from August 1989 to March 1992. Ms. Perdikou holds a B.S. in Computing Science with Operational Research from Paisley University, Paisley, Scotland; a Post-Graduate in Education degree from Jordanhill College, Glasgow, Scotland; and a Masters in Information Systems from Pace University, New York. MICHAEL J. ROSE joined Juniper Networks in November 2008 as Executive Vice President of Service, Support and Operations. From 2005 to November 2008, Mr. Rose was an independent business consultant. From 2001 to 2005, Mr. Rose served as Executive Vice President and Chief Information Officer of Royal Dutch Shell plc. Prior to Royal Dutch Shell, Mr. Rose worked for 23 years in a wide range of positions at Hewlett Packard Company, including controller for various business groups. In 1997, he was named Hewlett Packard’s Chief Information Officer, and in 2000, he was elected an officer by the Board of Directors of Hewlett Packard. He was named the company’s Controller in 2001. Rose holds a Bachelor’s degree in economics from the State University of New York at Geneseo, N.Y. GENE ZAMISKA joined Juniper Networks in December 2007 as Vice President of Finance and Corporate Controller. From February 1989 through November 2007, Mr. Zamiska served in various roles in the finance department of Hewlett Packard Company, a provider of technology hardware, software, and services, most recently serving as Senior Director of Finance for Hewlett Packard’s consulting and integration division and Senior Director of Finance and Assistant Corporate Controller. Mr. Zamiska is a Certified Public Accountant and holds a BS in Business-Accounting from the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Available Information We file our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and current reports on Form 8-K pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) electronically. The public may read or copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains a website 13


  • Page 15

    that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including the Company, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov. You may obtain a free copy of our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports on our website at http://www.juniper.net, by contacting the Investor Relations Department at our corporate offices by calling 1-888-586-4737, or by sending an e-mail message to investor-relations@juniper.net. Such reports and other information are available on our website when they are available on the SEC website. Information on our website is not a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. ITEM 1A. Risk Factors Factors That May Affect Future Results Investments in equity securities of publicly traded companies involve significant risks. The market price of our stock has historically reflected a higher multiple of expected future earnings than many other companies. Accordingly, even small changes in investor expectations for our future growth and earnings, whether as a result of actual or rumored financial or operating results, changes in the mix of the products and services sold, acquisitions, industry changes or other factors, could trigger, and have triggered, significant fluctuations in the market price of our common stock. Investors in our securities should carefully consider all of the relevant factors, including, but not limited to, the following factors, that could affect our stock price. Our quarterly results are inherently unpredictable and subject to substantial fluctuations, and, as a result, we may fail to meet the expectations of securities analysts and investors, which could adversely affect the trading price of our common stock. Our revenues and operating results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter due to a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control and any of which may cause our stock price to fluctuate. The factors that may affect the unpredictability of our quarterly results include, but are not limited to: limited visibility into customer spending plans, changes in the mix of products sold, changing market conditions, including current and potential customer consolidation, competition, customer concentration, long sales and implementation cycles, regional economic and political conditions and seasonality. For example, many companies in our industry experience adverse seasonal fluctuations in customer spending patterns, particularly in the first and third quarters. As a result, we believe that quarter-to-quarter comparisons of operating results are not necessarily a good indication of what our future performance will be. It is likely that in some future quarters, our operating results may be below the expectations of securities analysts or investors, in which case the price of our common stock may decline. Such a decline could occur, and has occurred in the past, even when we have met our publicly stated revenues and/or earnings guidance. Fluctuating economic conditions make it difficult to predict revenues for a particular period and a shortfall in revenues or increase in costs of production may harm our operating results. Our revenues depend significantly on general economic conditions and the demand for products in the markets in which we compete. Economic weakness, customer financial difficulties, and constrained spending on network expansion have previously resulted, and may in the future result, in decreased revenues and earnings and could negatively impact our ability to forecast and manage our contract manufacturer relationships. In addition, recent turmoil in the global financial markets and associated economic weakness, or recession, particularly in the United States, as well as turmoil in the geopolitical environment in many parts of the world, may continue to put pressure on global economic conditions, which could lead to reduced demand for our products and/or higher costs of production. Economic downturns may also lead to longer collection cycles for payments due from our customers, an increase in bad debts, restructuring initiatives and associated expenses, and impairment of investments. Furthermore, the recent disruption in worldwide credit markets may adversely impact the ability of our customers to adequately fund their expected capital expenditures, which could lead to delays or cancellations of planned purchases of our products or services. In addition, our operating expenses are largely based on anticipated revenue trends and a high percentage of our expenses are, and will continue to be, fixed in the short-term. Uncertainty about 14


  • Page 16

    future economic conditions makes it difficult to forecast operating results and to make decisions about future investments. Future or continued economic weakness, customer financial difficulties, increases in costs of production, and reductions in spending on network maintenance and expansion could have a material adverse effect on demand for our products and consequently on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. A limited number of our customers comprise a significant portion of our revenues and any decrease in revenues from these customers could have an adverse effect on our net revenues and operating results. A substantial majority of our net revenues depend on sales to a limited number of customers and distribution partners. For example, NSN and its predecessor companies contributed more than 10% of revenues in the fiscal years ended 2007 and 2006. This customer concentration increases the risk of quarterly fluctuations in our revenues and operating results. Changes in the business requirements, vendor selection, or purchasing behavior of our key customers or potential new customers could significantly decrease sales to such customers. In addition, the recent disruption in worldwide credit markets may adversely impact the ability of our customers to adequately fund their expected capital expenditures, which could lead to delays or cancellations of planned purchases of our products or services. Any of these factors could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, in recent years there has been consolidation in the telecommunications industry (for example, the acquisitions of AT&T Inc., MCI, Inc., and BellSouth Corporation) and consolidation among the large vendors of telecommunications equipment and services (for example, the combination of Alcatel and Lucent, the joint venture of NSN, and the acquisition of Redback by Ericsson). Such consolidation may cause our customers who are involved in these acquisitions to suspend or indefinitely reduce their purchases of our products or have other unforeseen consequences that could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations. If we receive Infrastructure product orders late in a quarter, we may be unable to recognize revenue for these orders in the same period, which could adversely affect our quarterly revenues. Generally, our Infrastructure products are not stocked by distributors or resellers due to their cost, complexity, and configurations required by our customers, and we generally build such products as orders are received. If orders for these products are received late in any quarter, we may not be able to build, ship, and recognize revenue for these orders in the same period, which could adversely affect our ability to meet our expected revenues for such quarter. Telecommunications companies and other large companies generally require more onerous terms and conditions of their vendors. As we seek to sell more products to such customers, we may be required to agree to terms and conditions that may have an adverse effect on our business or ability to recognize revenues. Telecommunications service provider companies and other large companies, because of their size, generally have greater purchasing power and, accordingly, have requested and received more favorable terms, which often translate into more onerous terms and conditions for their vendors. As we seek to sell more products to this class of customer, we may be required to agree to such terms and conditions, which may include terms that affect the timing of our ability to recognize revenue and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Consolidation among such large customers can further increase their buying power and ability to require onerous terms. For example, many customers in this class have purchased products from other vendors who promised certain functionality and failed to deliver such functionality and/or had products that caused problems or outages in the networks of these customers. As a result, this class of customers may request additional features from us and require substantial penalties for failure to deliver such features or may require substantial penalties for any network outages that may be caused by our products. These additional requests and penalties, if we are required to agree to them, may affect our ability to recognize the revenues from such sales, which may negatively affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. For example, in April 2006, we announced that we would be required to defer a large amount of revenue from a customer due to the contractual obligations required by that customer. For arrangements with multiple elements, vendor specific objective evidence of fair value of the undelivered element is required in order to separate the components and to account for elements of the arrangement separately. 15


  • Page 17

    Vendor specific objective evidence of fair value is based on the price charged when the element is sold separately. However, customers may require terms and conditions that make it more difficult or impossible for us to maintain vendor specific objective evidence of fair value for the undelivered elements to a similar group of customers, the result of which could cause us to defer the entire arrangement fees for a similar group of customers (product, maintenance, professional services, etc.) and recognize revenue only when the last element is delivered, or if the only undelivered element is maintenance revenue, we would recognize revenue ratably over the contractual maintenance period, which is generally one year but could be substantially longer. Our ability to process orders and ship products in a timely manner is dependent in part on our business systems and performance of the systems and processes of third parties such as our contract manufacturers, suppliers, or other partners, as well as interfaces with the systems of such third parties. If our systems, the systems and processes of those third parties, or the interfaces between them experience delays or fail, our business processes and our ability to build and ship products could be impacted, and our financial results could be harmed. Some of our business processes depend upon our information technology systems (“IT”), the systems and processes of third parties, and on interfaces with the systems of third parties. For example, our order entry system feeds information into the systems of our contract manufacturers, which enable them to build and ship our products. If those systems fail or are interrupted, our processes may function at a diminished level or not at all. This could negatively impact our ability to ship products or otherwise operate our business, and our financial results could be harmed. For example, although it did not adversely affect our shipments, an earthquake in late December of 2006 disrupted communications with China, where a significant part of our manufacturing occurs. We also rely upon the performance of the systems and processes of our contract manufacturers to build and ship our products. If those systems and processes experience interruption or delay, our ability to build and ship our products in a timely manner may be harmed. For example, as we have expanded our contract manufacturing base to China, we have experienced instances where our contract manufacturer was not able to ship products in the time periods expected by us. If we are not able to ship our products or if product shipments are delayed, our ability to recognize revenue in a timely manner for those products would be affected and our financial results could be harmed. If we fail to accurately predict our manufacturing requirements, we could incur additional costs or experience manufacturing delays which would harm our business. We provide demand forecasts to our contract manufacturers. If we overestimate our requirements, our contract manufacturers may assess charges, or we may have liabilities for excess inventory, each of which could negatively affect our gross margins. Conversely, because lead times for required materials and components vary significantly and depend on factors such as the specific supplier, contract terms, and the demand for each component at a given time, if we underestimate our requirements, our contract manufacturers may have inadequate time or materials and components required to produce our products, which could increase costs or could delay or interrupt manufacturing of our products and result in delays in shipments and deferral or loss of revenues. We are dependent on sole source and limited source suppliers for several key components, which makes us susceptible to shortages or price fluctuations in our supply chain, and we may face increased challenges in supply chain management in the future. With the current demand for electronic products, component shortages are possible, and the predictability of the availability of such components may be limited. Growth in our business and the economy is likely to create greater pressures on us and our suppliers to accurately project overall component demand and to establish optimal component levels. If shortages or delays persist, the price of these components may increase, or the components may not be available at all. We may not be able to secure enough components at reasonable prices or of acceptable quality to build new products in a timely manner, and our revenues and gross margins could suffer until other sources can be developed. For example, from time to time, including the first quarter of 2008, we have experienced component shortages that resulted in delays of product shipments. We currently purchase numerous key compo- nents, including ASICs, from single or limited sources. The development of alternate sources for those components 16


  • Page 18

    is time consuming, difficult, and costly. In addition, the lead times associated with certain components are lengthy and preclude rapid changes in quantities and delivery schedules. In the event of a component shortage or supply interruption from these suppliers, we may not be able to develop alternate or second sources in a timely manner. If, as a result, we are unable to buy these components in quantities sufficient to meet our requirements on a timely basis, we will not be able to deliver product to our customers, which would seriously affect present and future sales, which would, in turn, adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, the development, licensing, or acquisition of new products in the future may increase the complexity of supply chain management. Failure to effectively manage the supply of key components and products would adversely affect our business. We are dependent on contract manufacturers with whom we do not have long-term supply contracts, and changes to those relationships, expected or unexpected, may result in delays or disruptions that could cause us to lose revenues and damage our customer relationships. We depend on independent contract manufacturers (each of which is a third-party manufacturer for numerous companies) to manufacture our products. Although we have contracts with our contract manufacturers, those contracts do not require them to manufacture our products on a long-term basis in any specific quantity or at any specific price. In addition, it is time consuming and costly to qualify and implement additional contract manu- facturer relationships. Therefore, if we should fail to effectively manage our contract manufacturer relationships or if one or more of them should experience delays, disruptions, or quality control problems in our manufacturing operations, or if we had to change or add additional contract manufacturers or contract manufacturing sites, our ability to ship products to our customers could be delayed. Also, the addition of manufacturing locations or contract manufacturers would increase the complexity of our supply chain management. Moreover, an increasing portion of our manufacturing is performed in China and other countries and is therefore subject to risks associated with doing business in other countries. Each of these factors could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. We expect gross margin to vary over time, and our recent level of product gross margin may not be sustainable. Our product gross margins will vary from quarter to quarter, and the recent level of gross margins may not be sustainable and may be adversely affected in the future by numerous factors, including product mix shifts, increased price competition in one or more of the markets in which we compete, increases in material or labor costs, excess product component or obsolescence charges from our contract manufacturers, increased costs due to changes in component pricing or charges incurred due to component holding periods if our forecasts do not accurately anticipate product demand, warranty related issues, or our introduction of new products or entry into new markets with different pricing and cost structures. The long sales and implementation cycles for our products, as well as our expectation that some customers will sporadically place large orders with short lead times, may cause our revenues and operating results to vary significantly from quarter to quarter. A customer’s decision to purchase certain of our products involves a significant commitment of its resources and a lengthy evaluation and product qualification process. As a result, the sales cycle may be lengthy. In particular, customers making critical decisions regarding the design and implementation of large or next-generation networks may engage in very lengthy procurement processes that may delay or impact expected future orders. Throughout the sales cycle, we may spend considerable time educating and providing information to prospective customers regarding the use and benefits of our products. Even after making the decision to purchase, customers may deploy our products slowly and deliberately. Timing of deployment can vary widely and depends on the skill set of the customer, the size of the network deployment, the complexity of the customer’s network environment, and the degree of hardware and operating system configuration necessary to deploy the products. Customers with large networks usually expand their networks in large increments on a periodic basis. Accordingly, we may receive purchase orders for significant dollar amounts on an irregular basis. These long cycles, as well as our expectation 17


  • Page 19

    that customers will tend to sporadically place large orders with short lead times, may cause revenues and operating results to vary significantly and unexpectedly from quarter to quarter. We are a party to lawsuits, which are costly to investigate and defend and, if determined adversely to us, could require us to pay damages or prevent us from taking certain actions, any or all of which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations. We and certain of our current and former officers and current and former members of our Board of Directors are subject to various lawsuits. For example, we have been served with lawsuits related to the alleged backdating of stock options and other related matters, a description of which can be found in Note 7 — Commitments and Contingencies in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, under the heading “Legal Proceedings.” There can be no assurance that these or any actions that have been or may be brought against us will be resolved in our favor. Regardless of whether they are resolved in our favor, these lawsuits are, and any future lawsuits to which we may become a party will likely be, expensive and time consuming to investigate, defend, settle, and/or resolve. Such costs of investigation and defense, as well as any losses resulting from these claims or settlement of these claims, could significantly increase our expenses and could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, we are party to a lawsuit which seeks to enjoin us from granting equity awards under our 2006 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2006 Plan”), as well as to invalidate all awards granted under such plan to date. The 2006 Plan is the only active plan under which we currently grant stock options and restricted stock units to our employees. If this lawsuit is not resolved in our favor, we may be prevented from using the 2006 Plan to provide these equity awards to recruit new employees or to compensate existing employees, which would put us at a significant disadvantage to other companies that compete for workers in high technology industries such as ours. Accordingly, our ability to hire, retain, and motivate current and prospective employees would be harmed, the result of which could negatively impact our business operations. We sell our products to customers that use those products to build networks and IP infrastructure and, if the demand for network and IP systems does not continue to grow, then our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected. A substantial portion of our business and revenues depends on the growth of secure IP infrastructure and on the deployment of our products by customers that depend on the continued growth of IP services. As a result of changes in the economy and capital spending or the building of network capacity in excess of demand, all of which have in the past particularly affected telecommunications service providers, spending on IP infrastructure can vary, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, a number of our existing customers are evaluating the build out of their NGNs. During the decision making period when the customers are determining the design of those networks and the selection of the equipment they will use in those networks, such customers may greatly reduce or suspend their spending on secure IP infrastructure. Such pauses in purchases can make it more difficult to predict revenues from such customers, can cause fluctuations in the level of spending by these customers and, even where our products are ultimately selected, can have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. If we do not successfully anticipate market needs and develop products and product enhancements that meet those needs, or if those products do not gain market acceptance, we may not be able to compete effectively and our ability to generate revenues will suffer. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to anticipate future market needs or be able to develop new products or product enhancements to meet such needs or to meet them in a timely manner. If we fail to anticipate market requirements or to develop and introduce new products or product enhancements to meet those needs in a timely manner, such failure could substantially decrease or delay market acceptance and sales of our present and future products, which would significantly harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Even if we are able to anticipate, develop, and commercially introduce new products and enhancements, there can be no assurance that new products or enhancements will achieve widespread market acceptance. For example, in the first quarter of 2008, we announced new products designed to address the Ethernet switching market, a market in which we had not 18


  • Page 20

    had a historical presence. If these new products do not gain market acceptance at a sufficient rate of growth, our ability to meet future financial targets may be adversely affected. Any failure of our products to achieve market acceptance could adversely affect our business and financial results. We rely on value-added resellers and distribution partners to sell our products, and disruptions to, or our failure to effectively develop and manage our distribution channel and the processes and procedures that support it could adversely affect our ability to generate revenues from the sale of our products. Our future success is highly dependent upon establishing and maintaining successful relationships with a variety of value-added reseller and distribution partners. The majority of our revenues are derived through value- added resellers and distributors, most of which also sell competitors’ products. Our revenues depend in part on the performance of these partners. The loss of or reduction in sales to our value-added resellers or distributors could materially reduce our revenues. For example, in April 2007, our largest customer, Siemens, transferred its telecommunications business to a joint venture between Siemens and Nokia. Our competitors may in some cases be effective in providing incentives to current or potential resellers and distributors to favor their products or to prevent or reduce sales of our products. If we fail to maintain relationships with our partners, fail to develop new relationships with value-added resellers and distributors in new markets, or expand the number of distributors and resellers in existing markets, fail to manage, train or motivate existing value-added resellers and distributors effectively or if these partners are not successful in their sales efforts, sales of our products may decrease, and our business, financial condition, and results of operations would suffer. In addition, we recognize a portion of our revenues based on a sell-through model using information provided by our distributors. If those distributors provide us with inaccurate or untimely information, the amount or timing of our revenues could be adversely impacted. Further, in order to develop and expand our distribution channel, we must continue to scale and improve our processes and procedures that support it, and those processes and procedures may become increasingly complex and inherently difficult to manage. Our failure to successfully manage and develop our distribution channel and the processes and procedures that support it could adversely affect our ability to generate revenues from the sale of our products. We face intense competition that could reduce our revenues and adversely affect our financial results. Competition is intense in the markets that we address. The IP infrastructure market has historically been dominated by Cisco with other companies such as Alcatel-Lucent, Brocade, Ericsson, Extreme Networks, Huawei, and Nortel providing products to a smaller segment of the market. In addition, a number of other small public and private companies have products or have announced plans for new products to address the same challenges and markets that our products address. In the SLT market, we face intense competition from a broader group of companies including appliance vendors such as Cisco, Fortinet, F5 Networks, Nortel, Riverbed, and software vendors such as CheckPoint. In addition, a number of other small public and private companies have products or have announced plans for new products to address the same challenges and markets that our products address. In addition, actual or speculated consolidation among competitors, or the acquisition of our partners and resellers by competitors, can increase the competitive pressures faced by us. In this regard, Alcatel combined with Lucent in 2006, and Ericsson acquired Redback in 2007. A number of our competitors have substantially greater resources and can offer a wider range of products and services for the overall network equipment market than we do. If we are unable to compete successfully against existing and future competitors on the basis of product offerings or price, we could experience a loss in market share and revenues and/or be required to reduce prices, which could reduce our gross margins, and which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. 19


  • Page 21

    Our success depends upon our ability to effectively plan and manage our resources and restructure our business through rapidly fluctuating economic and market conditions. Our ability to successfully offer our products and services in a rapidly evolving market requires an effective planning, forecasting, and management process to enable us to effectively scale our business and adjust our business in response to fluctuating market opportunities and conditions. In periods of market expansion, we have increased investment in our business by, for example, increasing headcount and increasing our investment in research and development and other parts of our business. Conversely, during 2001 and 2002, in response to downward trending industry and market conditions, we restructured our business and reduced our workforce. Many of our expenses, such as real estate expenses, cannot be rapidly or easily adjusted because of fluctuations in our business or numbers of employees. Moreover, rapid changes in the size of our workforce could adversely affect the ability to develop and deliver products and services as planned or impair our ability to realize our current or future business objectives. We are currently implementing upgrades to key internal systems and processes, and problems with the design or implementation of these systems and processes could interfere with our business and operations. In 2007, we initiated a project to upgrade certain key internal systems and processes, including our company- wide human resources management system, our customer relationship management (“CRM”) system and enter- prise resource planning (“ERP”) system. We have invested, and will continue to invest, significant capital and human resources in the design and implementation of these systems and processes, which may be disruptive to our underlying business. Any disruptions or delays in the design and implementation of the new systems or processes, particularly any disruptions or delays that impact our operations, could adversely affect our ability to process customer orders, ship products, provide service and support to our customers, bill and track our customers, fulfill contractual obligations, record and transfer information in a timely and accurate manner, file SEC reports in a timely manner, or otherwise run our business. Even if we do not encounter these adverse effects, the design and implementation of these new systems and processes may be much more costly than we anticipated. If we are unable to successfully design and implement these new systems and processes as planned, or if the implementation of these systems and processes is more costly than anticipated, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be negatively impacted. Litigation or claims regarding intellectual property rights may be time consuming, expensive and require a significant amount of resources to prosecute, defend, or make our products non-infringing. Third parties have asserted and may in the future assert claims or initiate litigation related to patent, copyright, trademark, and other intellectual property rights to technologies and related standards that are relevant to our products. The asserted claims and/or initiated litigation may include claims against us or our manufacturers, suppliers, or customers, alleging infringement of their proprietary rights with respect to our products. Regardless of the merit of these claims, they have been and can be time consuming, result in costly litigation, and may require us to develop non-infringing technologies or enter into license agreements. Furthermore, because of the potential for high awards of damages or injunctive relief that are not necessarily predictable, even arguably unmeritorious claims may be settled for significant amounts of money. If any infringement or other intellectual property claim made against us by any third party is successful, if we are required to settle litigation for significant amounts of money, or if we fail to develop non-infringing technology or license required proprietary rights on commercially reasonable terms and conditions, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. We are subject to risks arising from our international operations. We derive a majority of our revenues from our international operations, and we plan to continue expanding our business in international markets in the future. As a result of our international operations, we are affected by economic, regulatory, and political conditions in foreign countries, including changes in general IT spending, the imposition of government controls, changes or limitations in trade protection laws, unfavorable changes in tax treaties or laws, natural disasters, labor unrest, earnings expatriation restrictions, misappropriation of intellectual property, acts of terrorism, and continued unrest in many regions and other factors, which could have a material 20


  • Page 22

    impact on our international revenues and operations. In particular, in some countries, we may experience reduced intellectual property protection. Moreover, local laws and customs in many countries differ significantly from those in the United States. In many foreign countries, particularly in those with developing economies, it is common for others to engage in business practices that are prohibited by our internal policies and procedures or United States regulations applicable to us. Although we implement policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with these laws and policies, there can be no assurance that none of our employees, contractors, and agents will take actions in violation of them. Violations of laws or key control policies by our employees, contractors, or agents could result in financial reporting problems, fines, penalties, or prohibition on the importation or exportation of our products and could have a material adverse effect on our business. Our financial condition and results of operations could suffer if there is an additional impairment of goodwill or other intangible assets with indefinite lives. We are required to test annually and review on an interim basis, our goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives, including the goodwill associated with past acquisitions and any future acquisitions, to determine if impairment has occurred. If such assets are deemed impaired, an impairment loss equal to the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value of the assets would be recognized. This would result in incremental expenses for that quarter, which would reduce any earnings or increase any loss for the period in which the impairment was determined to have occurred. For example, such impairment could occur if the market value of our common stock falls below certain levels for a sustained period, or if the portions of our business related to companies we have acquired fail to grow at expected rates or decline. In the second quarter of 2006, our impairment evaluation resulted in a reduction of $1,280.0 million to the carrying value of goodwill on our balance sheet for the SLT operating segment, primarily due to the decline in our market capitalization that occurred over a period of approximately nine months prior to the impairment review and, to a lesser extent, a decrease in the forecasted future cash flows used in the income approach. Recently, the turmoil in credit markets and the broader economy has contributed to extreme price and volume fluctuations in global stock markets that have reduced the market price of many technology company stocks, including ours. Further declines in our stock price or the failure of our stock price to recover from previous declines, as well as any marked decline in our level of revenues or gross margins, increase the risk that goodwill and intangible assets may become impaired in future periods. We cannot accurately predict the amount and timing of any impairment of assets. Changes in effective tax rates or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income or other tax returns could adversely affect our results. Our future effective tax rates could be subject to volatility or adversely affected by: earnings being lower than anticipated in countries where we have lower statutory rates and higher than anticipated earnings in countries where we have higher statutory rates; by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities; by expiration of or lapses in the research and development (“R&D”) tax credit laws; by transfer pricing adjustments related to certain acquisitions including the license of acquired intangibles under our intercompany R&D cost sharing arrangement; by tax effects of stock-based compensation; by costs related to intercompany restructurings; or by changes in tax laws, regulations, accounting principles, or interpretations thereof. In addition, we are subject to the continuous examination of our income tax returns by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) and other tax authorities. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes. There can be no assurance that the outcomes from these continuous examinations will not have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations. Because a majority of our business is conducted outside the United States, we face exposure to adverse movements in non-U.S. currency exchange rates. These exposures may change over time as business practices evolve and could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations. The majority of our revenues and expenses are transacted in U.S. Dollars. We also have some transactions that are denominated in foreign currencies, primarily the British Pound, the Euro, Indian Rupee, and Japanese Yen 21


  • Page 23

    related to our sales and service operations outside of the United States. An increase in the value of the U.S. Dollar could increase the real cost to our customers of our products in those markets outside the United States in which we sell in U.S. Dollars, and a weakened U.S. Dollar could increase the cost of local operating expenses and procurement of raw materials to the extent we must purchase components in foreign currencies. Currently, we hedge only those currency exposures associated with certain assets and liabilities denominated in nonfunctional currencies and periodically will hedge anticipated foreign currency cash flows. The hedging activities undertaken by us are intended to offset the impact of currency fluctuations on certain nonfunctional currency assets and liabilities. However, no amount of hedging can be effective against all circumstances, including long-term declines in the value of the U.S. Dollar. If our attempts to hedge against these risks are not successful, or if long-term declines in the value of the U.S. Dollar persist, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely impacted. If we fail to adequately evolve our financial and managerial control and reporting systems and processes, our ability to manage and grow our business will be negatively affected. Our ability to successfully offer our products and implement our business plan in a rapidly evolving market depends upon an effective planning and management process. We will need to continue to improve our financial and managerial control and our reporting systems and procedures in order to manage our business effectively in the future. If we fail to continue to implement improved systems and processes, our ability to manage our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be negatively affected. Our ability to develop, market, and sell products could be harmed if we are unable to retain or hire key personnel. Our future success depends upon our ability to recruit and retain the services of executive, engineering, sales and marketing, and support personnel. The supply of highly qualified individuals, in particular engineers in very specialized technical areas, or sales people specializing in the service provider and enterprise markets, is limited and competition for such individuals is intense. None of our officers or key employees is bound by an employment agreement for any specific term. The loss of the services of any of our key employees, the inability to attract or retain personnel in the future or delays in hiring required personnel, particularly engineers and sales people, and the complexity and time involved in replacing or training new employees, could delay the development and intro- duction of new products, and negatively impact our ability to market, sell, or support our products. Our products are highly technical and if they contain undetected errors, our business could be adversely affected and we may need to defend lawsuits or pay damages in connection with any alleged or actual failure of our products and services. Our products are highly technical and complex, are critical to the operation of many networks, and, in the case of our security products, provide and monitor network security and may protect valuable information. Our products have contained and may contain one or more undetected errors, defects, or security vulnerabilities. Some errors in our products may only be discovered after a product has been installed and used by end-customers. Any errors, defects, or security vulnerabilities discovered in our products after commercial release could result in loss of revenues or delay in revenue recognition, loss of customers, loss of future business, and increased service and warranty cost, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, in the event an error, defect, or vulnerability is attributable to a component supplied by a third-party vendor, we may not be able to recover from the vendor all of the costs of remediation that we may incur. In addition, we could face claims for product liability, tort, or breach of warranty. Defending a lawsuit, regardless of its merit, is costly and may divert management’s attention. In addition, if our business liability insurance coverage is inadequate, or future coverage is unavailable on acceptable terms or at all, our financial condition and results of operations could be harmed. 22


  • Page 24

    A breach of network security could harm public perception of our security products, which could cause us to lose revenues. If an actual or perceived breach of network security occurs in the network of a customer of our security products, regardless of whether the breach is attributable to our products, the market perception of the effectiveness of our products could be harmed. This could cause us to lose current and potential end-customers or cause us to lose current and potential value-added resellers and distributors. Because the techniques used by computer hackers to access or sabotage networks change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques. If our products do not interoperate with our customers’ networks, installations will be delayed or cancelled and could harm our business. Our products are designed to interface with our customers’ existing networks, each of which have different specifications and utilize multiple protocol standards and products from other vendors. Many of our customers’ networks contain multiple generations of products that have been added over time as these networks have grown and evolved. Our products will be required to interoperate with many or all of the products within these networks as well as future products in order to meet our customers’ requirements. If we find errors in the existing software or defects in the hardware used in our customers’ networks, we may need to modify our software or hardware to fix or overcome these errors so that our products will interoperate and scale with the existing software and hardware, which could be costly and negatively affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, if our products do not interoperate with those of our customers’ networks, demand for our products could be adversely affected or orders for our products could be cancelled. This could hurt our operating results, damage our reputation, and seriously harm our business and prospects. Governmental regulations affecting the import or export of products could negatively affect our revenues. The United States and various foreign governments have imposed controls, export license requirements, and restrictions on the import or export of some technologies, especially encryption technology. In addition, from time to time, governmental agencies have proposed additional regulation of encryption technology, such as requiring the escrow and governmental recovery of private encryption keys. Governmental regulation of encryption technology and regulation of imports or exports, or our failure to obtain required import or export approval for our products, could harm our international and domestic sales and adversely affect our revenues. In addition, failure to comply with such regulations could result in penalties, costs, and restrictions on export privileges. Integration of past acquisitions and future acquisitions could disrupt our business and harm our financial condition and stock price and may dilute the ownership of our stockholders. We have made, and may continue to make, acquisitions in order to enhance our business. In 2005, we completed the acquisitions of five private companies. Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including problems combining the purchased operations, technologies or products, unanticipated costs, diversion of management’s attention from our core businesses, adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers, risks associated with entering markets in which we have no or limited prior experience, and potential loss of key employees. There can be no assurance that we will be able to integrate successfully any businesses, products, technologies, or personnel that we might acquire. The integration of businesses that we have acquired has been, and will continue to be, a complex, time consuming, and expensive process. Acquisitions may also require us to issue common stock that dilutes the ownership of our current stockholders, assume liabilities, record goodwill and amortizable intangible assets that will be subject to impairment testing on a regular basis and potential periodic impairment charges, incur amortization expenses related to certain intangible assets, and incur large and immediate write-offs and restructuring and other related expenses, all of which could harm our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if we fail in our acquisition integration efforts with respect to our acquisitions and are unable to efficiently operate as a combined organization utilizing common information and communication systems, 23


  • Page 25

    operating procedures, financial controls, and human resources practices, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be adversely affected. Due to the global nature of our operations, economic or social conditions or changes in a particular country or region could adversely affect our sales or increase our costs and expenses, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. We conduct significant sales and customer support operations directly and indirectly through our distributors and value-added resellers in countries throughout the world and depend on the operations of our contract manufacturers and suppliers that are located inside and outside of the United States. In addition, our research and development and our general and administrative operations are conducted in the United States as well as other countries. Accordingly, our future results could be materially adversely affected by a variety of uncontrollable and changing factors including, among others, political or social unrest, natural disasters, epidemic disease, war, or economic instability in a specific country or region, trade protection measures, and other regulatory requirements which may affect our ability to import or export our products from various countries, service provider, and government spending patterns affected by political considerations and difficulties in staffing and managing international operations. Any or all of these factors could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Our products incorporate and rely upon licensed third-party technology, and if licenses of third-party technology do not continue to be available to us or become very expensive, our revenues and ability to develop and introduce new products could be adversely affected. We integrate licensed third-party technology into certain of our products. From time to time, we may be required to license additional technology from third parties to develop new products or product enhancements. Third-party licenses may not be available or continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms. Our inability to maintain or re-license any third-party licenses required in our products or our inability to obtain third- party licenses necessary to develop new products and product enhancements, could require us to obtain substitute technology of lower quality or performance standards or at a greater cost, any of which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Matters related to the investigation into our historical stock option granting practices and the restatement of our financial statements have resulted in litigation and regulatory proceedings, and may result in additional litigation or other possible government actions. Our historical stock option granting practices and the restatement of our consolidated financial statements have exposed us to risks such as litigation, regulatory proceedings, and government enforcement actions. For more information regarding our current litigation and related inquiries, please see Note 7 — Commitments and Con- tingencies in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, under the heading “Legal Proceedings” as well as the other risk factors related to litigation set forth in this section. We have provided the results of our internal review and independent investigation to the SEC and the United States Attorney’s Office for the Northern District of California, and in that regard, we have responded to formal and informal requests for documents and additional information. In August 2007, we announced that we entered into a settlement agreement with the SEC in connection with our historical stock option granting practices in which we consented to a permanent injunction against any future violations of the antifraud, reporting, books-and-records and internal control provisions of the federal securities laws. This settlement concluded the SEC’s formal investigation of the Company with respect to this matter. In addition, while we believe that we have made appropriate judgments in determining the correct measurement dates for our stock option grants, the SEC may disagree with the manner in which we accounted for and reported, or did not report, the corresponding financial impact. We are also subject to civil litigation related to the stock option matters. No assurance can be given regarding the outcomes from litigation or other possible government actions. The resolution of these matters will be time consuming, expensive, and may distract management from the conduct of our business. Furthermore, if we are subject to adverse findings in litigation or if we enter into any settlements related thereto, we could be required to pay damages or penalties or have other remedies imposed, which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations. 24


  • Page 26

    While we believe that we currently have adequate internal control over financial reporting, we are exposed to risks from legislation requiring companies to evaluate those internal controls. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires our management to report on, and our independent auditors to attest to, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. We have an ongoing program to perform the system and process evaluation and testing necessary to comply with these requirements. We have and will continue to incur significant expenses and devote management resources to Section 404 compliance on an ongoing basis. In the event that our chief executive officer, chief financial officer, or independent registered public accounting firm determine in the future that, our internal controls over financial reporting are not effective as defined under Section 404, investor perceptions may be adversely affected and could cause a decline in the market price of our stock. Regulation of the telecommunications industry could harm our operating results and future prospects. The telecommunications industry is highly regulated and our business and financial condition could be adversely affected by changes in the regulations relating to the telecommunications industry. Currently, there are few laws or regulations that apply directly to access to or commerce on IP networks. We could be adversely affected by regulation of IP networks and commerce in any country where we operate. Such regulations could address matters such as voice over the Internet or using IP, encryption technology, and access charges for service providers. In addition, regulations have been adopted with respect to environmental matters, such as the WEEE and RoHS regulations adopted by the European Union, as well as regulations prohibiting government entities from purchasing security products that do not meet specified local certification criteria. Compliance with such regulations may be costly and time-consuming for us and our suppliers and partners. The adoption and implementation of such regulations could decrease demand for our products, and at the same time could increase the cost of building and selling our products as well as impact our ability to ship products into affected areas and recognize revenue in a timely manner, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. The investment of our cash balance and our investments in government and corporate debt securities are subject to risks, which may cause losses and affect the liquidity of these investments. At December 31, 2008, we had $2,019.1 million in cash and cash equivalents and $274.3 million in short- and long-term investments. We have invested these amounts primarily in U.S. government securities, corporate notes and bonds, commercial paper, and money market funds meeting certain criteria. Certain of these investments are subject to general credit, liquidity, market, and interest rate risks, which may be exacerbated by U.S. sub-prime mortgage defaults that have affected various sectors of the financial markets and caused credit and liquidity issues. These market risks associated with our investment portfolio may have a negative adverse effect on our liquidity, financial condition, and results of operations. Uninsured losses could harm our operating results. We self-insure against many business risks and expenses, such as intellectual property litigation and our medical benefit programs, where we believe we can adequately self-insure against the anticipated exposure and risk or where insurance is either not deemed cost-effective or is not available. We also maintain a program of insurance coverage for various types of property, casualty, and other risks. We place our insurance coverage with various carriers in numerous jurisdictions. The types and amounts of insurance that we obtain vary from time to time and from location to location, depending on availability, cost, and our decisions with respect to risk retention. The policies are subject to deductibles, policy limits, and exclusions that result in our retention of a level of risk on a self- insurance basis. Losses not covered by insurance could be substantial and unpredictable and could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments None. 25


  • Page 27

    ITEM 2. Properties We lease approximately 1.9 million square feet worldwide, with nearly 70 percent being in North America. Our corporate headquarters is located in Sunnyvale, California, and consists of eight buildings totaling approx- imately 0.9 million square feet. Each building is subject to an individual lease or sublease, which provides various option, expansion, and extension provisions. The leases for our corporate headquarters expire between January 2011 and December 2014. We also own approximately 80 acres of land adjacent to our leased corporate headquarters location. Additionally, we lease an approximately 0.2 million square foot facility in Westford, Massachusetts. These leases expire between January and March 2011. In addition to our offices in Sunnyvale and Westford, we also lease offices in various locations throughout the United States, Canada, South America, EMEA, and APAC region, including offices in Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Ireland, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom. Our longest lease expires in January 2017. Our current offices are in good condition and appropriately support our business needs. ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings The information set forth under “Legal Proceedings” section in Note 7 — Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, is incorporated herein by reference. ITEM 4. Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders No matters were submitted to a vote of security holders during the fourth quarter of the fiscal year covered by this report. PART II ITEM 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities Our common stock trades on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “JNPR.” On December 31, 2008 (the last trading day of our fiscal year), the closing price of our common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market was $17.51 per share. Price Range of Common Stock The following table sets forth the high and low bid prices for our common stock as reported on NASDAQ Global Select Market for each quarterly period of the two most recently completed years: 2008 2007 High Low High Low First quarter . . . ................................. $33.30 $23.43 $20.92 $17.21 Second quarter . ................................. $29.49 $21.92 $26.00 $19.63 Third quarter . . . ................................. $27.65 $20.58 $37.57 $25.25 Fourth quarter . . ................................. $20.80 $13.29 $37.95 $28.01 Holders At January 30, 2009, there were approximately 1,300 stockholders of record of our common stock and we believe a substantially greater number of beneficial owners. Dividends We have never paid cash dividends on our common stock and have no present plans to do so. 26


  • Page 28

    Equity Compensation Plan Information The equity compensation plan information called for by Item 201(d) of Regulation S-K is set forth in Item 12 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K under the heading “Equity Compensation Plan Information.” Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers The following table provides information with respect to the shares of common stock we repurchased during the three months ended December 31, 2008. Total Number of Shares Maximum Dollar Purchased as Value of Shares Part of Publicly That May Yet Be Total Number Average Announced Purchased of Shares Price Paid Plans or Under the Plans or Period Purchased(1) per Share Programs Programs(1) October 1 — October 31, 2008 . . . . . 933,354 $18.77 933,354 $797,100,020 November 1 — November 30, 2008. . 751,468 16.68 751,468 784,565,956 December 1 — December 31, 2008 . . 751,468 16.57 751,468 772,111,717 Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,436,290 $17.45 2,436,290 (1) In July 2006 and February 2007, our Board of Directors (the “Board”) approved a stock repurchase program (the “2006 Stock Repurchase Program”). This program authorized us to purchase up to a total of $2.0 billion of our common stock. In addition, during March 2008, the Board approved a new stock repurchase program (the “2008 Stock Repurchase Program”) which authorized us to purchase up to $1.0 billion of our common stock. This new program is in addition to the 2006 Stock Repurchase Program. During the three months ended December 31, 2008, we repurchased and retired 2,436,290 shares of common stock at an average price of $17.45 per share, under the 2008 Stock Repurchase Program. Under the 2006 Stock Repurchase Program and the 2008 Stock Repurchase Program, we repurchased and retired common stock of 15,359,852 shares at an average price of $24.53 per share and 9,728,374 shares at an average price of $23.43 per share, respectively, during 2008. All shares of common stock purchased under the 2006 and 2008 Stock Repurchase Programs have been retired. As of December 31, 2008, the 2006 Stock Repurchase Program has no remaining authorized funds. Future share repurchases under the 2008 Stock Repurchase Program will be subject to a review of the circumstances in place at the time and will be made from time to time in private transactions or open market purchases as permitted by securities laws and other legal requirements. This program may be discontinued at any time. 27


  • Page 29

    Company Stock Performance The graph below shows the cumulative total stockholder return over a five-year period assuming the investment of $100 on December 31, 2003, in each of Juniper Networks’ common stock, the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index (“S&P 500”), and the NASDAQ Telecommunications Index (“IXUT”). The graph shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into other SEC filings; nor deemed to be soliciting material or filed with the Commission or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C or subject to Section 18 of the Exchange Act. The comparisons in the graph below are based upon historical data and are not indicative of, or intended to forecast, future performance of our common stock. Stock Performance Graph $200 $180 $160 $140 $120 $100 $80 $60 Dec-03 Dec-04 Dec-05 Dec-06 Dec-07 Dec-08 JNPR S&P 500 IXUT As of December 31, 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 JNPR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $100.00 $145.56 $119.38 $101.39 $177.73 $93.74 S&P 500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100.00 108.99 112.26 127.55 132.06 81.23 IXUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100.00 108.00 100.21 128.03 139.77 79.69 28


  • Page 30

    ITEM 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and the Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes thereto in Item 8, “Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which are incorporated herein by reference. The information presented below reflects the impact of certain significant transactions and the adoption of certain accounting pronouncements, which makes a direct comparison difficult between each of the last five fiscal years. For a complete description of matters affecting the results in the tables below during the three years ended December 31, 2008, see “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” in Item 8 Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Consolidated Statements of Operations Data Years Ended December 31, 2008(a) 2007(b) 2006(c) 2005(d) 2004(e) (Unaudited) (In millions, except per share data) Net revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3,572.4 $2,836.1 $ 2,303.6 $2,064.0 $1,336.0 Cost of revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,166.0 927.6 754.3 653.5 415.1 Gross margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,406.4 1,908.5 1,549.3 1,410.5 920.9 Operating expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,711.4 1,501.4 2,547.1 969.5 728.6 Operating income (loss) . . . . . . . . . . . 695.0 407.1 (997.8) 441.0 192.3 Other Income and expense, net . . . . . . 33.9 103.5 100.7 56.5 15.8 Income (loss) before income taxes . . . . 728.9 510.6 (897.0) 497.5 208.1 Provision for income taxes . . . . . . . . . (217.2) (149.8) (104.4) (146.8) (79.9) Net income (loss) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511.7 360.8 (1,001.4) 350.7 128.2 Net income (loss) per share: Basic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 0.96 $ 0.67 $ (1.76) $ 0.63 $ 0.26 Diluted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 0.93 $ 0.62 $ (1.76) $ 0.58 $ 0.24 Shares used in computing net income (loss) per share: Basic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530.3 537.8 567.5 554.2 493.1 Diluted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551.4 579.1 567.5 600.2 543.7 (a) Includes the following significant pre-tax items: stock-based compensation of $108.1 million, write-down of minority equity investments of $11.3 million, other-than-temporary decline in publicly-traded equity invest- ment of $3.5 million, and legal settlement charge of $9.0 million. (b) Includes the following significant pre-tax items: stock-based compensation of $88.0 million, stock option tender offer and tax-related charges of $8.0 million, stock option investigation costs of $6.0 million, a gain from a minority equity investment of $6.7 million, and a net legal settlement gain of $5.3 million. We recognized in accumulated deficit a non-cash charge for the cumulative effect of accounting charge of $19.2 million relating to the adoption of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Interpretation No. 48, Accounting for Income Taxes, (“FIN 48”). (c) Includes the following significant pre-tax items: goodwill and intangible assets impairment charges of $1,283.4 million, stock-based compensation of $87.6 million, stock option investigation costs of $20.5 million, other tax-related charges of $10.1 million, and restructuring and acquisition-related charges of $5.9 million. (d) Includes the following significant pre-tax items: stock-based compensation expense of $22.3 million, in- process research and development charges of $11.0 million, a gain from the sale of equity investment of $1.7 million, a patent-related charge of $10.0 million, a charge of $5.9 million from the impairment of certain purchased intangible assets, and a reversal of acquisition-related liabilities of $6.6 million. 29


  • Page 31

    (e) Includes the following significant pre-tax items: stock-based compensation expense of $54.9 million, in- process research and development charges of $27.5 million, merger integration costs of $5.1 million, loss on redemption of the convertible subordinated notes of $4.1 million, an investment write-down charge of $2.9 million, and a credit of $5.1 million from changes in restructuring estimates. Consolidated Balance Sheet Data As of December 31, 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 (Unaudited) (In millions) Cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,293.4 $2,015.8 $2,614.3 $2,047.1 $1,713.1 Working capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,759.6 1,175.3 1,759.2 1,261.4 903.9 Goodwill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,658.6 3,658.6 3,624.7 4,879.7 4,409.4 Total assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,187.3 6,885.4 7,368.4 8,183.6 6,981.3 Total long-term liabilities . . . . . . . . . . . 229.3 151.7 490.7 468.0 504.1 Total stockholders’ equity . . . . . . . . . . . 5,901.4 5,353.9 6,115.1 7,088.2 5,974.3 ITEM 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Report”), including the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”, contains forward-looking statements regarding future events and the future results of Juniper Networks, Inc. (the “Company”) that are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts, and projections about the industry in which we operate and the beliefs and assumptions of our management. Words such as ’expects,’ ’anticipates,’ ’targets,’ ’goals,’ ’projects,’ ’intends,’ ’plans,’ ’believes,’ ’seeks,’ ’estimates,’ variations of such words, and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are only predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties, and assumptions that are difficult to predict. Therefore, actual results may differ materially and adversely from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in this Report under the section entitled “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of Part I and elsewhere, and in other reports we file with the SEC, specifically the most recent reports on Form 10-Q. While forward-looking statements are our best prediction at the time that they are made, you should not rely on them. We undertake no obligation to revise or update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason. The following discussion is based upon our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this report, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. In the course of operating our business, we routinely make decisions as to the timing of the payment of invoices, the collection of receivables, the manufacturing, and shipment of products, the fulfillment of orders, the purchase of supplies, and the building of inventory and spare parts, among other matters. Each of these decisions has some impact on the financial results for any given period. In making these decisions, we consider various factors including contractual obligations, customer satisfaction, competition, internal and external financial targets and expectations, and financial planning objectives. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses, and related disclosure of contingencies. On an on-going basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to sales returns, pricing credits, warranty costs, allowance for doubtful accounts, impairment of long-term assets, especially goodwill and intangible assets, contract manufacturer exposures for carrying and obsolete material charges, assumptions used in the valuation of stock-based compensation, and litigation. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. To aid in understanding our operating results for the periods covered by this report, we have provided an executive overview and a summary of the significant events that affected the most recent fiscal year and a discussion of the nature of our operating expenses. These sections should be read in conjunction with the more detailed 30


  • Page 32

    discussion and analysis of our consolidated financial condition and results of operations in this Item 7, our “Risk Factors” section included in Item 1A of Part I, and our audited consolidated financial statements and notes included in Item 8 of Part II of this report. Executive Overview Our 2008 performance was the result of a combination of strong market demand for networking and security products as well as our focused execution and market share gains. In addition, we began shipment of several new products, which contributed to our revenue growth during the year. While revenue growth was substantial, towards the end of 2008 worldwide economic conditions, in particular the slowdown in the U.S., led to slowing rates of growth and reduced our visibility into future periods. During 2008, we continued implementation of a series of operational excellence initiatives. These initiatives are intended to strengthen the management systems and processes throughout our organization to support our growth and to improve operational efficiency and contain costs in the face of difficult economic and market conditions. 2008 2007 $ Change % Change (In millions, except per share amounts and percentages) Net revenues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3,572.4 $2,836.1 $736.3 26% Operating income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 695.0 $ 407.1 $287.9 71% Percentage of net revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 19.5% 14.4% Net income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 511.7 $ 360.8 $150.9 42% Percentage of net revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 14.3% 12.7% Net income per share: Basic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... $ 0.96 $ 0.67 $ 0.29 43% Diluted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 0.93 $ 0.62 $ 0.31 50% • Net Revenues: Our net revenues increased in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to the growing acceptance of our router and firewall products and services in the service provider and enterprise markets. We experienced growth in both product and service revenues, which represented 81.5% and 18.5%, respectively, of our total net revenues in 2008. Product revenues increased $584.0 million, or 25%, to $2,911.0 million in 2008 compared to 2007. Service revenues increased $152.3 million, or 30%, to $661.4 million in 2008 compared to 2007. Net revenues increased in each of our three geographic regions in 2008 compared to 2007. • Operating Income: Our operating income as well as operating margin as a percentage of net revenues increased in 2008 compared to 2007. These increases were, in large part, due to the growth in revenues and a decrease in operating expense as a percentage of net revenues, which was attributable to our efforts to better manage expenses and improve efficiencies in 2008 compared to 2007. In our effort to manage our expenses, we expanded our R&D headcount in regions with lower operating costs. • Net Income and Net Income Per Share: The increase in net income and net income per share in 2008 compared to 2007, is primarily due to the increase in operating income, which resulted from the growth in revenues, and the reduction in operating expense as a percentage of net revenues, which is attributable to a decrease in the amortization of purchased intangible assets and the implementation of certain cost reduction initiatives compared to 2007. The increase in operating income was partially offset by lower net interest and other income primarily due to lower interest rates along with higher income tax expense in 2008. • Other Financial Highlights: Total deferred revenue increased $77.0 million in 2008, primarily due to the growth in our installed equipment base for maintenance and customer support contracts. In 2008, we generated a net increase of $303.0 million in cash and cash equivalents, primarily resulting from $875.2 million in cash provided by our operating activities, which was offset by the repurchase of $604.7 million of our common stock. 31


  • Page 33

    Significant Events Business and Market Environment We design, develop, and sell products and services that together provide our customers with high-performance network infrastructure that creates responsive and trusted environments for accelerating the deployment of services and applications over a single IP-based network. We serve the high-performance networking requirements of global service providers, enterprises, governments, and research and education institutions that view the network as critical to their success. High-performance networking is designed to provide fast, reliable, and secure access to appli- cations and services at scale. We offer a high-performance network infrastructure that includes IP routing, Ethernet switching, security, and application acceleration solutions, as well as partnerships designed to extend the value of the network and worldwide services and support designed to optimize customer investments. In 2008, we continued to deliver new and innovative, high-performance network infrastructure solutions. We entered the enterprise switching market, through the introduction of the EX-series, a family of Ethernet switches that leverage the operational simplicity and carrier-class reliability of our JUNOS software. We also introduced a new category of extensible networking and security products with our SRX series dynamic services gateways. In addition, we introduced a new family of IDP appliances that deliver up to 10 Gigabits per second real-world throughput and performance to enable deployments in the network core, the integration of services, including Firewall and chassis clustering, into JUNOS software for implementation on the J-series services router and the Security Threat Response Manager (“STRM”), a platform capable of providing businesses with a centralized scalable and effective way to log and manage a rapidly evolving threat landscape. We also announced an advanced mobile IP/Multi Protocol Label Switching (“MPLS”) solution portfolio with the new BX 7000 multi-access gateway router for the cell site, M-series circuit emulation physical interface cards for the aggregation site, and a suite of software features designed to simplify deployment, provisioning and management of mobile backhaul networks. In addition, we introduced the JCS 1200, a dedicated high-performance control plane scaling platform. We also delivered new enhancements to existing solutions to help customers maximize their network infrastructure investments and lower their overall total cost of ownership. We expanded our Network and Security Manager (“NSM”) to deliver a centralized management solution for routing, security, and switching, enabling customers to consolidate and simplify the management of their network infrastructure. We announced enhance- ments to our Access Control Solution, to deliver enhanced scalability and performance, with centralized access policy management via NSM, helping customers cost effectively achieve comprehensive network visibility with broad enforcement capabilities. We introduced the next generation of our WXC application acceleration platforms to deliver a more scalable, modular, and cost-effective approach to delivering fast and consistent application response across the WAN. In addition, we announced three new line card families for the MX-series Ethernet Services Routers. In 2008, the growing weakness of the global economy, and in the United States in particular, has affected the purchasing behavior of our customers and led to lower revenue growth in our fourth quarter compared to previous quarters, delays in purchase decisions, and reduced visibility regarding future business. If economic growth in the United States and other countries’ economies continues to decline and/or fail to recover, our customers may delay or reduce their purchases. This could result in reductions in sales of our products, longer sales cycles, slower adoption of new technologies and increased price competition. In 2009, we will continue to invest in key research and development projects that we believe will lead to future growth while at the same time containing other costs and allocating resources effectively. Japan Distributor Audit In December 2008, during the course of our performance of routine distributor audits, we became aware of facts that caused us to question the accuracy of point of sale reports of a few distributors in Japan with respect to a small number of transactions. As a result, we commenced a review of revenue from sales through distributors in Japan, which was completed prior to the filing of this report. As a result of this review, we deferred $3.0 million of revenue for sales through distributors in Japan. Total revenues through distributors in Japan, after the $3.0 million deferral, were approximately $53.0 million in 2008 and approximately $13.0 million in the three months ended December 31, 2008. For financial data for the quarter ended December 31, 2008, which incorporates the results of 32


  • Page 34

    this review, please see Note 13 — Selected Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited) in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual report on Form 10-K. Stock Repurchase Activity In 2008, we repurchased $604.7 million, or 25.1 million share of common stock, under the following two stock repurchase programs authorized by our Board of Directors (the “Board”). Under the $2.0 billion stock repurchase program approved in 2006 and 2007 (the “2006 Stock Repurchase Program”), we repurchased approximately 15.4 million shares of our common stock at an average price of $24.53 per share for a total purchase price of $376.8 million in 2008. As of December 31, 2008, we had repurchased and retired approximately 84.8 million shares of our common stock under the 2006 Stock Repurchase Program at an average price of $23.58 per share. The program has no remaining authorized funds available for future stock repurchases. The Board approved a $1.0 billion stock repurchase program in March 2008 (the “2008 Stock Repurchase Program”). Under this program, we repurchased approximately 9.7 million shares of our common stock at an average price of $23.43 per share for a total purchase price of $227.9 million in 2008. As of December 31, 2008, the 2008 Stock Repurchase Program had remaining authorized funds of $772.1 million. See Note 14 — Subsequent Events in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for discussion of our stock repurchase activity in 2009. Nature of Expenses Most of our manufacturing, repair, and supply chain operations are outsourced to independent contract manufacturers. Accordingly, most of our cost of revenues consists of payments to our independent contract manufacturers for the standard product costs. The independent contract manufacturers produce our products using design specifications, quality assurance programs, and standards that we establish. Controls around manufacturing, engineering, and documentation are conducted at our facilities in Sunnyvale, California, and Westford, Massa- chusetts. Our independent contract manufacturers have facilities primarily in Canada, China, Malaysia, Mexico, and the United States. We generally do not own the components and title to products transfers from the contract manufacturers to us and immediately to our customers upon shipment. The contract manufacturers procure components based on our build forecasts, and if actual component usage is lower than our forecasts, we may be, and have been in the past, liable for carrying or obsolete material charges. In recent years, an increasing amount of our products have been manufactured in Asia, and we anticipate that a larger percentage of our products will be produced outside the United States and Canada in the future. Our contracts generally provide for passage of title and risk of loss at the designated point of shipment to the customer. The manufacturing of products in Asia for shipment to customers in EMEA and the Americas resulted in additional shipment logistics, freight and timing issues for us and those customers. In an ongoing effort to balance our and the customers’ needs, we have made changes on occasion to the payment of freight and the point of shipment with respect to products shipped from Asia. These changes impact shipping costs and the timing of revenue recognition of the affected shipments. We have employees in our manufacturing and operations organization who manage relationships with our contract manufacturers, manage our supply chain, and monitor product testing and quality. Employee-related costs have historically been the primary driver of our operating expenses, and we expect this trend to continue. Employee-related costs include items such as wages, commissions, bonuses, vacation, benefits, stock-based compensation, and travel. We had 7,014, 5,879, and 4,833 employees as of December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006, respectively. The year-over-year increases were primarily attributable to increases in our research and development and sales and marketing organizations. Our headcount is expected to remain flat in 2009 as we continue our cost reduction activities. We accounted for stock-based compensation under the fair value approach of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 123 (revised 2004), Share-Based Payment (“SFAS 123R”), in 2008, 2007, and 2006. Details of our stock-based compensation expense are described in Note 10 — Employee 33


  • Page 35

    Benefit Plans in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Facility and information technology departmental costs are allocated to other departments based on usage and headcount, respectively. These departmental costs have increased in 2008, 2007, and 2006 due to increases in headcount and facility leases resulting from infrastructure systems added to support our growth and past acqui- sitions. Facility and information technology related headcount was 267, 224, and 177 as of December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006, respectively. In 2009, we expect to continue to invest in our company-wide information technology infrastructure as we implement our operational excellence initiatives. Our operating expenses are denominated in U.S. dollars as well as other foreign currencies including the British Pound, the Euro, Indian Rupee, and Japanese Yen. Changes in related currency exchange rates may affect our operating results. Periodically, we use foreign currency forward and/or option contracts to hedge certain forecasted foreign currency transactions relating to operating expenses. The effective portion of the derivative’s gain or loss is initially reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), and, upon occurrence of the forecasted transaction, is subsequently reclassified into the appropriate line item of the consolidated statement of operations to which the hedged transaction relates. Any ineffectiveness of the hedging instruments is reported in other income (expense) on our consolidated statements of operations. The increase in operating expenses including research and development, sales and marketing, as well as general and administrative expenses, due to foreign currency fluctuations was approximately 1% in 2008. Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires us to make judgments, assumptions, and estimates that affect the amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying notes. We base our estimates and assumptions on current facts, historical experience, and various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circum- stances, to determine the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Note 1 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, describes the significant accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements. The critical accounting policies described below are significantly affected by critical accounting estimates. Such accounting policies require significant judgments, assumptions, and estimates used in the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements and actual results could differ materially from the amounts reported based on these policies. To the extent there are material differences between our estimates and the actual results, our future results of operations may be affected. • Revenue Recognition. Our products are generally integrated with software that is essential to the functionality of our equipment. Additionally, we provide unspecified upgrades and enhancements related to our integrated software through our maintenance contracts for most of our products. Accordingly, we account for revenue in accordance with Statement of Position No. 97-2, Software Revenue Recognition, and all related interpretations. Revenue is recognized when all of the following criteria have been met: • Persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists. We generally rely upon sales contracts, or agreements and customer purchase orders to determine the existence of an arrangement. • Delivery has occurred. We use shipping terms and related documents or written evidence of customer acceptance, when applicable, to verify delivery or performance. In instances where we have outstanding obligations related to product delivery or the final acceptance of the product, revenue is deferred until all the delivery and acceptance criteria have been met. • Sales price is fixed or determinable. We assess whether the sales price is fixed or determinable based on the payment terms and whether the sales price is subject to refund or adjustment. • Collectability is reasonably assured. We assess collectability based on the creditworthiness of the customer as determined by our credit checks and the customer’s payment history. We record accounts receivable net of allowance for doubtful accounts, estimated customer returns, and pricing credits. 34


  • Page 36

    For arrangements with multiple elements, such as sales of products that include services, we allocate revenue to each element using the residual method based on the vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”) of fair value of the undelivered items. Under the residual method, the amount of revenue allocated to delivered elements equals the total arrangement consideration less the aggregate fair value of any undelivered elements. VSOE of fair value is based on the price charged when the element is sold separately. We then recognize revenue on each deliverable in accordance with our policies for product and service revenue recognition. If VSOE of fair value of one or more undelivered items does not exist, revenue is deferred and recognized at the earlier of (i) delivery of those elements or (ii) when fair value can be established unless maintenance is the only undelivered element, in which case, the entire arrangement fee is recognized ratably over the contractual support period. Our ability to recognize revenue in the future may be affected if actual selling prices are significantly less than fair value. In addition, our ability to recognize revenue in the future could be impacted by conditions imposed by our customers. For sales to direct end-users and value-added resellers, we recognize product revenue upon transfer of title and risk of loss, which is generally upon shipment. It is our practice to identify an end-user prior to shipment to a value- added reseller. For our end-users and value-added resellers, there are no significant obligations for future performance such as rights of return or pricing credits. A portion of our sales are made through distributors under agreements allowing for pricing credits or rights of return. We recognize product revenue on sales made through these distributors upon sell-through as reported to us by the distributors. Deferred revenue on shipments to distributors reflects the effects of distributor pricing credits and the amount of gross margin expected to be realized upon sell-through. Deferred revenue is recorded net of the related product costs of revenue. We record reductions to revenue for estimated product returns and pricing adjustments, such as rebates and price protection, in the same period that the related revenue is recorded. The amount of these reductions is based on historical sales returns and price protection credits, specific criteria included in rebate agreements, and other factors known at the time. Should actual product returns or pricing adjustments differ from our estimates, additional reductions to revenue may be required. In addition, we report revenue net of sales taxes. Services include maintenance, training, and professional services. Maintenance is offered under renewable contracts. Revenue from maintenance service contracts is deferred and is recognized ratably over the contractual support period, which is generally one to three years. Revenue from training and professional services is recognized as the services are completed or ratably over the contractual period, which is generally one year or less. We sell certain interests in accounts receivable on a non-recourse basis as part of a distributor accounts receivable financing arrangement primarily with one major financing company. We record cash received under this arrangement in advance of revenue recognition as short-term debt with a balance of $33.0 million and $10.0 million as of December 31, 2008, and 2007, respectively. • Contract Manufacturer Liabilities. We outsource most of our manufacturing, repair, and supply chain man- agement operations to our independent contract manufacturers and a significant portion of our cost of revenues consists of payments to them. Our independent contract manufacturers procure components and manufacture our products based on our demand forecasts. These forecasts are based on our estimates of future demand for our products, which are in turn based on historical trends and an analysis from our sales and marketing organizations, adjusted for overall market conditions. We establish a provision for inventory, carrying costs and obsolete material exposures for excess components purchased based on historical trends. If the actual component usage and product demand are significantly lower than forecasted, which may be caused by factors outside of our control, it could have an adverse impact on our gross margins and profitability. Supply chain management remains an area of focus as we balance the risk of material obsolescence and supply chain flexibility in order to reduce lead times. • Warranty Costs. We generally offer a one-year warranty on all of our hardware products and a 90-day warranty on the media that contains the software embedded in the products. We accrue for warranty costs as part of our cost of sales based on associated material costs, labor costs for customer support, and overhead at the time revenue is recognized. Material cost is estimated primarily based upon the historical costs to repair or replace product returns within the warranty period. Technical support labor and overhead cost are estimated primarily based upon historical trends in the cost to support the customer cases within the warranty period. Although we engage in extensive product quality programs and processes, our warranty obligation is affected by product failure rates, use 35


  • Page 37

    of materials, technical labor costs and associated overhead incurred. Should actual product failure rates, use of materials, or service delivery costs differ from our estimates, we may incur additional warranty costs, which could reduce gross margin. • Goodwill and Purchased Intangible Assets. Our methodology for allocating the purchase price relating to acquisitions is determined through established valuation techniques. Goodwill is measured as the excess purchase price of an acquisition over the sum of the amounts assigned to tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired less liabilities assumed. The amounts and useful lives assigned to identified intangible assets impacts the amount and timing of future amortization. The value of our intangible assets, including goodwill, could be impacted by future adverse changes such as: (i) future declines in our operating results, (ii) a sustained decline in our market capitalization, (iii) significant slowdown in the worldwide economy or the networking industry, or (iv) failure to meet our forecasted operating results. We evaluate these assets on an annual basis as of November 1 or more frequently if we believe indicators of impairment exist. The process of evaluating the potential impairment of goodwill is subjective and requires significant judgment at many points during the analysis. In the process of our annual impairment review, we determine the fair value of our intangible assets based upon a weighting of the market approach and the income approach. Under the market approach, we estimate fair value of our reporting units by comparing them to transactions involving publicly-traded companies in similar lines of business. Under the income approach, we calculate fair value of a reporting unit based on the present value of estimated future cash flows. The weighted fair value of each reporting unit is compared to the allocated book value of each reporting unit. If the book value exceeds the fair value, we revalue the assets associated with the impaired reporting unit. The impairment is the difference between the new fair values and the existing book values of the impaired asset. The estimates we have used are consistent with the plans and estimates that we use to manage our business. If our actual results or the plans and estimates used in future impairment analyses are lower than the original estimates used to assess the recoverability of these assets, we could incur additional impairment charges. • Stock-Based Compensation. We recognize stock-based compensation expense for all share-based payment awards including employee stock options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”), performance share awards, and purchases under our Employee Stock Purchase Plan granted after December 31, 2005, and granted prior to but not yet vested as of December 31, 2005, in accordance with SFAS 123R. We valued compensation expense for expected-to-vest stock-based awards that were granted on or prior to December 31, 2005, under the multiple- option approach. We amortize these share-based payments using the accelerated attribution method. Subsequent to December 31, 2005, compensation expense for expected-to-vest stock-based awards is valued under the single- option approach and amortized on a straight-line basis, net of estimated forfeitures. Prior to the adoption of SFAS 123R, we accounted for stock-based compensation under the intrinsic value recognition provisions of APB Opinion No. 25, Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees (“APB 25”). We utilize the Black-Scholes-Merton (“BSM”) option-pricing model and incorporate a Monte Carlo simu- lation when appropriate in order to determine the fair value of stock-based awards under SFAS 123R. The BSM model requires various highly subjective assumptions including volatility, expected option life, and risk-free interest rate. The expected volatility is based on the implied volatility of market traded options on our common stock, adjusted for other relevant factors including historical volatility of our common stock over the most recent period commensurate with the estimated expected life of our stock options. The expected life of an award is based on historical experience, the terms and conditions of the stock awards granted to employees, as well as the potential effect from options that have not been exercised at the time. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of share-based payment awards represent management’s best estimates. These estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment. If factors change and we use different assumptions, our stock-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future. In addition, we are required to estimate the expected forfeiture rate and recognize expense only for those expected-to-vest shares. If our actual forfeiture rate is materially different from our estimate, our recorded stock-based compensation expense could be different. • Income Taxes. Estimates and judgments occur in the calculation of certain tax liabilities and in the determi- nation of the recoverability of certain deferred tax assets, which arise from temporary differences and carry- forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the currently enacted tax rates that apply to 36


  • Page 38

    taxable income in effect for the years in which those tax assets are expected to be realized or settled. We regularly assess the likelihood that our deferred tax assets will be realized from recoverable income taxes or recovered from future taxable income based on the realization criteria set forth in Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 109, Accounting for Income Taxes (“SFAS 109”). To the extent that we believe any amounts are not more likely than not to be realized, we record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets. We believe it is more likely than not that future income from the reversal of the deferred tax liabilities and forecasted income will be sufficient to fully recover the remaining deferred tax assets. In the event we determine that all or part of the net deferred tax assets are not realizable in the future, an adjustment to the valuation allowance would be charged to earnings in the period such determination is made. Similarly, if we subsequently realize deferred tax assets that were previously determined to be unrealizable, the respective valuation allowance would be reversed, resulting in a positive adjustment to earnings or a decrease in goodwill in the period such determination is made. In addition, the calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax regulations. We recognize potential liabilities based on our estimate of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes will be due. If payment of these amounts ultimately proves to be unnecessary, the reversal of the liabilities may result in tax benefits being recognized in the period when we determine the liabilities are no longer necessary. If our estimate of tax liabilities is less than the amount ultimately assessed, a further charge to expense would result. Significant judgment is also required in determining any valuation allowance recorded against deferred tax assets. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we consider all available evidence, including past operating results, estimates of future taxable income, and the feasibility of tax planning strategies. In the event that we change our determination as to the amount of deferred tax assets that can be realized, we will adjust our valuation allowance with a corresponding effect to the provision for income taxes in the period in which such determination is made. On January 1, 2007, we adopted Financial Interpretation No. 48, Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes- an interpretation of FASB Statement No. 109 (“FIN 48”), which was a change in accounting for income taxes. FIN 48 contains a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions accounted for in accordance with SFAS 109. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon settlement. Additionally, FIN 48 provides guidance on de-recognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosures, and transition. The application of FIN 48 may increase an entity’s future effective tax rates and its future intra-period effective tax rate volatility. As of January 1, 2007, our cumulative effect of applying FIN 48 was a $19.2 million increase to the opening balance of accumulated deficit and a $1.0 million increase to goodwill. Significant judgment is required in evaluating our uncertain tax positions under FIN 48 and determining our provision for income taxes. Although we believe our reserves under FIN 48 are reasonable, no assurance can be given that the final tax outcome of these matters will not be different from that which is reflected in our historical income tax provisions and accruals. We adjust these reserves in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the closing of a tax audit or the refinement of an estimate. To the extent that the final tax outcome of these matters is different than the amounts recorded, such differences will affect the provision for income taxes in the period in which such determination is made. The provision for income taxes includes the effect of reserves under FIN 48 and any changes to the reserves that are considered appropriate, as well as the related net interest and penalties, if applicable. • Loss Contingencies. We are subject to the possibility of various loss contingencies arising in the ordinary course of business. We consider the likelihood of loss or impairment of an asset, or the incurrence of a liability, as well as our ability to reasonably estimate the amount of loss, in determining loss contingencies. An estimated loss contingency is accrued when it is probable that an asset has been impaired or a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. We record a charge equal to at least the minimum estimated liability for litigation costs or a loss contingency only when both of the following conditions are met: (i) information available prior to issuance of our consolidated financial statements indicates that it is probable that an asset had been impaired or a liability had been incurred at the date of the financial statements and (ii) the range of loss can 37


  • Page 39

    be reasonably estimated. We regularly evaluate current information available to us to determine whether such accruals should be adjusted and whether new accruals are required. From time to time, we are involved in disputes, litigation, and other legal actions. We are aggressively defending our current litigation matters. However, there are many uncertainties associated with any litigation, and these actions or other third-party claims against us may cause us to incur costly litigation and/or substantial settlement charges. In addition, the resolution of any future intellectual property litigation may require us to make royalty payments, which could adversely impact gross margins in future periods. If any of those events were to occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be adversely affected. The actual liability in any such matters may be materially different from our estimates, which could result in the need to adjust our liability and record additional expenses. Recent Accounting Pronouncements See Note 1 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for a full description of recent accounting pronouncements, including the expected dates of adoption and estimated effects on financial condition and results of operations, which is incorporated herein by reference. Results of Operations The following table shows total net product and service revenues and net product and service revenues as a percentage of total net revenues (in millions, except percentages): Years Ended December 31, Years Ended December 31, 2008 2007 $ Change % Change 2007 2006 $ Change % Change Net revenues: Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,911.0 $2,327.0 $584.0 25% $2,327.0 $1,893.3 $433.7 23% Percentage of net revenues . . . . . . . . . . . 81.5% 82.0% 82.0% 82.2% Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661.4 509.1 152.3 30% 509.1 410.3 98.8 24% Percentage of net revenues . . . . . . . . . . . 18.5% 18.0% 18.0% 17.8% Total net revenues. . . . $3,572.4 $2,836.1 $736.3 26% $2,836.1 $2,303.6 $532.5 23% Our net product revenues increased in 2008 compared to 2007 primarily due to increased sales of products from both our Infrastructure and SLT solutions to the service provider and enterprise markets. In particular, we had success in selling our Infrastructure products to service providers who are adopting NGN IP networks, which are designed for higher capacity and efficiency to help reduce total operating costs and to be able to offer multiple services over a single network. In 2008, our new product releases and further expansion into emerging markets contributed to the increase in total net product revenues. Our net service revenues increased in 2008 compared to 2007 primarily due to the increase in maintenance revenue from our expanding installed base of equipment under service contracts. Our net revenues increased in 2007 compared to 2006 primarily due to growth in both product and service revenues. Our revenue performance and share gains were driven by Infrastructure and SLT product revenues. Service revenues also increased in 2007 compared to 2006 primarily due to the increase in our installed base of equipment under service contracts and, to a lesser extent, growth in professional service revenues. 38


  • Page 40

    Changes to Segments Beginning in January 2008, we realigned our reporting structure which resulted in two segments: Infrastruc- ture and SLT. The previously reported Service segment has been combined into the following two segments: • Infrastructure: Our Infrastructure segment consists primarily of products and services related to the E-, M-, MX-, and T-series router product families, EX-series switching products, as well as the circuit-to-circuit products. • SLT: Our SLT segment consists primarily of products and services related to our firewall/VPN (“Fire- wall”) systems and appliances, SSL VPN appliances, IDP appliances, the J-series router product family, and WAN optimization platforms. Infrastructure Segment Revenues The following table shows net Infrastructure segment revenues and net Infrastructure segment revenues as a percentage of total net revenues by product and service categories (in millions, except percentages): Years Ended December 31, Years Ended December 31, 2008 2007(1) $ Change % Change 2007(1) 2006(1) $ Change % Change Net Infrastructure segment revenues: Infrastructure product revenues . . . . $2,301.9 $1,753.2 $548.7 31% $1,753.2 $1,413.4 $339.8 24% Percentage of net revenues . . . . . . . 64.4% 61.8% 61.8% 61.3% Infrastructure service revenues. . . . . 424.0 320.1 103.9 32% 320.1 266.7 53.4 20% Percentage of net revenues . . . . . . . 11.9% 11.3% 11.3% 11.6% Total Infrastructure segment revenues(1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,725.9 $2,073.3 $652.6 31% $2,073.3 $1,680.1 $393.2 23% Percentage of net revenues . . . . . . . 76.3% 73.1% 73.1% 72.9% (1) Prior period amounts have been reclassified to reflect the 2008 segment structure, which now includes service revenues in the Infrastructure and SLT segments. Infrastructure — Product Infrastructure product revenues increased in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily attributable to revenue growth from our M- MX- and T-series product families, from sales to both the service provider and enterprise markets due to our customers’ increased demand for network infrastructure solutions. To a lesser extent, our EX-series products, which were introduced in the first quarter of 2008, and our E-series products also contributed to the revenue growth in 2008. In 2008, we experienced sales growth in both the service provider and enterprise markets. From a geographical perspective, in 2008, we experienced revenue growth in all three regions, with particular strength in the Americas region. Infrastructure product revenues increased in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily attributable to increased revenues from our M-, T-, and MX-series router products, driven by our service provider customers’ continued build-out of NGNs as their bandwidth requirement increased. Our service provider customers also moved towards NGNs that are designed to enable a fast and cost-effective deployment of differentiating multi-play services that allow them to generate new sources of revenues. Also contributing to the revenue growth was an increase in Infrastructure product sales to the content service provider and the enterprise markets. From a geographical perspective, we experienced revenue growth in all three regions with particular strength in the Americas region. We track Infrastructure chassis revenue units and ports shipped to analyze customer trends and indicate areas of potential network growth. Most of our Infrastructure product platforms are modular, with the chassis serving as the base of the platform. Each chassis has a certain number of slots that are available to be populated with components we refer to as modules or interfaces. The modules are the components through which the platform receives incoming packets of data from a variety of transmission media. The physical connection between a transmission medium and a module is referred to as a port. The number of ports on a module varies widely depending on the functionality and throughput offered by the module. Chassis revenue units represent the number of 39


  • Page 41

    chassis on which revenue was recognized during the period. The following table shows Infrastructure revenue units and ports shipped: Years Ended December 31, Years Ended December 31, 2008 2007 Unit Change % Change 2007 2006 Unit Change % Change Infrastructure chassis revenue units(1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,745 11,195 2,550 23% 11,195 10,211 984 10% Infrastructure ports shipped(1) . . . . 397,907 225,452 172,455 76% 225,452 160,318 65,134 41% (1) Excludes fixed configuration Ethernet switching products. Infrastructure chassis revenue units increased in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to the product mix that favored higher capacity chassis revenue units, which was driven by bandwidth demand as our customers sought to expand capabilities in their networks and to offer differentiating, feature-rich, multi-play services that allow them to generate new sources of revenues. The port shipments also increased in 2008 compared to 2007 primarily due to the increase in the overall number of chassis revenue units from richly configured T- and M-series router chassis revenue units shipped during the 2008 period. Chassis revenue units increased in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily due to the introduction of the MX-series products, which are our Carrier Ethernet services routers. We also experienced growth in our M- and T-series products, driven by bandwidth demand as service provider customers sought to expand voice and video capability in their existing networks. The port shipment units increased in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily due to the growth in chassis revenue units with larger expansion capacity and our customers’ need to differentiate themselves by providing feature-rich, multi-play services. Infrastructure — Service Infrastructure service revenues increased in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to an increase in our installed base of equipment being serviced. Installed base is calculated based on the number of systems that our customers have under maintenance. A majority of our service revenues is earned from customers that purchase our products and simultaneously enter into service contracts for support service. We also experienced increased professional service revenues due to consulting projects. Infrastructure service revenues increased in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily driven by increased technical support service contracts associated with higher Infrastructure product sales, which have resulted in increased renewals and a larger installed base of equipment being serviced. To a lesser extent, professional services also contributed to the growth in net service revenues in 2007. Professional service revenues increased primarily due to large customer deployments requiring consulting services. SLT Segment Revenues The following table shows net SLT segment revenues and net SLT segment revenues as a percentage of total net revenues by product and service categories (in millions, except percentages): Years Ended December 31, Years Ended December 31, 2008 2007(1) $ Change % Change 2007(1) 2006(1) $ Change % Change Net SLT segment revenues: SLT product revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $609.1 $573.8 $35.3 6% $573.8 $479.9 $ 93.9 20% Percentage of net revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.1% 20.2% 20.2% 20.8% SLT service revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237.4 189.0 48.4 26% 189.0 143.6 45.4 32% Percentage of net revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6% 6.7% 6.7% 6.3% Total SLT segment revenues(1) . . . . . . . $846.5 $762.8 $83.7 11% $762.8 $623.5 $139.3 22% Percentage of net revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.7% 26.9% 26.9% 27.1% (1) Prior period amounts have been reclassified to reflect the 2008 segment structure, which now includes service revenues in the Infrastructure and SLT segments. 40


  • Page 42

    SLT — Product SLT product revenues increased in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to an increase in revenues from Firewall and J-series products. These increases were partially offset by a decline in revenues from DX and WX products. The integrated systems introduced prior to 2007, such as the SSG Firewall products, gained further traction in the market place with revenues from these product lines growing in 2008 compared to 2007. In 2008, we experienced sales growth both in the service provider and enterprise markets. Geographically, revenues increased in the EMEA and APAC regions and decreased in the Americas region. SLT product revenues increased in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily attributable to the increased revenues across the majority of the SLT product families, in particular, the Firewall, SSL, WAN Optimization and J-series products. The integrated systems introduced prior to 2007, such as the ISG and SSG firewall products, gained traction in the market place and generated additional revenues in 2007. All three geographic regions had significant growth in SLT revenues during 2007. We experienced a growing demand for our SLT products in both the enterprise and service provider markets as we focused on cross-selling more integrated products and solutions in the enterprise and service provider markets while leveraging partnerships with open standards-based interoperability of our SLT products. The following table shows SLT revenue units recognized: Years Ended December 31, Years Ended December 31, 2008 2007 Unit Change % Change 2007 2006 Unit Change % Change SLT revenue units . . . . . . . . . . . . 241,504 239,021 2,483 1% 239,021 183,575 55,446 30% SLT revenue units increased slightly in 2008 compared to 2007. The percentage increase in SLT revenue units was lower than the percentage increase in product revenues, primarily due to the product mix that favored products with higher average selling prices. In January 2008, we announced a plan to phase out our DX product line. These products will be supported until 2013. We do not expect this plan to have a material impact on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. SLT revenue units increased in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily attributable to the growing demand for our SLT products in the market place. The percentage increase in SLT revenue units was greater than the percentage increase in product revenues, primarily due to the increased revenues from sales of our branch Firewall products, which have lower average selling price than other SLT products. SLT — Service SLT service revenues increased in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to an increase in our installed base of equipment being serviced. A majority of our service revenues is earned from customers that purchase our products and simultaneously enter into support service contracts. SLT service revenues increased in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily driven by an increase in support service contracts associated with the increase in SLT product sales. To a lesser extent, professional services also contributed to the growth in net service revenues in 2007. 41


  • Page 43

    Total Net Revenues by Geographic Region The following table shows total net revenues by geographic region (in millions, except percentages): Years Ended December 31, Years Ended December 31, 2008 2007 $ Change % Change 2007 2006 $ Change % Change Americas: United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,538.1 $1,215.8 $322.3 27% $1,215.8 $ 950.3 $265.5 28% Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228.1 124.7 103.4 83% 124.7 83.0 41.7 50% Total Americas . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,766.2 1,340.5 425.7 32% 1,340.5 1,033.3 307.2 30% Percentage of net revenues. . . . . . . . . 49.4% 47.3% 47.3% 44.8% EMEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,077.7 918.0 159.7 17% 918.0 817.4 100.6 12% Percentage of net revenue . . . . . . . . . 30.2% 32.4% 32.4% 35.5% APAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728.5 577.6 150.9 26% 577.6 452.9 124.7 28% Percentage of net revenues: . . . . . . . . 20.4% 20.3% 20.3% 19.7% Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3,572.4 $2,836.1 $736.3 26% $2,836.1 $2,303.6 $532.5 23% Net revenues in the Americas region increased in absolute dollars and as a percentage of total net revenues in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to growth in Infrastructure revenues from both the service provider and enterprise markets, as our customers continued to focus on increasing network performance, reliability, and scale. In the United States, net revenues increased in absolute dollars and as a percentage of total net revenues, in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to growth in revenues from both the service provider and enterprise markets. Net revenues in the Americas region increased in absolute dollars and as a percentage of total revenues in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily due to strength in the United States and in Latin America. In the United States, net revenues increased in absolute dollars and as a percentage of total revenues in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily due to revenue growth in Infrastructure product and services from our service provider and Internet content provider customers. Net revenues in EMEA increased in absolute dollars in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to revenue growth in emerging markets in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, which was driven by service provider network build-outs as a result of bandwidth demand as well as growth in demand in the enterprise market. Net revenues in EMEA as a percentage of total net revenues decreased in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to the relative strength of the Americas region. Net revenues in EMEA increased in absolute dollars in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily due to increased Infrastructure product and SLT product revenues along with increased service revenues driven by strong bandwidth demands in Europe, as well as revenue growth from sales in emerging markets in the Middle East and Eastern Europe. Net revenues in EMEA as a percentage of total net revenues decreased in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily due to the relative strength of the Americas region. Net revenues in APAC increased in absolute dollars in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to strength in Japan, China, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (“ASEAN”) countries, which was mainly driven by bandwidth demand as well as our customers’ deployment of routing platforms for their NGNs, partially offset by a decrease in revenues from Australia. Net revenues in APAC increased in absolute dollars and as a percentage of total net revenues in 2007 compared 2006, primarily due to increased revenues from Infrastructure products, SLT products and service driven by demands from service providers as well as enterprise customers resulting from cross- selling of our product portfolio. We experienced revenue growth across the region with strength in Korea, Australia, Malaysia, India, and Indonesia. Net Revenues by Markets and Customers We sell our high-performance network products and service offerings from both the Infrastructure and SLT segments to two primary markets — service providers and enterprise customers. The service provider market includes wireline, wireless, and cable operators as well as major Internet content and application providers. The enterprise market represents businesses; federal, state and local governments, and research and education insti- tutions. In 2008, the service provider market accounted for 71.9% of our total net revenues, and the enterprise market accounted for 28.1% of our total net revenues. In 2007, the service provider market accounted for 71.0% of 42


  • Page 44

    our total net revenues, and the enterprise market accounted for 29.0% of our total net revenues. Net revenues to the service provider market increased by 27% in 2008 compared to 2007. Net revenues to the enterprise market increased by 22% in 2008 compared to 2007. In 2006, the service provider market accounted for 70.8% of our total net revenues, and the enterprise market accounted for 29.2% of our total net revenues. Net revenues to the service provider market increased by 24% in 2007 compared to 2006. Net revenues to the enterprise market increased by 22% in 2007 compared to 2006. No single customer accounted for 10.0% or more of our net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2008. NSN and its predecessor companies accounted for greater than 10.0% of our net revenues in 2007 and 2006. Cost of Revenues The following table shows cost of product and service revenues and the related gross margin (“GM”) percentages (in millions, except percentages): Years Ended December 31, Years Ended December 31, 2008 2007 $ Change % Change 2007 2006 $ Change % Change Cost of revenues: Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . $ 867.6 $676.2 $191.4 28% $676.2 $555.1 $121.1 22% GM percentage of revenues . . .. . .. .. 70.2% 70.9% 70.9% 70.7% Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. 298.4 251.4 47.0 19% 251.4 199.2 52.2 26% GM percentage of revenues . . .. . .. .. 54.9% 50.6% 50.6% 51.4% Total cost of revenues . . . . . . . . . . . $1,166.0 $927.6 $238.4 26% $927.6 $754.3 $173.3 23% GM percentage of revenues . . . . . . . 67.4% 67.3% 67.3% 67.3% The cost of product revenues increased in absolute dollars in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to our increase in product revenues, which resulted in higher product costs. The slight decrease in product gross margin as a percentage of product revenues in 2008 compared to 2007, is primarily attributable to changes in the product mix, partially offset by growth in our higher-margin T- and M-series product families within our Infrastructure segment and increased sales of our higher-margin Firewall and J-series products within our SLT segment. As of December 31, 2008, and 2007, we had 230 and 190 employees, respectively, in our manufacturing and operations organization that primarily manage relationships with our contract manufacturers, manage our supply chain, and monitor and manage product testing and quality. The cost of product revenues increased in absolute dollars in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily attributable to increased product revenues in both the enterprise and service provider markets. The product gross margin slightly increased in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily due to favorable product mix and, to a lesser extent, improvements in standard costs of our Infrastructure products, partially offset by a slight decrease in our SLT product gross margin. As of December 31, 2007, and 2006, we had 190 and 149 employees, respectively, in our manufacturing and operations organization. The cost of service revenues and service gross margin increased in 2008 compared to 2007. The increase was commensurate with the growth in revenues in absolute dollars attributable to the growth in our installed equipment base. Service-related headcount increased by 35 employees, or 5%, to 783 employees in 2008, compared to 748 in 2007. Personnel-related charges, consisting of salaries, bonus, fringe benefits expenses, and stock-based com- pensation expenses, represented the majority of the increases in cost of service revenues in 2008. Total personnel- related charges as a percentage of service revenues were approximately 20% for 2008 and 23% for 2007. The decrease in personnel-related charges in 2008 as a percentage of service revenues, is primarily due to the overall increase in service revenues. Our outside service expense also increased in 2008, primarily to support the expanding installed equipment base. Freight-related expense increased primarily to support larger volume of spare parts in supporting our growth. Additionally, facilities and information technology expenses related to cost of service revenues increased in connection with the growth of service business as a portion of our overall operations. Cost of service revenues increased in 2007 compared to 2006, while service gross margin decreased slightly in 2007 as compared to 2006. The increase in service costs and the decrease in gross margin were primarily 43


  • Page 45

    attributable to increases in headcount-related expenses associated with expanding our service delivery infrastruc- ture and professional service organization, particularly in North America and in India, as well as increasing our resources for supporting network build-outs and deployments by our customers. Service-related headcount increased by 137 employees, or 22%, to 748 employees in 2007, compared to 611 in 2006. Personnel-related charges, consisting of salaries, bonus, fringe benefits expenses, and stock-based compensation expenses, repre- sented the majority of the increases in cost of service revenues in 2007. Total personnel-related charges as a percentage of service revenues were approximately 23% and 21% for 2007 and 2006, respectively. Outside service expense increased as we used outside providers to support the increase in customer support contracts and professional engagements. Freight-related expense increased due to the deployment of spare parts in supporting our growth overseas. Facilities and information technology expenses related to the cost of service revenues increased in 2007, which is consistent with other areas of our organization, due to our headcount growth and investment in internal infrastructure to support our growing business. Partially offsetting the increases was a decrease in spares component purchases due to a large purchase we made in 2006. Operating Expenses The following table shows operating expenses (in millions, except percentages): Years Ended December 31, Years Ended December 31, 2008 2007 $ Change % Change 2007 2006 $ Change % Change Research and development . . . . . . . . $ 731.2 $ 623.0 $108.2 17% $ 623.0 $ 480.3 $ 142.7 30% Sales and marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . 782.9 666.7 116.2 17% 666.7 558.0 108.7 19% General and administrative . . . . . . . . 144.8 116.4 28.4 24% 116.4 97.1 19.3 20% Amortization of purchased intangible assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38.5 85.9 (47.4) (55)% 85.9 91.8 (5.9) (6)% Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.0 — 5.0 100% — 1,283.4 (1,283.4) (100)% Other charges, net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.0 9.4 (0.4) (4)% 9.4 36.5 (27.1) (74)% Total operating expenses. . . . . . . . . . $1,711.4 $1,501.4 $210.0 14% $1,501.4 $2,547.1 $(1,045.7) (41)% Operating income (loss) . . . . . . . . . . $ 695.0 $ 407.1 $287.9 71% $ 407.1 $ (997.8) $ 1,404.9 141% The table highlights our operating expenses as a percentage of net revenues: Years Ended December 31, 2008 2007 2006 Research and development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5% 22.0% 20.8% Sales and marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.9% 23.5% 24.2% General and administrative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................... 4.0% 4.1% 4.2% Amortization of purchased intangible assets . . . . . .................... 1.1% 3.0% 4.0% Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets . . . . .................... 0.1% — 55.7% Other charges, net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................... 0.3% 0.3% 1.7% Total operating expenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.9% 52.9% 110.6% Operating income (loss) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.5% 14.4% (43.3)% Research and Development Expenses Research and development expenses include costs of developing our products from components to prototypes to finished products, costs for outside services such as certifications of new products, and expenditures associated with equipment used for testing. Several components of our research and development effort require significant expenditures, such as the development of new components and the purchase of prototype equipment, the timing of which can cause quarterly variability in our expenses. We expense our research and development costs as they are incurred. 44


  • Page 46

    Research and development expenses increased in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to strategic initiatives to expand our product portfolio and maintain our technological advantage over our competitors. In particular, in 2008 we continued to expand our EX-series Ethernet switching products, and invested in our recently announced SRX dynamic services gateways and intelligent services edge offering that advances the M- and MX-series platforms. Research and development expenses primarily consist of personnel-related expenses and new product development costs. Personnel-related charges, consisting of salaries, bonus, fringe benefits expenses, and stock- based compensation expenses, increased $59.3 million, or 16%, to $435.2 million in 2008 primarily due to a 25% increase in headcount in our engineering organization, from 2,563 to 3,194 employees, to support product innovation intended to capture anticipated future network infrastructure growth and opportunities. Outside consulting and other development expense also increased to support our product innovation initiatives. Addition- ally, facilities and information technology expenses related to research and development expenses increased to support these engineering efforts. Research and development expense increased in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily due to our commitment to continue innovation of our products. In particular, in 2007 we continued the development of our Ethernet products, including the MX-series and our EX-series Ethernet switching products introduced in January 2008, as well as the development of our T1600 product, which was released in November 2007. Personnel-related charges, consisting of salaries, bonus, fringe benefits expenses, and stock-based compensation expenses, which comprise the majority of our research and development expenses, increased primarily due to headcount growth and merit-based salary increases in 2007. Research and development related headcount increased by 493 employees, or 24%, in 2007 to 2,563 employees as of December 31, 2007. Headcount increase was primarily due to additional hires in the engineering organization within the Infrastructure segment. In addition to personnel-related expenses, we also increased prototype and lab equipment expenses in 2007 for the development of our new products. Additionally, facilities and information technology expenses, as well as depreciation expenses, for our research and development organization increased in 2007 due to increases in headcount from additional internal systems to support our growth. In general, we grew our engineering organizations to support product innovation, expand and improve our product portfolio, and address growth opportunities in NGN bandwidth and features for our service provider and enterprise customers. Sales and Marketing Expenses Sales and marketing expenses include costs for selling and promoting our products and services, demon- stration equipment, and advertisements. These costs vary quarter-to-quarter depending on revenues, product launches, and marketing initiatives. We have an extensive distribution channel in place that we use to target new customers and increase sales. We have made substantial investments in our distribution channel during 2008, 2007, and 2006. Sales and marketing expenses increased in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to increases in personnel- related expenses and marketing expenses. As a percentage of net revenues, sales and marketing expenses decreased in 2008 due to our focus on managing expenses and creating efficiency in our sales activities. Personnel-related charges, consisting of salaries, commissions, bonus, fringe benefits, and stock-based compensation expenses, increased $70.8 million, or 17%, to $497.2 million in 2008, primarily due to an 18% increase in headcount in our worldwide sales and marketing organizations, from 1,863 to 2,190 employees. Included in personnel-related charges was an increase in commission expense of $5.3 million in 2008 compared to 2007, due to our higher net revenues. We also increased our investment in corporate and channel marketing efforts from the prior year. As our sales force grew, we also increased facilities and information technology expenses related to the sales and marketing organizations in 2008 compared to 2007. Sales and marketing expenses increased 2007 compared to 2006, primarily due to increases in personnel- related charges. As a percentage of net revenues, sales and marketing expenses decreased slightly in 2007 due to our focus on increasing our operating margin and the efficiency of our sales activities. The increases in absolute dollars were primarily headcount-related increases. Sales and marketing related headcount increased 272 employees, or 17%, in 2007 to 1,863 as of December 31, 2007, as we hired additional personnel across our Infrastructure and SLT organizations to support the larger product portfolio and to expand our presence in the enterprise marketplace. In addition, commission expenses increased primarily as a result of strong revenue growth. In 2007, we also increased 45


  • Page 47

    consulting expenses to support our sales and marketing initiatives. Likewise, our demand for demonstration equipment has grown as we seek to capture new markets and release new products. As the sales and marketing organization expands, we have also grown our facilities and information technology expenses related to the sales and marketing organization. General and Administrative Expenses General and administrative expenses include professional fees, bad debt provisions, and other corporate expenses. Professional fees include legal, audit, tax, accounting, and certain corporate strategic services. General and administrative expenses increased in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to an increase in personnel-related expenses and outside professional services. As a percentage of net revenues, general and administrative expenses decreased slightly in 2008 due to our focus on managing expenses and growing revenues. Personnel-related charges, consisting of salaries, bonus, fringe benefits, and stock-based compensation expenses, increased $12.4 million, or 21%, to $71.2 million in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to a 20% increase in headcount in our worldwide general and administrative functions, from 291 to 350 employees, to support the overall growth of the business. Outside professional service fees increased in 2008 compared to 2007, as a result of increased legal fees and business process re-engineering costs. Additionally, facilities and information technology expenses related to our general and administrative infrastructure increased to support our growing business. General and administrative expenses increased in 2007 compared to 2006. As a percentage of net revenues, general and administrative expenses slightly decreased in 2007 due to our focus on increasing our operating margin. The increases in absolute dollars were primarily due to a 24% increase in headcount in our worldwide general and administrative functions, from 235 to 291 employees, to support the overall growth of the business. The headcount increases were primarily in the finance and human resources organizations as we expanded our organization infrastructure in lower cost regions, improved internal processes, and continued our initiatives to update our information systems. Outside services increased $4.5 million in 2007 compared to 2006, as we invested in designing a more efficient organizational structure and improving our internal systems. Such increases were offset by decreases in accounting and legal fees of $1.5 million for 2007, compared to 2006. Consistent with other areas of our organization, facilities and information technology expenses related to our general and administrative infrastructure increased in order to support these initiatives and the growth of our business. Amortization of Purchased Intangible Assets Amortization of purchased intangible assets decreased in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to a decrease in amortization expense as certain purchased intangible assets became fully amortized during the second quarter of 2008. Amortization of purchased intangible assets decreased in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily due to certain purchased intangible assets reaching the end of their amortization period during 2007. Impairment of Goodwill and Purchased Intangible Assets We had no impairment against our goodwill in 2008 and 2007. In 2008, we recognized an impairment charge of $5.0 million against our purchased intangible assets, as a result of the phase-out of our DX products. We had no impairment on our purchased intangible assets in 2007. In 2006, we incurred impairment charges of $1,283.4 million as a result of the impairment of both goodwill and purchased intangible assets. The impairment charges were primarily due to the decline in our market capitalization that occurred over a period of approximately six months prior to the impairment review and, to a lesser extent, to a decrease in the forecasted future cash flows used in the income approach. Based upon our impairment review, we reduced the carrying value of goodwill within the SLT segment by $1,280.0 million. In 2006, we recorded a $3.4 million impairment charge pertaining to a write-down of purchased intangible assets as a result of a decrease in our revenue forecast for our Session Border Control (“SBC”) products. See Note 5 — Goodwill and Purchased Intangible Assets in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for more information on our impairment of goodwill and purchased intangible assets. 46


  • Page 48

    Other Charges, Net Other charges are summarized as follows: • Restructuring and Acquisition-Related Charges. There were no restructuring and acquisition-related charges in 2008. In 2007, we recorded net restructuring and acquisition-related charges of $0.7 million, of which $1.1 million pertained to bonus accruals associated with past acquisitions, partially offset by a benefit of $0.4 million pertaining to net restructuring adjustments. We recorded net restructuring and acquisition-related charges of $5.9 million in 2006, of which $5.6 million was due to accrued bonuses associated with past acquisitions, and $0.3 million was due to net restructuring-related charges, including $0.7 million in restructuring charges associated with a program to reduce product development costs and the discontinuation of our SBC product. • Stock Option Investigation Costs. There were no such stock option investigation costs recorded in 2008. We recorded expenses of $6.0 million and $20.5 million in 2007 and 2006, respectively, related to professional fees and other costs in connection with our investigation into historical stock option granting practices. • Stock Option Amendment and Tax-Related Charges. There were no stock option amendment and tax- related charges recorded in 2008. We recorded $8.0 million and $10.1 million in operating expense during 2007 and 2006, respectively, in relation to the amendment of stock options and to the payment of certain taxes and penalties associated with employee stock option exercises. • Net Settlement (Loss) Gain. We recorded a net legal settlement loss of $9.0 million in 2008, related to our shareholder derivative lawsuit. In 2007, we recognized a net legal settlement gain of $5.3 million, which consisted of cash settlement proceeds of $6.2 million, net of the $0.9 million legal expense related to direct transaction costs incurred in the third quarter of 2007. There were no legal settlement gains or losses recorded in 2006. Net Interest and Other Income, Gain (Loss) on Equity Investments, and Income Tax Provision The following table shows net interest and other income and income tax provision (in millions, except percentages): Years Ended December 31, Years Ended December 31, 2008 2007 $ Change % Change 2007 2006 $ Change % Change Interest and other income, net . . . . $ 48.7 $ 96.8 $(48.1) (50)% $ 96.8 $100.7 $ (3.9) (4)% Percentage of net revenues . . .... 1.4% 3.4% 3.4% 4.4% (Loss) gain on equity investments . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . (14.8) 6.7 (21.5) (321)% 6.7 — 6.7 100% Percentage of net revenues . . . .. . (0.4)% 0.2% 0.2% — Income tax provision . . . . . . . .. . 217.2 149.8 67.4 45% 149.8 104.4 45.4 43% Percentage of net revenues . . . .. . 6.1% 5.3% 5.3% 4.5% Interest and Other Income, Net Net interest and other income decreased in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to lower interest rates during 2008. Net interest and other income decreased in 2007 compared to 2006, resulting from a decrease in interest income due to a lower cash, cash equivalents and investment balance, which was attributable to common stock repurchases of approximately $1.6 billion during the first and second quarters of 2007. Partially offsetting the decreases was the higher interest yield combined with higher positive cash flows from operations compared to 2006. Interest and other expenses slightly increased in 2007 compared to 2006, primarily due to costs associated with our distributor financing program. See Note 8 — Debt in Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for a full description of our distributor financing program. Other interest 47


  • Page 49

    and expenses include short-term debt expenses, debt issuance cost amortization, foreign exchange losses, and other miscellaneous expenses such as bank fees. (Loss) Gain on Equity Investments During 2008, we recognized impairment losses of $14.8 million on our investments in privately-held and publicly-traded companies for changes in fair value that we believed were other than temporary. In June 2007, one of the companies in which we had a minority equity investment completed an initial public offering (“IPO”). As a result, we realized a gain of $6.7 million during 2007 based upon the difference between the market value of our investment at the time of the IPO and our cost basis. During 2006, none of our investments had any recognized gain or loss. Income Tax Provision Our effective tax rates were 29.8%, 29.3%, and (11.6%) in 2008, 2007, and 2006, respectively. The increase in the overall rate in 2008 compared to 2007, was primarily due to the differences in the geographic mix of our taxable income and the level of research and development credits in the U.S. The 2006 effective tax rate differs from 2008 and 2007, primarily due to the inability to benefit from a substantial portion of the goodwill impairment charge recorded in 2006. We are currently under examination by the IRS for the 2004 tax year, the Indian tax authorities for the 2004 tax year, and the German tax authorities for the 2005 tax year. Additionally, we have not reached a final resolution with the IRS on an adjustment it proposed for the 1999 and 2000 tax years. We are not under examination by any other major jurisdictions in which we file income tax returns as of December 31, 2008. In September 2008, as part of the on-going 2004 IRS audit, we received a proposed adjustment related to our business credit carry-forwards, which if agreed, would reduce our business credit carry-forwards. In December 2008, we received a proposed adjustment from the Indian tax authorities related to the 2004 tax year. We are pursuing all available administrative procedures relative to these matters. In December 2008, we reached a tentative settlement with the German tax authorities for the 2005 tax year. We believe that we have adequately provided for any reasonably foreseeable outcomes related to these proposed adjustments and the ultimate resolution of these matters is unlikely to have a material effect on our consolidated financial condition or results of operations. We do not expect complete resolution of any IRS, or other audits within significant foreign or state jurisdictions within the next 12 months. However, it is reasonably possible that we may reach agreement with certain issues and as a result, the amount of the liability for unrecognized tax benefits may decrease by approximately $13.0 million within the next 12 months. For a complete reconciliation of our effective tax rate to the U.S. federal statutory rate of 35% and further explanation of our income tax provision, see Note 12 — Income Taxes in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Segment Information For a description of the products and services for each segment, see Item 1 of Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. A description of the measures included in management operating income (loss) can also be found in Note 11 — Segment Information in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We have included segment financial data for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2008, for comparative purposes. 48


  • Page 50

    Financial information for each segment used by management to make financial decisions and allocate resources is as follows (in millions, except percentages): Years Ended December 31, Years Ended December 31, 2008 2007(1) $ Change % Change 2007(1) 2006(1) $ Change % Change Net revenues: Infrastructure: Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,301.9 $1,753.2 $548.7 31% $1,753.2 $ 1,413.4 $ 339.8 24% Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424.0 320.1 103.9 32% 320.1 266.7 53.4 20% Total Infrastructure revenues . . 2,725.9 2,073.3 652.6 31% 2,073.3 1,680.1 393.2 23% Service Layer Technologies: Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609.1 573.8 35.3 6% 573.8 479.9 93.9 20% Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237.4 189.0 48.4 26% 189.0 143.6 45.4 32% Total Service Layer Technologies revenues . . . . 846.5 762.8 83.7 11% 762.8 623.5 139.3 22% Total net revenues . . . . . . . 3,572.4 2,836.1 736.3 26% 2,836.1 2,303.6 532.5 23% Operating income: Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806.0 597.8 208.2 35% 597.8 505.9 91.9 18% Service Layer Technologies . . . . . . 65.8 5.8 60.0 N/M 5.8 5.2 0.6 12% Total segment operating income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871.8 603.6 268.2 44% 603.6 511.1 92.5 18% Other corporate(2) . . . . . . . . . . . . (7.9) — (7.9) N/M — — — N/M Total management operating income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 863.9 603.6 260.3 43% 603.6 511.1 92.5 18% Amortization of purchased intangible assets . . . . . . . . . . . . (44.0) (91.4) 47.4 (52)% (91.4) (97.3) 5.9 (6)% Stock-based compensation expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (108.1) (88.0) (20.1) 23% (88.0) (87.6) (0.4) N/M Stock-based payroll tax expense . . . (2.8) (7.7) 4.9 (64)% (7.7) (2.7) (5.0) 185% Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets . . . . . . . . . . . . (5.0) — 5.0 100% — (1,283.4) 1,283.4 (100)% Other charges, net(3) . . . . . . . . . . (9.0) (9.4) 0.4 N/M (9.4) (37.9) 28.5 (75)% Total operating income (loss) . . . 695.0 407.1 287.9 71% 407.1 (997.8) 1,404.9 141% Other income and expense, net . . . . . 33.9 103.5 (69.6) (67)% 103.5 100.7 2.8 3% Income (loss) before income taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 728.9 $ 510.6 $218.3 43% $ 510.6 $ (897.1) $1,407.7 157% N/M Not meaningful. (1) Prior year amounts have been reclassified to reflect the 2008 segment structure, which now includes service revenues and operating results in Infrastructure and SLT segments. (2) Other corporate charges include workforce-rebalancing charges primarily for severance and related costs. Workforce-rebalancing activities are considered part of our normal operations as we continue to optimize our cost structure. Workforce-rebalancing costs are not included in our business segment results, and we may incur additional workforce-rebalancing costs in the future. (3) Other charges, net, for 2008 includes loss on litigation settlement. Other charges, net, for 2007 includes charges such as restructuring, acquisition-related charges, stock option investigation costs, as well as stock amendment and tax-related charges. Other charges, net, for 2006 includes charges such as restructuring, acquisition-related charges, stock option investigation costs and tax-related charges, as well as certain restructuring charges in cost of product revenues. 49

  • View More

Get the full picture and Receive alerts on lawsuits, news articles, publications and more!